Chemistry

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Chemistry at Oxford

Chemistry at Oxford Pdf/ePub eBook Author: ,
Editor: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1847558852
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Chemistry at Oxford by , Summary

This fascinating and unique history reveals the major influence of the Oxford Chemistry School on the advancement of chemistry. It shows how the nature of the University, and individuals within it, have shaped the school and made great achievements both in teaching and research. The book will appeal to those interested in the history of science and education, the city of Oxford and chemistry in general. Chemistry has been studied in Oxford for centuries but this book focuses on the last 400 years and, in particular, the seminal work of Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke, and the proto- Royal Society of the 1650's. Arranged in chronological fashion, it includes specialist studies of particular areas of innovation. The book shows that chemistry has advanced, not just as a consequence of research but, because of the idiosynchratic nature of the collegiate system and the characters of the individuals involved. In other words, it demonstrates that science is a human endeavour and its advance in any institution is conditioned by the organization and people within it. For chemists, the main appeal will be the book's examination of the way separate branches of chemistry (organic, physical, inorganic and biological) have evolved in Oxford. It also enables comparison with the development of the subject at other universities such as Cambridge, London and Manchester. For historians and sociologists, the book reveals the motivations of both scientists and non-scientists in the management of the School. It exposes the unusual character of Oxford University and the tensions between science and administration. The desire of the college to retain its academic values in the face of external and financial pressures is emphasized.

Introduction to Reticular Chemistry

Introduction to Reticular Chemistry Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Omar M. Yaghi,Markus J. Kalmutzki,Christian S. Diercks
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527821104
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Introduction to Reticular Chemistry by Omar M. Yaghi,Markus J. Kalmutzki,Christian S. Diercks Summary

A concise introduction to the chemistry and design principles behind important metal-organic frameworks and related porous materials Reticular chemistry has been applied to synthesize new classes of porous materials that are successfully used for myraid applications in areas such as gas separation, catalysis, energy, and electronics. Introduction to Reticular Chemistry gives an unique overview of the principles of the chemistry behind metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), covalent organic frameworks (COFs), and zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs). Written by one of the pioneers in the field, this book covers all important aspects of reticular chemistry, including design and synthesis, properties and characterization, as well as current and future applications Designed to be an accessible resource, the book is written in an easy-to-understand style. It includes an extensive bibliography, and offers figures and videos of crystal structures that are available as an electronic supplement. Introduction to Reticular Chemistry: -Describes the underlying principles and design elements for the synthesis of important metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and related materials -Discusses both real-life and future applications in various fields, such as clean energy and water adsorption -Offers all graphic material on a companion website -Provides first-hand knowledge by Omar Yaghi, one of the pioneers in the field, and his team. Aimed at graduate students in chemistry, structural chemists, inorganic chemists, organic chemists, catalytic chemists, and others, Introduction to Reticular Chemistry is a groundbreaking book that explores the chemistry principles and applications of MOFs, COFs, and ZIFs.

Advances in Inorganic Chemistry

Advances in Inorganic Chemistry Pdf/ePub eBook Author: ,
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080578804
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Advances in Inorganic Chemistry

Chemistry of the Elements

Chemistry of the Elements Pdf/ePub eBook Author: N. N. Greenwood,A. Earnshaw
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080501095
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Chemistry of the Elements by N. N. Greenwood,A. Earnshaw Summary

When this innovative textbook first appeared in 1984 it rapidly became a great success throughout the world and has already been translated into several European and Asian languages. Now the authors have completely revised and updated the text, including more than 2000 new literature references to work published since the first edition. No page has been left unaltered but the novel features which proved so attractive have been retained. The book presents a balanced, coherent and comprehensive account of the chemistry of the elements for both undergraduate and postgraduate students. This crucial central area of chemistry is full of ingenious experiments, intriguing compounds and exciting new discoveries. The authors specifically avoid the term `inorganic chemistry' since this evokes an outmoded view of chemistry which is no longer appropriate in the final decade of the 20th century. Accordingly, the book covers not only the 'inorganic' chemistry of the elements, but also analytical, theoretical, industrial, organometallic, bio-inorganic and other cognate areas of chemistry. The authors have broken with recent tradition in the teaching of their subject and adopted a new and highly successful approach based on descriptive chemistry. The chemistry of the elements is still discussed within the context of an underlying theoretical framework, giving cohesion and structure to the text, but at all times the chemical facts are emphasized. Students are invited to enter the exciting world of chemical phenomena with a sound knowledge and understanding of the subject, to approach experimentation with an open mind, and to assess observations reliably. This is a book that students will not only value during their formal education, but will keep and refer to throughout their careers as chemists. Completely revised and updated Unique approach to the subject More comprehensive than competing titles

Green Chemistry

Green Chemistry Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Bela Torok,Timothy Dransfield
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128095490
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Green Chemistry by Bela Torok,Timothy Dransfield Summary

Green Chemistry: An Inclusive Approach provides a broad overview of green chemistry for researchers from either an environmental science or chemistry background, starting at a more elementary level, incorporating more advanced concepts, and including more chemistry as the book progresses. Every chapter includes recent, state-of-the-art references, in particular, review articles, to introduce researchers to this field of interest and provide them with information that can be easily built upon. By bringing together experts in multiple subdisciplines of green chemistry, the editors have curated a single central resource for an introduction to the discipline as a whole. Topics include a broad array of research fields, including the chemistry of Earth’s atmosphere, water and soil, the synthesis of fine chemicals, and sections on pharmaceuticals, plastics, energy related issues (energy storage, fuel cells, solar, and wind energy conversion etc., greenhouse gases and their handling, chemical toxicology issues of everyday products (from perfumes to detergents or clothing), and environmental policy issues. Introduces the topic of green chemistry with an overview of key concepts Expands upon presented concepts with the latest research and applications, providing both the breadth and depth researchers need Includes a broad range of application based problems to make the content accessible for professional researchers and undergraduate and graduate students Authored by experts in a broad range of fields, providing insider information on the aspects or challenges of a given field that are most important and urgent

Chemistry of Discotic Liquid Crystals

Chemistry of Discotic Liquid Crystals Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Sandeep Kumar
Editor: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439811450
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Chemistry of Discotic Liquid Crystals by Sandeep Kumar Summary

The self-contained properties of discotic liquid crystals (DLCs) render them powerful functional materials for many semiconducting device applications and models for energy and charge migration in self-organized dynamic functional soft materials. The past three decades have seen tremendous interest in this area, fueled primarily by the possibility of creating a new generation of organic semiconductors and wide viewing displays using DLCs. While a number of books on classical calamitic liquid crystals are available, there are, as yet, no books that are dedicated exclusively to the basic design principles, synthesis, and physical properties of DLCs. The first reference book to cover DLCs, Chemistry of Discotic Liquid Crystals: From Monomers to Polymers highlights the chemistry and thermal behavior of DLCs. Divided into six chapters, each with a general description, background, and context for the concepts involved, the book begins with a basic introduction to liquid crystals, describing molecular self-assembly and various types of liquid crystals. It outlines their classification, covers their history and general applications, and focuses on DLCs and their discovery, structure, characterization, and alignment. The book goes on to examine the chemistry and physical properties of various monomeric DLCs, including 25 sections describing the synthesis and mesomorphic properties of monomeric DLCs formed by different cores. The bulk of the book covers the chemistry and mesomorphism of discotic dimers, oligomers, and polymers and concludes with a look at some applicable properties of DLCs. A comprehensive and up-to-date resource, this book is designed to be accessible and of value not just for students and researchers but also to the directors and principal investigators working in this field, providing the foundation and fuel to advance this fast-growing technological field.

PET Chemistry

PET Chemistry Pdf/ePub eBook Author: P.A. Schubiger,L. Lehmann,M. Friebe
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540495274
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PET Chemistry by P.A. Schubiger,L. Lehmann,M. Friebe Summary

Personalized medicine employing patient-based tailor-made therapeutic drugs is taking over treatment paradigms in a variety of ?elds in oncology and the central nervous system. The success of such therapies is mainly dependent on ef?cacious therapeutic drugs and a selective imaging probe for identi?cation of potential responders as well as therapy monitoring for an early bene?t assessment. Molecular imaging (MI) is based on the selective and speci?c interaction of a molecular probe with a biological target which is visualized through nuclear, magnetic resonance, near infrared or other methods. Therefore it is the method of choice for patient selection and therapy monitoring as well as for speci?c e- point monitoring in modern drug development. PET (positron emitting tomography), a nuclear medical imaging modality, is ideally suited to produce three-dimensional images of various targets or processes. The rapidly increasing demand for highly selective probes for MI strongly pushes the development of new PET tracers and PET chemistry. ‘PET chemistry’ can be de?ned as the study of positron-emitting compounds regarding their synthesis, structure, composition, reactivity, nuclear properties and processes and their properties in natural and - natural environments. In practice PET chemistry is strongly in?uenced by the unique properties of the radioisotopes used (e. g. , half-life, che- cal reactivity, etc. ) and integrates scienti?c aspects of nuclear-, organic-, inorganic- and biochemistry.

Wood

Wood Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Dietrich Fengel,Gerd Wegener
Editor: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110839652
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Quality Assurance in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

Quality Assurance in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Pdf/ePub eBook Author: D. Brynn Hibbert
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190289945
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Quality Assurance in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory by D. Brynn Hibbert Summary

Analytical chemical results touch everyones lives can we eat the food? do I have a disease? did the defendant leave his DNA at the crime scene? should I invest in that gold mine? When a chemist measures something how do we know that the result is appropriate? What is fit for purpose in the context of analytical chemistry? Many manufacturing and service companies have embraced traditional statistical approaches to quality assurance, and these have been adopted by analytical chemistry laboratories. However the right chemical answer is never known, so there is not a direct parallel with the manufacture of ball bearings which can be measured and assessed. The customer of the analytical services relies on the quality assurance and quality control procedures adopted by the laboratory. It is the totality of the QA effort, perhaps first brought together in this text, that gives the customer confidence in the result. QA in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory takes the reader through all aspects of QA, from the statistical basics and quality control tools to becoming accredited to international standards. The latest understanding of concepts such as measurement uncertainty and metrological traceability are explained for a working chemist or her client. How to design experiments to optimize an analytical process is included, together with the necessary statistics to analyze the results. All numerical manipulation and examples are given as Microsoft Excel spreadsheets that can be implemented on any personal computer. Different kinds of interlaboratory studies are explained, and how a laboratory is judged in proficiency testing schemes is described. Accreditation to ISO 17025 or OECD GLP is nearly obligatory for laboratories of any pretension to quality. Here the reader will find an introduction to the requirements and philosophy of accreditation. Whether completing a degree course in chemistry or working in a busy analytical laboratory, this book is a single source for an introduction into quality assurance.

The Beauty of Chemistry

The Beauty of Chemistry Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Philip Ball
Editor: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262362724
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The Beauty of Chemistry by Philip Ball Summary

Images and text capture the astonishing beauty of the chemical processes that create snowflakes, bubbles, flames, and other wonders of nature. Chemistry is not just about microscopic atoms doing inscrutable things; it is the process that makes flowers and galaxies. We rely on it for bread-baking, vegetable-growing, and producing the materials of daily life. In stunning images and illuminating text, this book captures chemistry as it unfolds. Using such techniques as microphotography, time-lapse photography, and infrared thermal imaging, The Beauty of Chemistry shows us how chemistry underpins the formation of snowflakes, the science of champagne, the colors of flowers, and other wonders of nature and technology. We see the marvelous configurations of chemical gardens; the amazing transformations of evaporation, distillation, and precipitation; heat made visible; and more.

Inorganic Chemistry of the Transition Elements

Inorganic Chemistry of the Transition Elements Pdf/ePub eBook Author: B F G Johnson
Editor: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1847556434
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Inorganic Chemistry of the Transition Elements by B F G Johnson Summary

Specialist Periodical Reports provide systematic and detailed review coverage of progress in the major areas of chemical research. Written by experts in their specialist fields the series creates a unique service for the active research chemist, supplying regular critical in-depth accounts of progress in particular areas of chemistry. For over 80 years the Royal Society of Chemistry and its predecessor, the Chemical Society, have been publishing reports charting developments in chemistry, which originally took the form of Annual Reports. However, by 1967 the whole spectrum of chemistry could no longer be contained within one volume and the series Specialist Periodical Reports was born. The Annual Reports themselves still existed but were divided into two, and subsequently three, volumes covering Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry. For more general coverage of the highlights in chemistry they remain a 'must'. Since that time the SPR series has altered according to the fluctuating degree of activity in various fields of chemistry. Some titles have remained unchanged, while others have altered their emphasis along with their titles; some have been combined under a new name whereas others have had to be discontinued. The current list of Specialist Periodical Reports can be seen on the inside flap of this volume.

Advances in Protein Chemistry

Advances in Protein Chemistry Pdf/ePub eBook Author: ,
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080581978
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Advances in Protein Chemistry

Quantum Information and Computation for Chemistry

Quantum Information and Computation for Chemistry Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Sabre Kais
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118742605
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Quantum Information and Computation for Chemistry by Sabre Kais Summary

Examines the intersection of quantum information and chemicalphysics The Advances in Chemical Physics series is dedicated toreviewing new and emerging topics as well as the latestdevelopments in traditional areas of study in the field of chemicalphysics. Each volume features detailed comprehensive analysescoupled with individual points of view that integrate the manydisciplines of science that are needed for a full understanding ofchemical physics. This volume of the series explores the latest research findings,applications, and new research paths from the quantum informationscience community. It examines topics in quantum computation andquantum information that are related to or intersect with keytopics in chemical physics. The reviews address both what chemistrycan contribute to quantum information and what quantum informationcan contribute to the study of chemical systems, surveying boththeoretical and experimental quantum information research withinthe field of chemical physics. With contributions from an international team of leadingexperts, Volume 154 offers seventeen detailed reviews,including: Introduction to quantum information and computation forchemistry Quantum computing approach to non-relativistic and relativisticmolecular energy calculations Quantum algorithms for continuous problems and theirapplications Photonic toolbox for quantum simulation Vibrational energy and information transfer through molecularchains Tensor networks for entanglement evolution Reviews published in Advances in Chemical Physics aretypically longer than those published in journals, providing thespace needed for readers to fully grasp the topic: the fundamentalsas well as the latest discoveries, applications, and emergingavenues of research. Extensive cross-referencing enables readers toexplore the primary research studies underlying each topic.

What is Life?

What is Life? Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Addy Pross
Editor: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191650897
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What is Life? by Addy Pross Summary

Seventy years ago, Erwin Schrödinger posed a profound question: 'What is life, and how did it emerge from non-life?' This problem has puzzled biologists and physical scientists ever since. Living things are hugely complex and have unique properties, such as self-maintenance and apparently purposeful behaviour which we do not see in inert matter. So how does chemistry give rise to biology? What could have led the first replicating molecules up such a path? Now, developments in the emerging field of 'systems chemistry' are unlocking the problem. Addy Pross shows how the different kind of stability that operates among replicating molecules results in a tendency for chemical systems to become more complex and acquire the properties of life. Strikingly, he demonstrates that Darwinian evolution is the biological expression of a deeper, well-defined chemical concept: the whole story from replicating molecules to complex life is one continuous process governed by an underlying physical principle. The gulf between biology and the physical sciences is finally becoming bridged. This new edition includes an Epilogue describing developments in the concepts of fundamental forms of stability discussed in the book, and their profound implications. Oxford Landmark Science books are 'must-read' classics of modern science writing which have crystallized big ideas, and shaped the way we think.

Industrial Organic Chemistry

Industrial Organic Chemistry Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Klaus Weissermel,Hans-Jürgen Arpe
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527614591
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Industrial Organic Chemistry by Klaus Weissermel,Hans-Jürgen Arpe Summary

'Ideal for getting an overview of applied organic chemistry' This bestselling standard, now in its 3rd completely revised English edition, is an excellent source of technological and economic information on the most important precursors and intermediates used in the chemical industry. Right and left columns containing synopsis of the main text and statistical data, and numerous fold-out flow diagrams ensure optimal didactic presentation of complex chemical processes. The translation into eight languages, the four German and three English editions clearly evidence the popularity of this book. '... it is where I look first to get a quick overview of the manufacturing process of a product... Weissermel/Arpe has been serving me for years as an indispensable reference work.' (Berichte der Bunsengesellschaft für Physikalische Chemie) 'Whether student or scientist, theorist or practician - everyboby interested in industrial organic chemistry will appreciate this work.' (farbe + lack) '...it should be ready to hand to every chemist or process engineer envolved directly or indirectly with industrial organic chemistry . It should be in the hand of every higher-graduate student, especially if chemical technology is not part of the study, like in many college universities...' (Tenside-Surfactants-Detergents)

Computational Chemistry: Reviews of Current Trends

Computational Chemistry: Reviews of Current Trends Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jerzy Leszczynski
Editor: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814492698
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Computational Chemistry: Reviews of Current Trends by Jerzy Leszczynski Summary

This volume comprises six chapters which explore the development and applications of the methods of computational chemistry. The first chapter is on new developments in coupled-cluster (CC) theory. The homotopy method is used to obtain complete sets of solutions of nonlinear CC equations. The correspondence between multiple solutions to the CCSD, CCSDT, and full CI equations is established, and the applications of the new approach in modeling molecular systems are discussed. The second chapter reviews the computational theory for the time-dependent calculations of a solution to the Schrödinger equation for two electrons and focuses on the development of propagators to the solution. The next chapter features a discussion on a new self-consistent field for molecular interactions (SCF-MI) scheme for modifying Roothaan equations in order to avoid basis set superposition errors (BSSE). This method is especially suitable for computations of intermolecular interactions. Details of the theory, along with examples of applications to nucleic acid base pair complexes, are given. This chapter is well complemented by the following chapter, which reports the current status of computational studies of aromatic stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions among nucleic acid bases. The next chapter reveals the possibility of calculating the kinetics of chemical reactions in biological systems from the first principles. The last chapter reviews the results of rigorous ab initio studies of the series of derivatives of methane, silane, and germane. The presented molecular and vibrational parameters complement experimental data for these systems. In addition, the theoretical approach allows the prediction of the effects of halogeno-substitutions on their structures and properties. Contents:In Search of the Relationship between Multiple Solutions Characterizing Coupled-Cluster Theories (P Piecuch & K Kowalski)Computational Time-Dependent Two-Electron Theory and Long-Time Propagators (C A Weatherford)Self-Consistent Field Theory of Weakly Bonded Systems (E Gianinetti et al.)Aromatic DNA Base Stacking and H-Bonding (J Sponer et al.)Direct Ab Initio Dynamics Methodology for Modeling Kinetics of Biological Systems (T N Truong & D K Maity)Molecular Structure and Vibrational IR Spectra of Fluoro, Chloro and Bromosubstituted Methanes, Silanes and Germanes: An Ab Anitio Approach (J S Kwiatkowski & J Leszczynski) Readership: Graduate students and researchers in computational chemistry. Keywords:DNA;RNA;Base Stacking;Base Pairing;Ab Initio;Molecular Interactions;DFT;AMBER;Biomolecular Force Fields;Coupled ClustersReviews:“The breadth of subjects in this volume is such that almost everyone in the field of computational chemistry will find something of interest here … the reviews and articles that are included are all well-written and cover their subjects expertly and in great depth.”Journal of the American Chemical Society

Methods and Reagents for Green Chemistry

Methods and Reagents for Green Chemistry Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Alvise Perosa,Fulvio Zecchini
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470124079
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Methods and Reagents for Green Chemistry by Alvise Perosa,Fulvio Zecchini Summary

This book aims to stimulate and promote the wide-ranging aspects of green chemistry and its major role in ensuring sustainable development. The book covers the following areas: green chemistry; green reagents and atom economy; safeguarding the atmosphere; industrial green catalysis; alternative reaction conditions; biocatalysis and green chemistry. This book is based on the third edition of the Collection of Lectures of the Summer Schools on Green Chemistry held in Venice, Italy in the summers of 1998-2003 (sponsored by the European Commission, TMR and Improving Programmes and carried out by the Consortzio Interuniversitario La Chemica per l'Ambiente).

Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry

Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry Pdf/ePub eBook Author: ,
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080553177
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Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry by , Summary

Since its inception in 1945, this serial has provided critical and integrating articles written by research specialists that integrate industrial, analytical, and technological aspects of biochemistry, organic chemistry, and instrumentation methodology in the study of carbohydrates. The articles provide a definitive interpretation of the current status and future trends in carbohydrate chemistry and biochemistry.

Handbook of Graphene

Handbook of Graphene Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Tobias Stauber
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119469635
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Handbook of Graphene by Tobias Stauber Summary

The second volume in a series of handbooks on graphene research and applications Graphene is a valuable nanomaterial used in technology. This handbook features graphene topics related to Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. The Handbook of Graphene, Volume 2 delivers an overview on the numerous and diverse graphene research directions and innovations. The handbook covers a range of areas including graphene in optoelectronic devices and as a detector of biomolecules.

Analytical Methods in Wood Chemistry, Pulping, and Papermaking

Analytical Methods in Wood Chemistry, Pulping, and Papermaking Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Eero Sjöström,Raimo Alen
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662038986
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Analytical Methods in Wood Chemistry, Pulping, and Papermaking by Eero Sjöström,Raimo Alen Summary

In its broadest sense, and according to the traditional conception, wood chemistry is a comprehensive discipline, ranging from fundamental studies to practical applications. The manifold constituents, located in different morphological regions in the wood, results in an extreme complexity of wood chemistry. Ever more sophisticated endeavors needing fundamental studies and advanced analytical methods are necessary in order to delve deeper into various problems in pulping and papermaking. Gradually, new, improved ana lytical methods, originally developed for research purposes, are currently replacing many of the old "routine" methods in practical applications. Because of the expanse of the subject, an attempt to write a book of this size about analytical methods seems, perhaps, too ambitious. Of course, a whole book series of several volumes would be necessary to cover this topic completely. However, there is undoubtedly a need for a more condensed presentation which does not go into experimental details, but is limited to the basic principles of the analytical methods and illustrates their applica tions. The emphasis is on more advanced and potential methods, and partic ularly on those based on different types of spectroscopy and chromatography.