David Hume Prophet Of The Counter Revolution

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Histoire du scepticisme

Histoire du scepticisme Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Richard Popkin
Editor: Agone
ISBN: 2748904141
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Histoire du scepticisme by Richard Popkin Summary

« En contestant les critères traditionnels de la connaissance religieuse, la Réforme pose une question fondamentale et ouvre une boîte de Pandore : comment justifier les fondements de notre connaissance ? Ce problème va déclencher une crise sceptique qui va bientôt affecter l’ensemble du panorama intellectuel de l’Occident. » Le scepticisme est au principe de la pensée moderne — et partant, de la nôtre —, montre Richard Popkin : loin d’être un âge dogmatique où triomphe une raison souveraine, l’époque moderne émerge avec la redécouverte, au sortir du Moyen Âge, de l’arsenal argumentatif élaboré par les sceptiques de l’Antiquité, en même temps que s’ouvre la crise de l’autorité spirituelle entraînée par la Réforme. Se trouve alors posée, dans toute sa portée politique et religieuse, la question philosophique fondamentale du critère de la vérité. Aucune analyse de ce courant de pensée, qui double toute l’histoire de la philosophie et constitue une tradition de résistance intellectuelle à toute forme d’idéologie et à tous les dogmatismes, n’a l’ampleur de cet ouvrage, inédit en français. Il plonge dans la vie, les écrits et le monde des figures les plus significatives du scepticisme et de l’anti-scepticisme, de Savonarole et Érasme à Pierre Bayle et David Hume, en passant par Descartes et Spinoza.

Liberty in Hume’s History of England

Liberty in Hume’s History of England Pdf/ePub eBook Author: N. Capaldi,D. Livingston
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400905351
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Liberty in Hume’s History of England by N. Capaldi,D. Livingston Summary

LIBERTY IN HUME'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND In his own lifetime, Hume was feted by his admirers as a great historian, and even his enemies conceded that he was a controversial historian with whom one had to reckon. On the other hand, Hume failed to achieve positive recognition for his philosophical views. It was Hume's History of England that played an influential role in public policy debate during the eighteenth century in both Great Britain and in the United States. Hume's Hist01Y of England passed through seven editions and was beginning to be perceived as a classic before Hume's death. Voltaire, as an historian, considered it "perhaps the best ever written in any lan guage. " Gibbon greatly admired Hume's work and said, of a letter written by Hume in 1776 praising the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, that a compliment from Hume "overpaid the labor of ten years. " After Hume's death on August 20, 1776, the History became a factor in the revolutionary events that began to unfold. Louis XVI was a close student of Hume's History, and his valet records that, upon having learned that the Convention had voted the death penalty, the King asked for the volume in Hume's History covering the trial and execution of Charles I to read in the days that remained. But if Louis XVI found the consolations of philosophical history in the Stuart volumes, Thomas Jefferson saw in them a cause for alarm.

Scepticism in the Enlightenment

Scepticism in the Enlightenment Pdf/ePub eBook Author: R.H. Popkin,Ezequiel de Olaso,Giorgio Tonelli
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401589534
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Scepticism in the Enlightenment by R.H. Popkin,Ezequiel de Olaso,Giorgio Tonelli Summary

Starting with Richard Popkin's essay of 1963, `Scepticism in the Enlightenment', a new investigation into philosophical scepticism of the period was launched. The late Giorgio Tonelli and the late Ezequiel de Olaso examined in great detail the kinds of scepticism developed during the Enlightenment, and the kind of answer to scepticism that was developed by Leibniz. Their original researches and interpretations are of great value and importance. As a result of their work Popkin modified his original claims, as shown in the last two articles in this volume. The book contains an introduction by Popkin and 10 essays, two of which have never been published before. This collection should be of interest to students and scholars of 18th century thought in England, France and Germany.

Melancholy Duty

Melancholy Duty Pdf/ePub eBook Author: S.P. Foster
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401722358
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Melancholy Duty by S.P. Foster Summary

This book studies the complementary features of the thought of David Hume and Edward Gibbon in the complete range of its confrontation with eighteenth-century Christianity. The ten chapters explore the iconoclasm of these two philosophical historians - Hume as the premier philosopher, Gibbon as the consummate historian - as they labored to `naturalize' the study of Christianity, particularly with attention to its social and political dimensions. No other work deals as comprehensively or thoroughly with the attempt of philosophical history's challenge to Christianity. Belief in miracles and the afterlife, the dimensions of fanaticism and superstition, and the nature of religious persecution were the themes that occupied Hume and Gibbon in the making of their critique of Christianity. This book makes a valuable contribution to scholarship in a number of fields including the history of ideas, religious studies, and philosophy. It will be of interest to philosophers of religion, historians of ideas, eighteenth-century intellectual historians, scholars of the Scottish Enlightenment, and Hume and Gibbon scholars.

Hume, Hegel and Human Nature

Hume, Hegel and Human Nature Pdf/ePub eBook Author: C.J. Berry
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400975880
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Hume, Hegel and Human Nature by C.J. Berry Summary

This is both a modest and a presumptuous work. It is presumptuous because, given the vast literature on just one of its themes, it attempts to discuss not only the philosophies of both Hume and Hegel but also something of their intellectual milieu. Moreover, though the study has a delimiting perspective in the relation ship between a theory of human nature and an account of the various aspects that make up social experience, this itself is so central and protean that it has necessitated a discussion of, amongst others, theories of history, language, aesthetics, law and politics. Yet it is a modest work in that, although I do think I have some fresh things to say, the study does not propose any revolutionary new reading of the material. I am not here interested in the relative validity of the theories put forward - I do not 'take sides'. Nevertheless it is part of the modest intent that recourse to Hume and Hegel in arguments pertaining to human nature will be better inform ed and more discriminating as a consequence of this study. Additionally, some distinctions herein made also shed light on some assumptions made in contem porary debates in the philosophy of social science, especially those concerning the understanding of alien belief-systems.

The Sceptical Mode in Modern Philosophy

The Sceptical Mode in Modern Philosophy Pdf/ePub eBook Author: R. A. Watson,J.E. Force
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400927444
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The Sceptical Mode in Modern Philosophy by R. A. Watson,J.E. Force Summary

Sieyès et l'invention de la Constitution en France

Sieyès et l'invention de la Constitution en France Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Pasquale Pasquino
Editor: Odile Jacob
ISBN: 2738159206
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Sieyès et l'invention de la Constitution en France by Pasquale Pasquino Summary

Sieyès a toujours déplu aussi bien à la gauche, fascinée par le jacobinisme, qu'à la droite, incapable de comprendre le libéralisme de l'auteur de Qu'est-ce que le tiers état ? On lui doit pourtant le caractère antidespotique de notre pouvoir : c'est lui qui imagina, sans être à l'époque écouté, le principe du contrôle de constitutionnalité des lois. Son modèle constitutionnel a finalement inspiré les nations européennes après la Seconde Guerre mondiale, notamment l'Allemagne et l'Italie. En France aussi, la Ve République a intégré à son tour le principe du contrôle de constitutionnalité. S'appuyant sur des textes de Sieyès publiés ici pour la première fois, Pasquale Pasquino donne à redécouvrir le rôle central qu'a joué ce penseur politique majeur dans la naissance de la culture républicaine et de l'État constitutionnel en Europe. Chercheur au CREA (CNRS), Pasquale Pasquino enseigne la théorie politique à la New York University.

Democratic Enlightenment

Democratic Enlightenment Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jonathan Israel
Editor: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191620041
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Democratic Enlightenment by Jonathan Israel Summary

The Enlightenment shaped modernity. Western values of representative democracy and basic human rights, gender and racial equality, individual liberty, and freedom of expression and the press, form an interlocking system that derives directly from the Enlightenment's philosophical revolution. This fact is uncontested - yet remarkably few historians or philosophers have attempted to trace the process of ideas from the political and social turmoil of the late eighteenth century to the present day. This is precisely what Jonathan Israel now does. He demonstrates that the Enlightenment was an essentially revolutionary process, driven by philosophical debate. From 1789, its impetus came from a small group of philosophe-revolutionnaires, men such as Mirabeau, Sieyes, Condorcet, Volney, Roederer, and Brissot. Not aligned to any of the social groups who took the lead in the French National assembly, the Paris commune, or the editing of the Parisian revolutionary journals, they nonetheless forged 'la philosophie moderne' — in effect Radical Enlightenment ideas — into a world-transforming ideology that had a lasting impact in Latin America and eastern Europe as well as France, Italy, Germany, and the Low Countries. Whilst all French revolutionary journals clearly stated that la philosophie moderne was the main cause of the French Revolution, the main stream of historical thought has failed to grasp what this implies. Israel sets the record straight, demonstrating the true nature of the engine that drove the Revolution, and the intimate links between the radical wing of the Enlightenment and the anti-Robespierriste 'Revolution of reason'.

Theory and Practice in the Philosophy of David Hume

Theory and Practice in the Philosophy of David Hume Pdf/ePub eBook Author: James Wiley
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 1137026421
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Theory and Practice in the Philosophy of David Hume by James Wiley Summary

An original interpretation of Hume's philosophy as centered on the relationship between theory and practice. The author argues that Hume's Essays and History represent a humanist practical philosophy derived from the speculative philosophy of A Treatise of Human Nature and the Enquiries .

The Interpretation of Samuel Johnson

The Interpretation of Samuel Johnson Pdf/ePub eBook Author: J. Clark,H. Erskine-Hill
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 1137264721
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The Interpretation of Samuel Johnson by J. Clark,H. Erskine-Hill Summary

A major academic controversy has raged in recent years over the analysis of the political and religious commitments of Samuel Johnson, the most commanding of the 'commanding heights' of eighteenth-century English letters. This book, one of a trilogy from Palgrave, brings that debate to a decisive conclusion, retrieving the 'historic Johnson.'

Geld

Geld Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Sally Herbert Frankel
Editor: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 332293795X
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Geld by Sally Herbert Frankel Summary

I: Der Symbolismus des Geldes.- Geld und der moderne Geist.- Soziale Wertungen.- Historischer Materialismus.- Ein Kategorie-Fehler.- Geld und Tausch.- Ideologie des Geldes.- II: Geld und Individualität.- Das Vermächtnis des achtzehnten Jahrhunderts.- Eine Herausforderung der geldlichen Ordnung.- Die Philosophie Georg Simmeis.- Wissenschaftliche Objektivität und abstrakte Freiheit.- Die Welt der Maße.- Zwei Formen von Individualismus.- Die Bedeutung von Moses Hess.- III.: Die Ideologie des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts.- Das Kredit-Wunder.- Vertrauen.- Gewohnheit.- Intuitive Weisheit.- Soziale Verpf.

Enlightenment

Enlightenment Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Roy Porter
Editor: Penguin UK
ISBN: 0141927720
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Enlightenment by Roy Porter Summary

For generations the traditional focus for those wishing to understand the roots of the modern world has been France on the eve of the Revolution. Porter certainly acknowledges France's importance, but here makes an overwhelming case for consideringBritain the true home of modernity - a country driven by an exuberance, diversity and power of invention comparable only to twentieth-century America. Porter immerses the reader in a society which, recovering from the horrors of the Civil War and decisively reinvigorated by the revolution of 1688, had emerged as something new and extraordinary - a society unlike any other in the world.

Blake

Blake Pdf/ePub eBook Author: David V. Erdman
Editor: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486143902
FileSize: 770kb
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Blake by David V. Erdman Summary

DIVDefinitive study of strange symbolism Blake used to attack political tyranny of his time. "For our sense of Blake in his own times we are indebted to David Erdman more than anyone else."—Times Literary Supplement. Third revised edition. 32 black-and-white illus. /div

L'Écosse des Lumières : Hume, Smith, Ferguson

L'Écosse des Lumières : Hume, Smith, Ferguson Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Norbert Waszek
Editor: Presses Universitaires de France
ISBN: 2130636047
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L'Écosse des Lumières : Hume, Smith, Ferguson by Norbert Waszek Summary

Pendant la seconde moitié du 18e siècle, l'Ecosse vécut une remarquable époque d'épanouissement culturel avec David Hume, Adam Smith, Adam Ferguson, entre autres, dont les oeuvres ouvrirent la voie à la pensée économique, à la théorie du droit et à la sociologie moderne. Ces auteurs sont considérés comme étant les "pères" de la Constitution américaine. Cet ouvrage replace les oeuvres des philosophes écossais dans le cadre d'un large mouvement, celui des Lumières écossaises au XVIIIe siècle. L'analyse des conditions économiques et sociales, celle des institutions propres à l'Ecosse des Lumières éclaire la dynamique de la vie culturelle ainsi que les lignes directrices de la réflexion philosophique de ce mouvement écossais.

Dissertation sur les passions. Des passions

Dissertation sur les passions. Des passions Pdf/ePub eBook Author: David Hume
Editor: Flammarion
ISBN: 2081364719
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Dissertation sur les passions. Des passions by David Hume Summary

Mettre au jour les lois qui régissent le monde des passions, montrer que les passions engagent un rapport particulier au monde et souligner leur prégnance dans le domaine des actions humaines : telle est l’ambition de Hume dans les deux oeuvres ici réunies. Réécriture du livre II du Traité, la Dissertation sur les passions en rend plus saillantes les thèses originales.À la différence des moralistes qui dénoncent les vices des passions, des rationalistes qui entendent les subordonner aux idées claires et distinctes, et des naturalistes qui les font dériver des états du corps, Hume, s’inspirant des méthodes de la physique newtonienne, les aborde pour la première fois du point de vue d’une science générale de la nature humaine.

Lettre à un membre de l'Assemblée nationale

Lettre à un membre de l'Assemblée nationale Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Edmund Burke
Editor: Fayard/Mille et une nuits
ISBN: 2755505087
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Lettre à un membre de l'Assemblée nationale by Edmund Burke Summary

« L’Assemblée nationale recommande à sa jeunesse l’étude des innovateurs les plus osés en matière de moralité. On sait que le grand sujet de dispute entre ses chefs est de savoir lequel d’entre eux ressemble le plus à Rousseau. La vérité est qu’ils lui ressemblent tous. » Publiée peu après Réflexions sur la Révolution de France (1791), La lettre à un membre de l’Assemblée nationale durcit encore le jugement d’Edmund Burke (1729-1797) sur la Révolution française et l’amène à examiner, pour le dénoncer, le rôle qu’y joue Jean-Jacques Rousseau : celui-ci – « philosophe de la vanité », dit Burke – se voit promu modèle de la morale nouvelle pour s’en être pris à l’institution de la famille, et aussi pour avoir substitué aux affections ordinaires une « bienveillance universelle » qui sert les projets d’expansion de la Révolution. Burke distingue dès 1790 les grandes caractéristiques de bouleversements en France. Tocqueville disait de Burke qu’il était « illuminé par la haine » : c’est donc que celle-ci peut procurer quelque lucidité, et le lecteur de Rousseau ne devrait pas s’éviter cette confrontation. Edition établie et révision de la traduction par Patrick Thierry.