Discrimination And Disparities

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Discrimination and Disparities

Discrimination and Disparities Pdf/ePub eBook Author:
Editor: Basic Books
ISBN: 1541617835
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Discrimination and Disparities by Summary

An enlarged edition of Thomas Sowell's brilliant examination of the origins of economic disparities Economic and other outcomes differ vastly among individuals, groups, and nations. Many explanations have been offered for the differences. Some believe that those with less fortunate outcomes are victims of genetics. Others believe that those who are less fortunate are victims of the more fortunate. Discrimination and Disparities gathers a wide array of empirical evidence to challenge the idea that different economic outcomes can be explained by any one factor, be it discrimination, exploitation, or genetics. This revised and enlarged edition also analyzes the human consequences of the prevailing social vision of these disparities and the policies based on that vision--from educational disasters to widespread crime and violence.

Unequal Treatment

Unequal Treatment Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on Understanding and Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care
Editor: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309133081
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Unequal Treatment by Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on Understanding and Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care Summary

Racial and ethnic disparities in health care are known to reflect access to care and other issues that arise from differing socioeconomic conditions. There is, however, increasing evidence that even after such differences are accounted for, race and ethnicity remain significant predictors of the quality of health care received. In Unequal Treatment, a panel of experts documents this evidence and explores how persons of color experience the health care environment. The book examines how disparities in treatment may arise in health care systems and looks at aspects of the clinical encounter that may contribute to such disparities. Patients’ and providers’ attitudes, expectations, and behavior are analyzed. How to intervene? Unequal Treatment offers recommendations for improvements in medical care financing, allocation of care, availability of language translation, community-based care, and other arenas. The committee highlights the potential of cross-cultural education to improve providerâ€"patient communication and offers a detailed look at how to integrate cross-cultural learning within the health professions. The book concludes with recommendations for data collection and research initiatives. Unequal Treatment will be vitally important to health care policymakers, administrators, providers, educators, and students as well as advocates for people of color.

Measuring Racial Discrimination

Measuring Racial Discrimination Pdf/ePub eBook Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on National Statistics,Panel on Methods for Assessing Discrimination
Editor: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309133333
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Measuring Racial Discrimination by National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on National Statistics,Panel on Methods for Assessing Discrimination Summary

Many racial and ethnic groups in the United States, including blacks, Hispanics, Asians, American Indians, and others, have historically faced severe discriminationâ€"pervasive and open denial of civil, social, political, educational, and economic opportunities. Today, large differences among racial and ethnic groups continue to exist in employment, income and wealth, housing, education, criminal justice, health, and other areas. While many factors may contribute to such differences, their size and extent suggest that various forms of discriminatory treatment persist in U.S. society and serve to undercut the achievement of equal opportunity. Measuring Racial Discrimination considers the definition of race and racial discrimination, reviews the existing techniques used to measure racial discrimination, and identifies new tools and areas for future research. The book conducts a thorough evaluation of current methodologies for a wide range of circumstances in which racial discrimination may occur, and makes recommendations on how to better assess the presence and effects of discrimination.

The Oxford Handbook of Stigma, Discrimination, and Health

The Oxford Handbook of Stigma, Discrimination, and Health Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Brenda Major,John F. Dovidio,Bruce G. Link
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190243481
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The Oxford Handbook of Stigma, Discrimination, and Health by Brenda Major,John F. Dovidio,Bruce G. Link Summary

Stigma leads to poorer health. Edited by Brenda Major, John F. Dovidio, and Bruce G. Link, The Oxford Handbook of Stigma, Discrimination, and Health provides compelling evidence from various disciplines in support of this thesis and explains how and why health disparities exist and persist. Stigmatization involves distinguishing people by a socially conferred "mark," seeing them as deviant, and devaluing and socially excluding them. The core insight of this book is that the social processes of stigma reliably translate into the biology of disease and death. Contributors elucidate this insight by showing exactly how stigma negatively affects health and creates health disparities through multiple mechanisms operating at different levels of influence. Understanding the causes and consequences of health disparities requires a multi-level analysis that considers structural forces, psychological processes, and biological mechanisms. This volume's unique multidisciplinary approach brings together social and health psychologists, sociologists, public health scholars, and medical ethicists to comprehensively assess stigma's impact on health. It goes beyond the common practice of studying one stigmatized group at a time to examine the stigma-health link across multiple stigmatized groups. This broad, multidisciplinary framework not only illuminates the significant effects stigma has when aggregated across the health of many groups but also increases understanding of which stigma processes are general across groups and which are particular to specific groups. Here, a compendium of leading international experts point readers toward potential policy responses and possibilities for intervention as well as to the large gaps in understanding that remain. This book is the definitive source of scholarship on stigma and physical health for established and emerging scholars, practitioners, and students in psychology, sociology, public health, medicine, law, political science, geography, and the allied disciplines.

Communities in Action

Communities in Action Pdf/ePub eBook Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Committee on Community-Based Solutions to Promote Health Equity in the United States
Editor: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309452996
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Communities in Action by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Committee on Community-Based Solutions to Promote Health Equity in the United States Summary

In the United States, some populations suffer from far greater disparities in health than others. Those disparities are caused not only by fundamental differences in health status across segments of the population, but also because of inequities in factors that impact health status, so-called determinants of health. Only part of an individual's health status depends on his or her behavior and choice; community-wide problems like poverty, unemployment, poor education, inadequate housing, poor public transportation, interpersonal violence, and decaying neighborhoods also contribute to health inequities, as well as the historic and ongoing interplay of structures, policies, and norms that shape lives. When these factors are not optimal in a community, it does not mean they are intractable: such inequities can be mitigated by social policies that can shape health in powerful ways. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity seeks to delineate the causes of and the solutions to health inequities in the United States. This report focuses on what communities can do to promote health equity, what actions are needed by the many and varied stakeholders that are part of communities or support them, as well as the root causes and structural barriers that need to be overcome.

Black Rednecks & White Liberals

Black Rednecks & White Liberals Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Thomas Sowell
Editor: Encounter Books
ISBN: 1594032769
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Black Rednecks & White Liberals by Thomas Sowell Summary

This explosive new book challenges many of the long-prevailing assumptions about blacks, about Jews, about Germans, about slavery, and about education. Plainly written, powerfully reasoned, and backed with a startling array of documented facts, Black Rednecks and White Liberals takes on not only the trendy intellectuals of our times but also such historic interpreters of American life as Alexis de Tocqueville and Frederick Law Olmsted. In a series of long essays, this book presents an in-depth look at key beliefs behind many mistaken and dangerous actions, policies, and trends. It presents eye-opening insights into the historical development of the ghetto culture that is today wrongly seen as a unique black identity--a culture cheered on toward self-destruction by white liberals who consider themselves "friends" of blacks. An essay titled "The Real History of Slavery" presents a jolting re-examination of that tragic institution and the narrow and distorted way it is too often seen today. The reasons for the venomous hatred of Jews, and of other groups like them in countries around the world, are explored in an essay that asks, "Are Jews Generic?" Misconceptions of German history in general, and of the Nazi era in particular, are also re-examined. So too are the inspiring achievements and painful tragedies of black education in the United States. "Black Rednecks and White Liberals" is the capstone of decades of outstanding research and writing on racial and cultural issues by Thomas Sowell.

Applied Economics

Applied Economics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Thomas Sowell
Editor: Basic Books
ISBN: 0786722703
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Applied Economics by Thomas Sowell Summary

The application of economics to major contemporary real world problems -- housing, medical care, discrimination, the economic development of nations -- is the theme of this new book that tackles these and other issues head on in plain language, as distinguished from the usual jargon of economists. It examines economic policies not simply in terms of their immediate effects but also in terms of their later repercussions, which are often very different and longer lasting. The interplay of politics with economics is another theme of Applied Economics, whose examples are drawn from experiences around the world, showing how similar incentives and constraints tend to produce similar outcomes among very disparate peoples and cultures.

Race & Economics

Race & Economics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Walter E. Williams
Editor: Hoover Press
ISBN: 0817912460
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Race & Economics by Walter E. Williams Summary

Walter E. Williams applies an economic analysis to the problems black Americans have faced in the past and still face in the present to show that that free-market resource allocation, as opposed to political allocation, is in the best interests of minorities. He debunks many common labor market myths and reveals how excessive government regulation and the minimum-wage law have imposed incalculable harm on the most disadvantaged members of our society.

Social Epidemiology

Social Epidemiology Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Lisa F. Berkman PhD,Ichiro Kawachi MD, PhD,Maria Glymour ScD
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199703310
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Social Epidemiology by Lisa F. Berkman PhD,Ichiro Kawachi MD, PhD,Maria Glymour ScD Summary

Social epidemiology is the study of how the social world influences -- and in many cases defines -- the fundamental determinants of health. This link was substantiated in the first edition of Social Epidemiology, and the generation of research that followed has fundamentally changed the way we understand epidemiology and public health. This much-awaited second edition elevates the field again, first by codifying the last decade of research, then by extending it to examine how public policies impact health. The new edition includes: ? 11 fully updated chapters, including entries on the links between health and discrimination, income inequality, social networks, and emotion ? Four all-new chapters on the role of policies in shaping health, including how to translate evidence into action with multi-level interventions ? Updated references, detailing the best research over the last two decades The result is a bold, brilliant text that will serve the new world of epidemiology in which scientists both observe health and design interventions to improve it. Social Epidemiology again sets an intellectual agenda and provides an essential foundation for those interested in social determinants of health around the world.

Summary of Thomas Sowell’s Discrimination and Disparities by Milkyway Media

Summary of Thomas Sowell’s Discrimination and Disparities by Milkyway Media Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Milkyway Media
Editor: Milkyway Media
ISBN:
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Summary of Thomas Sowell’s Discrimination and Disparities by Milkyway Media by Milkyway Media Summary

Thomas Sowell’s book Discrimination and Disparities (2018) is an extended essay by a respected conservative economist and thinker. It addresses questions of why success is elusive, and explains what so many people get wrong about social disparity. Purchase this in-depth summary to learn more.

The Colors of Poverty

The Colors of Poverty Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Ann Chih Lin,David R. Harris
Editor: Russell Sage Foundation
ISBN: 1610447247
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The Colors of Poverty by Ann Chih Lin,David R. Harris Summary

Given the increasing diversity of the nation—particularly with respect to its growing Hispanic and Asian populations—why does racial and ethnic difference so often lead to disadvantage? In The Colors of Poverty, a multidisciplinary group of experts provides a breakthrough analysis of the complex mechanisms that connect poverty and race. The Colors of Poverty reframes the debate over the causes of minority poverty by emphasizing the cumulative effects of disadvantage in perpetuating poverty across generations. The contributors consider a kaleidoscope of factors that contribute to widening racial gaps, including education, racial discrimination, social capital, immigration, and incarceration. Michèle Lamont and Mario Small grapple with the theoretical ambiguities of existing cultural explanations for poverty disparities. They argue that culture and structure are not competing explanations for poverty, but rather collaborate to produce disparities. Looking at how attitudes and beliefs exacerbate racial stratification, social psychologist Heather Bullock links the rise of inequality in the United States to an increase in public tolerance for disparity. She suggests that the American ethos of rugged individualism and meritocracy erodes support for antipoverty programs and reinforces the belief that people are responsible for their own poverty. Sociologists Darren Wheelock and Christopher Uggen focus on the collateral consequences of incarceration in exacerbating racial disparities and are the first to propose a link between legislation that blocks former drug felons from obtaining federal aid for higher education and the black/white educational attainment gap. Joe Soss and Sanford Schram argue that the increasingly decentralized and discretionary nature of state welfare programs allows for different treatment of racial groups, even when such policies are touted as "race-neutral." They find that states with more blacks and Hispanics on welfare rolls are consistently more likely to impose lifetime limits, caps on benefits for mothers with children, and stricter sanctions. The Colors of Poverty is a comprehensive and evocative introduction to the dynamics of race and inequality. The research in this landmark volume moves scholarship on inequality beyond a simple black-white paradigm, beyond the search for a single cause of poverty, and beyond the promise of one "magic bullet" solution. A Volume in the National Poverty Center Series on Poverty and Public Policy

Economic Facts and Fallacies

Economic Facts and Fallacies Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Thomas Sowell
Editor: Basic Books
ISBN: 0465026303
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Economic Facts and Fallacies by Thomas Sowell Summary

Economic Facts and Fallacies exposes some of the most popular fallacies about economic issues-and does so in a lively manner and without requiring any prior knowledge of economics by the reader. These include many beliefs widely disseminated in the media and by politicians, such as mistaken ideas about urban problems, income differences, male-female economic differences, as well as economics fallacies about academia, about race, and about Third World countries. One of the themes of Economic Facts and Fallacies is that fallacies are not simply crazy ideas but in fact have a certain plausibility that gives them their staying power-and makes careful examination of their flaws both necessary and important, as well as sometimes humorous. Written in the easy-to-follow style of the author's Basic Economics, this latest book is able to go into greater depth, with real world examples, on specific issues.

Please Stop Helping Us

Please Stop Helping Us Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jason L. Riley
Editor: Encounter Books
ISBN: 1594038422
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Please Stop Helping Us by Jason L. Riley Summary

Why is it that so many efforts by liberals to lift the black underclass not only fail, but often harm the intended beneficiaries? In Please Stop Helping Us, Jason L. Riley examines how well-intentioned welfare programs are in fact holding black Americans back. Minimum-wage laws may lift earnings for people who are already employed, but they price a disproportionate number of blacks out of the labor force. Affirmative action in higher education is intended to address past discrimination, but the result is fewer black college graduates than would otherwise exist. And so it goes with everything from soft-on-crime laws, which make black neighborhoods more dangerous, to policies that limit school choice out of a mistaken belief that charter schools and voucher programs harm the traditional public schools that most low-income students attend. In theory these efforts are intended to help the poor—and poor minorities in particular. In practice they become massive barriers to moving forward. Please Stop Helping Us lays bare these counterproductive results. People of goodwill want to see more black socioeconomic advancement, but in too many instances the current methods and approaches aren’t working. Acknowledging this is an important first step.

Understanding Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health in Late Life

Understanding Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health in Late Life Pdf/ePub eBook Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Population,Panel on Race, Ethnicity, and Health in Later Life
Editor: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309165860
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Understanding Racial and Ethnic Differences in Health in Late Life by National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Population,Panel on Race, Ethnicity, and Health in Later Life Summary

As the population of older Americans grows, it is becoming more racially and ethnically diverse. Differences in health by racial and ethnic status could be increasingly consequential for health policy and programs. Such differences are are not simply a matter of education or ability to pay for health care. For instance, Asian Americans and Hispanics appear to be in better health, on a number of indicators, than White Americans, despite, on average, lower socioeconomic status. The reasons are complex, including possible roles for such factors as selective migration, risk behaviors, exposure to various stressors, patient attitudes, and geographic variation in health care. This volume, produced by a multidisciplinary panel, considers such possible explanations for racial and ethnic health differentials within an integrated framework. It provides a concise summary of available research and lays out a research agenda to address the many uncertainties in current knowledge. It recommends, for instance, looking at health differentials across the life course and deciphering the links between factors presumably producing differentials and biopsychosocial mechanisms that lead to impaired health.

The Quest for Cosmic Justice

The Quest for Cosmic Justice Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Thomas Sowell
Editor: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 0743215079
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The Quest for Cosmic Justice by Thomas Sowell Summary

This book is about the great moral issues underlying many of the headline-making political controversies of our times. It is not a comforting book but a book about disturbing and dangerous trends. The Quest for Cosmic Justice shows how confused conceptions of justice end up promoting injustice, how confused conceptions of equality end up promoting inequality, and how the tyranny of social visions prevents many people from confronting the actual consequences of their own beliefs and policies. Those consequences include the steady and dangerous erosion of fundamental principles of freedom -- amounting to a quiet repeal of the American revolution. The Quest for Cosmic Justice is the summation of a lifetime of study and thought about where we as a society are headed -- and why we need to change course before we do irretrievable damage.

The Vision of the Anointed

The Vision of the Anointed Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Thomas Sowell
Editor: Basic Books
ISBN: 1541646266
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The Vision of the Anointed by Thomas Sowell Summary

DIVSowell presents a devastating critique of the mind-set behind the failed social policies of the past thirty years. Sowell sees what has happened during that time not as a series of isolated mistakes but as a logical consequence of a tainted vision whose defects have led to crises in education, crime, and family dynamics, and to other social pathologies. In this book, he describes how elites—the anointed—have replaced facts and rational thinking with rhetorical assertions, thereby altering the course of our social policy./Div

Proactive Policing

Proactive Policing Pdf/ePub eBook Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Law and Justice,Committee on Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime, Communities, and Civil Liberties
Editor: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309467160
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Proactive Policing by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Law and Justice,Committee on Proactive Policing: Effects on Crime, Communities, and Civil Liberties Summary

Proactive policing, as a strategic approach used by police agencies to prevent crime, is a relatively new phenomenon in the United States. It developed from a crisis in confidence in policing that began to emerge in the 1960s because of social unrest, rising crime rates, and growing skepticism regarding the effectiveness of standard approaches to policing. In response, beginning in the 1980s and 1990s, innovative police practices and policies that took a more proactive approach began to develop. This report uses the term "proactive policing" to refer to all policing strategies that have as one of their goals the prevention or reduction of crime and disorder and that are not reactive in terms of focusing primarily on uncovering ongoing crime or on investigating or responding to crimes once they have occurred. Proactive policing is distinguished from the everyday decisions of police officers to be proactive in specific situations and instead refers to a strategic decision by police agencies to use proactive police responses in a programmatic way to reduce crime. Today, proactive policing strategies are used widely in the United States. They are not isolated programs used by a select group of agencies but rather a set of ideas that have spread across the landscape of policing. Proactive Policing reviews the evidence and discusses the data and methodological gaps on: (1) the effects of different forms of proactive policing on crime; (2) whether they are applied in a discriminatory manner; (3) whether they are being used in a legal fashion; and (4) community reaction. This report offers a comprehensive evaluation of proactive policing that includes not only its crime prevention impacts but also its broader implications for justice and U.S. communities.

Charter Schools and Their Enemies

Charter Schools and Their Enemies Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Thomas Sowell
Editor: Basic Books
ISBN: 1541675142
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Charter Schools and Their Enemies by Thomas Sowell Summary

A leading conservative intellectual defends charter schools against the teachers' unions, politicians, and liberal educators who threaten to dismantle their success. The black-white educational achievement gap -- so much discussed for so many years -- has already been closed by black students attending New York City's charter schools. This might be expected to be welcome news. But it has been very unwelcome news in traditional public schools whose students are transferring to charter schools. A backlash against charter schools has been led by teachers unions, politicians and others -- not only in New York but across the country. If those attacks succeed, the biggest losers will be minority youngsters for whom a quality education is their biggest chance for a better life.

Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults

Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults Pdf/ePub eBook Author: National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Committee on Improving the Health, Safety, and Well-Being of Young Adults
Editor: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309309980
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Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults by National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Committee on Improving the Health, Safety, and Well-Being of Young Adults Summary

Young adulthood - ages approximately 18 to 26 - is a critical period of development with long-lasting implications for a person's economic security, health and well-being. Young adults are key contributors to the nation's workforce and military services and, since many are parents, to the healthy development of the next generation. Although 'millennials' have received attention in the popular media in recent years, young adults are too rarely treated as a distinct population in policy, programs, and research. Instead, they are often grouped with adolescents or, more often, with all adults. Currently, the nation is experiencing economic restructuring, widening inequality, a rapidly rising ratio of older adults, and an increasingly diverse population. The possible transformative effects of these features make focus on young adults especially important. A systematic approach to understanding and responding to the unique circumstances and needs of today's young adults can help to pave the way to a more productive and equitable tomorrow for young adults in particular and our society at large. Investing in The Health and Well-Being of Young Adults describes what is meant by the term young adulthood, who young adults are, what they are doing, and what they need. This study recommends actions that nonprofit programs and federal, state, and local agencies can take to help young adults make a successful transition from adolescence to adulthood. According to this report, young adults should be considered as a separate group from adolescents and older adults. Investing in The Health and Well-Being of Young Adults makes the case that increased efforts to improve high school and college graduate rates and education and workforce development systems that are more closely tied to high-demand economic sectors will help this age group achieve greater opportunity and success. The report also discusses the health status of young adults and makes recommendations to develop evidence-based practices for young adults for medical and behavioral health, including preventions. What happens during the young adult years has profound implications for the rest of the life course, and the stability and progress of society at large depends on how any cohort of young adults fares as a whole. Investing in The Health and Well-Being of Young Adults will provide a roadmap to improving outcomes for this age group as they transition from adolescence to adulthood.

How to Be an Antiracist

How to Be an Antiracist Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Ibram X. Kendi
Editor: One World
ISBN: 0525509291
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How to Be an Antiracist by Ibram X. Kendi Summary

#1 NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • From the National Book Award–winning author of Stamped from the Beginning comes a “groundbreaking” (Time) approach to understanding and uprooting racism and inequality in our society—and in ourselves. “The most courageous book to date on the problem of race in the Western mind.”—The New York Times NAMED ONE OF THE BEST BOOKS OF THE YEAR BY The New York Times Book Review • Time • NPR • The Washington Post • Shelf Awareness • Library Journal • Publishers Weekly • Kirkus Reviews Antiracism is a transformative concept that reorients and reenergizes the conversation about racism—and, even more fundamentally, points us toward liberating new ways of thinking about ourselves and each other. At its core, racism is a powerful system that creates false hierarchies of human value; its warped logic extends beyond race, from the way we regard people of different ethnicities or skin colors to the way we treat people of different sexes, gender identities, and body types. Racism intersects with class and culture and geography and even changes the way we see and value ourselves. In How to Be an Antiracist, Kendi takes readers through a widening circle of antiracist ideas—from the most basic concepts to visionary possibilities—that will help readers see all forms of racism clearly, understand their poisonous consequences, and work to oppose them in our systems and in ourselves. Kendi weaves an electrifying combination of ethics, history, law, and science with his own personal story of awakening to antiracism. This is an essential work for anyone who wants to go beyond the awareness of racism to the next step: contributing to the formation of a just and equitable society. Praise for How to Be an Antiracist “Ibram X. Kendi’s new book, How to Be an Antiracist, couldn’t come at a better time. . . . Kendi has gifted us with a book that is not only an essential instruction manual but also a memoir of the author’s own path from anti-black racism to anti-white racism and, finally, to antiracism. . . . How to Be an Antiracist gives us a clear and compelling way to approach, as Kendi puts it in his introduction, ‘the basic struggle we’re all in, the struggle to be fully human and to see that others are fully human.’ ”—NPR “Kendi dissects why in a society where so few people consider themselves to be racist the divisions and inequalities of racism remain so prevalent. How to Be an Antiracist punctures the myths of a post-racial America, examining what racism really is—and what we should do about it.”—Time

The Anatomy of Racial Inequality

The Anatomy of Racial Inequality Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Glenn C. Loury
Editor: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674269853
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The Anatomy of Racial Inequality by Glenn C. Loury Summary

“Paints in chilling detail the distance between Martin Luther King’s dream and the reality of present-day America.” —Anthony Walton, Harper’s “Intellectually rigorous and deeply thoughtful...Loury’s book deals with racial stigma...in its political and philosophical aspects as a cause of black disadvantage...An incisive, erudite book by a major thinker.” —Gerald Early, New York Times Book Review “Lifts and transforms the discourse on ‘race’ and racial justice to an entirely new level.” —Orlando Patterson “He is a genuine maverick thinker...The Anatomy of Racial Inequality both epitomizes and explains Loury’s understanding of the depressed conditions of so much of black society today.” —New York Times Magazine “Loury provides an original and highly persuasive account of how the American racial hierarchy is sustained and reproduced over time. And he then demands that we begin the deep structural reforms that will be necessary to stop its continued reproduction.” —Michael Walzer Why are Black Americans so persistently confined to the margins of society? And why do they fail across so many metrics—wages, unemployment, income levels, test scores, incarceration rates, health outcomes? Known for his influential work on the economics of racial inequality and for pioneering the link between racism and social capital, Glenn Loury is not afraid of piercing orthodoxies and coming to controversial conclusions. In this now classic work, he describes how a vicious cycle of tainted social information helped create the racial stereotypes that rationalize and sustain discrimination. Brilliant in its account of how racial classifications are created and perpetuated, and how they resonate through the social, psychological, spiritual, and economic life of the nation, this compelling and passionate book gives us a new way of seeing—and of seeing beyond—the damning categorization of race.

Eliminating Health Disparities

Eliminating Health Disparities Pdf/ePub eBook Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on National Statistics,Panel on DHHS Collection of Race and Ethnicity Data
Editor: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309166133
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Eliminating Health Disparities by National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on National Statistics,Panel on DHHS Collection of Race and Ethnicity Data Summary

Disparities in health and health care across racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds in the United States are well documented. The reasons for these disparities are, however, not well understood. Current data available on race, ethnicity, SEP, and accumulation and language use are severely limited. The report examines data collection and reporting systems relating to the collection of data on race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic position and offers recommendations.

A Conflict of Visions

A Conflict of Visions Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Thomas Sowell
Editor: Basic Books
ISBN: 0465004660
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A Conflict of Visions by Thomas Sowell Summary

Thomas Sowell's classic analysis of the opposing visions behind today's ethical and ideological disputes Controversies in politics arise from many sources, but the conflicts that endure for generations or centuries show a remarkably consistent pattern. This revised edition of a classic analyzes the centuries-long debates about the nature of reason, justice, equality, and power. It distinguishes between those with the "constrained" vision, which sees human nature as enduring and self-centered, and the "unconstrained" vision, in which human nature is malleable and perfectible. A Conflict of Visions offers a compelling case that these opposing visions are behind the ethical and ideological disputes of yesterday and today.

The Seasons of God

The Seasons of God Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Richard Blackaby
Editor: Multnomah
ISBN: 1601424183
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The Seasons of God by Richard Blackaby Summary

What season of life are you in? Each of us goes through periods of life that have a certain character—a few months or a few years, good times or difficult circumstances, times of brilliant joy or periods of dark clouds. Often we say, “It’s just the season of life I’m in.” But did you know that just as God has purposes for the seasons of nature, he also uses seasons in your life to grow you, work with you, and talk to you? Richard Blackaby explains in The Seasons of God how understanding the principles of the seasons can offer us hope, direction, insight, and intimacy with God himself. It’s a thoughtful exploration of God’s patterns at work in our lives—how His will is being carried out in the best way…at the best time. Your plans, your relationships, your career, your ministry—all have their unique God-intended moment. God’s Word expresses it this way: “For everything there is a season, and a time for every matter under heaven.” So what’s your season of life? And what is God telling you through the season you’re in?

Dismantling America

Dismantling America Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Thomas Sowell
Editor: Basic Books
ISBN: 0465022596
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Dismantling America by Thomas Sowell Summary

These wide-ranging essays—on many individual political, economic, cultural and legal issues—have as a recurring, underlying theme the decline of the values and institutions that have sustained and advanced American society for more than two centuries. This decline has been more than an erosion. It has, in many cases, been a deliberate dismantling of American values and institutions by people convinced that their superior wisdom and virtue must over-ride both the traditions of the country and the will of the people. Whether these essays (originally published as syndicated newspaper columns) are individually about financial bailouts, illegal immigrants, gay marriage, national security, or the Duke University rape case, the underlying concern is about what these very different kinds of things say about the general direction of American society. This larger and longer-lasting question is whether the particular issues discussed reflect a degeneration or dismantling of the America that we once knew and expected to pass on to our children and grandchildren. There are people determined that this country's values, history, laws, traditions and role in the world are fundamentally wrong and must be changed. Such people will not stop dismantling America unless they get stopped—and the next election may be the last time to stop them, before they take the country beyond the point of no return.

Race After Technology

Race After Technology Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Ruha Benjamin
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1509526439
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Race After Technology by Ruha Benjamin Summary

From everyday apps to complex algorithms, Ruha Benjamin cuts through tech-industry hype to understand how emerging technologies can reinforce White supremacy and deepen social inequity. Benjamin argues that automation, far from being a sinister story of racist programmers scheming on the dark web, has the potential to hide, speed up, and deepen discrimination while appearing neutral and even benevolent when compared to the racism of a previous era. Presenting the concept of the “New Jim Code,” she shows how a range of discriminatory designs encode inequity by explicitly amplifying racial hierarchies; by ignoring but thereby replicating social divisions; or by aiming to fix racial bias but ultimately doing quite the opposite. Moreover, she makes a compelling case for race itself as a kind of technology, designed to stratify and sanctify social injustice in the architecture of everyday life. This illuminating guide provides conceptual tools for decoding tech promises with sociologically informed skepticism. In doing so, it challenges us to question not only the technologies we are sold but also the ones we ourselves manufacture. Visit the book's free Discussion Guide here.

The Oxford Handbook of Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration

The Oxford Handbook of Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Sandra M. Bucerius,Michael Tonry
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199859027
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The Oxford Handbook of Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration by Sandra M. Bucerius,Michael Tonry Summary

Social tensions between majority and minority populations often center on claims that minorities are largely responsible for crime and disorder. Members of some disadvantaged groups in all developed countries, sometimes long-standing residents and other times recent immigrants, experience unwarranted disparities in their dealings with the criminal justice system. Accusations of unfair treatment by police and courts are common. The Oxford Handbook of Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration provides comprehensive analyses of current knowledge about these and a host of related subjects. Topics include legal and illegal immigration, ethnic and race relations, and discrimination and exclusion, and their links to crime in the United States and elsewhere. Leading scholars from sociology, criminology, law, psychology, geography, and political science document and explore relations among race, ethnicity, immigration, and crime. Individual chapters provide in-depth critical overviews of key issues, controversies, and research. Contributors present the historical backdrops of their subjects, describe population characteristics, and summarize relevant data and research findings. Most articles provide synopses of racial, ethnic, immigration, and justice-related concerns and offer policy recommendations and proposals for future research. Some articles are case studies of particular problems in particular places, including juvenile incarceration, homicide, urban violence, social exclusion, and other issues disproportionately affecting disadvantaged minority groups. The Oxford Handbook of Ethnicity, Crime, and Immigration is the first major effort to examine and synthesize knowledge concerning immigration and crime, ethnicity and crime, and race and crime in one volume, and does so both for the United States and for many other countries.

The Color of Money

The Color of Money Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Mehrsa Baradaran
Editor: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674982304
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The Color of Money by Mehrsa Baradaran Summary

In 1863 black communities owned less than 1 percent of total U.S. wealth. Today that number has barely budged. Mehrsa Baradaran pursues this wealth gap by focusing on black banks. She challenges the myth that black banking is the solution to the racial wealth gap and argues that black communities can never accumulate wealth in a segregated economy.

Algorithms of Oppression

Algorithms of Oppression Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Safiya Umoja Noble
Editor: NYU Press
ISBN: 1479866768
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Algorithms of Oppression by Safiya Umoja Noble Summary

As seen in Wired and Time A revealing look at how negative biases against women of color are embedded in search engine results and algorithms Run a Google search for “black girls”—what will you find? “Big Booty” and other sexually explicit terms are likely to come up as top search terms. But, if you type in “white girls,” the results are radically different. The suggested porn sites and un-moderated discussions about “why black women are so sassy” or “why black women are so angry” presents a disturbing portrait of black womanhood in modern society. In Algorithms of Oppression, Safiya Umoja Noble challenges the idea that search engines like Google offer an equal playing field for all forms of ideas, identities, and activities. Data discrimination is a real social problem; Noble argues that the combination of private interests in promoting certain sites, along with the monopoly status of a relatively small number of Internet search engines, leads to a biased set of search algorithms that privilege whiteness and discriminate against people of color, specifically women of color. Through an analysis of textual and media searches as well as extensive research on paid online advertising, Noble exposes a culture of racism and sexism in the way discoverability is created online. As search engines and their related companies grow in importance—operating as a source for email, a major vehicle for primary and secondary school learning, and beyond—understanding and reversing these disquieting trends and discriminatory practices is of utmost importance. An original, surprising and, at times, disturbing account of bias on the internet, Algorithms of Oppression contributes to our understanding of how racism is created, maintained, and disseminated in the 21st century. Safiya Noble discusses search engine bias in an interview with USC Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism

The SAGE Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination

The SAGE Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination Pdf/ePub eBook Author: John F Dovidio,Miles Hewstone,Peter Glick,Victoria M Esses
Editor: SAGE
ISBN: 1446248380
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The SAGE Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination by John F Dovidio,Miles Hewstone,Peter Glick,Victoria M Esses Summary

The SAGE Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination provides comprehensive coverage on the state of research, critical analysis and promising avenues for further study on prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination. Each chapter presents in-depth reviews of specific topics, describing the current state of knowledge and identifying the most productive new directions for future research. Representing both traditional and emerging perspectives, this multi-disiplinary and truly international volume will serve as a seminal resource for students and scholars.

Beyond the Color Line

Beyond the Color Line Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Abigail Thernstrom,Stephan Thernstrom
Editor: Hoover Institution Press
ISBN: 081799873X
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Beyond the Color Line by Abigail Thernstrom,Stephan Thernstrom Summary

Twenty-five essays covering a range of areas from religion and immigration to family structure and crime examine America's changing racial and ethnic scene. They clearly show that old civil rights strategies will not solve today's problems and offer a bold new civil rights agenda based on today's realities.

The Stone Thrower

The Stone Thrower Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jael Ealey Richardson
Editor: Groundwood Books Ltd
ISBN: 1554987539
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The Stone Thrower by Jael Ealey Richardson Summary

The African-American football player Chuck Ealey grew up in a segregated neighborhood of Portsmouth, Ohio. Against all odds, he became an incredible quarterback. But despite his unbeaten record in high school and university, he would never play professional football in the United States. Chuck Ealey grew up poor in a racially segregated community that was divided from the rest of town by a set of train tracks, but his mother assured him that he wouldn’t stay in Portsmouth forever. Education was the way out, and a football scholarship was the way to pay for that education. So despite the racist taunts he faced at all the games he played in high school, Chuck maintained a remarkable level of dedication and determination. And when discrimination followed him to university and beyond, Chuck Ealey remained undefeated. This inspirational story is told by Chuck Ealey’s daughter, author and educator Jael Richardson, with striking and powerful illustrations by award-winning illustrator Matt James.

Wealth, Poverty and Politics

Wealth, Poverty and Politics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Thomas Sowell
Editor: Basic Books
ISBN: 0465096778
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Wealth, Poverty and Politics by Thomas Sowell Summary

In Wealth, Poverty, and Politics, Thomas Sowell, one of the foremost conservative public intellectuals in this country, argues that political and ideological struggles have led to dangerous confusion about income inequality in America. Pundits and politically motivated economists trumpet ambiguous statistics and sensational theories while ignoring the true determinant of income inequality: the production of wealth. We cannot properly understand inequality if we focus exclusively on the distribution of wealth and ignore wealth production factors such as geography, demography, and culture. Sowell contends that liberals have a particular interest in misreading the data and chastises them for using income inequality as an argument for the welfare state. Refuting Thomas Piketty, Paul Krugman, and others on the left, Sowell draws on accurate empirical data to show that the inequality is not nearly as extreme or sensational as we have been led to believe. Transcending partisanship through a careful examination of data, Wealth, Poverty, and Politics reveals the truth about the most explosive political issue of our time.

Know Your Price

Know Your Price Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Andre M. Perry
Editor: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 0815737289
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Know Your Price by Andre M. Perry Summary

The deliberate devaluation of Blacks and their communities has had very real, far-reaching, and negative economic and social effects. An enduring white supremacist myth claims brutal conditions in Black communities are mainly the result of Black people’s collective choices and moral failings. “That’s just how they are” or “there’s really no excuse”: we’ve all heard those not so subtle digs. But there is nothing wrong with Black people that ending racism can’t solve. We haven’t known how much the country will gain by properly valuing homes and businesses, family structures, voters, and school districts in Black neighborhoods. And we need to know. Noted educator, journalist, and scholar Andre Perry takes readers on a tour of six Black-majority cities whose assets and strengths are undervalued. Perry begins in his hometown of Wilkinsburg, a small city east of Pittsburgh that, unlike its much larger neighbor, is struggling and failing to attract new jobs and industry. Bringing his own personal story of growing up in Black-majority Wilkinsburg, Perry also spotlights five others where he has deep connections: Detroit, Birmingham, New Orleans, Atlanta, and Washington, D.C. He provides an intimate look at the assets that should be of greater value to residents—and that can be if they demand it. Perry provides a new means of determining the value of Black communities. Rejecting policies shaped by flawed perspectives of the past and present, it gives fresh insights on the historical effects of racism and provides a new value paradigm to limit them in the future. Know Your Price demonstrates the worth of Black people’s intrinsic personal strengths, real property, and traditional institutions. These assets are a means of empowerment and, as Perry argues in this provocative and very personal book, are what we need to know and understand to build Black prosperity.

Confronting Injustice without Compromising Truth

Confronting Injustice without Compromising Truth Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Thaddeus J. Williams
Editor: Zondervan Academic
ISBN: 0310119499
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Confronting Injustice without Compromising Truth by Thaddeus J. Williams Summary

God does not suggest, he commands that we do justice. Social justice is not optional for the Christian. All injustice affects others, so talking about justice that isn't social is like talking about water that isn't wet or a square with no right angles. But the Bible's call to seek justice is not a call to superficial, kneejerk activism. We are not merely commanded to execute justice, but to "truly execute justice." The God who commands us to seek justice is the same God who commands us to "test everything" and "hold fast to what is good." Drawing from a diverse range of theologians, sociologists, artists, and activists, Confronting Injustice without Compromising Truth, by Thaddeus Williams, makes the case that we must be discerning if we are to "truly execute justice" as Scripture commands. Not everything called "social justice" today is compatible with a biblical vision of a better world. The Bible offers hopeful and distinctive answers to deep questions of worship, community, salvation, and knowledge that ought to mark a uniquely Christian pursuit of justice. Topics addressed include: Racism Sexuality Socialism Culture War Abortion Tribalism Critical Theory Identity Politics Confronting Injustice without Compromising Truth also brings in unique voices to talk about their experiences with these various social justice issues, including: Michelle-Lee Barnwall Suresh Budhaprithi Eddie Byun Freddie Cardoza Becket Cook Bella Danusiar Monique Duson Ojo Okeye Edwin Ramirez Samuel Sey Neil Shenvi Walt Sobchak In Confronting Injustice without Compromising Truth, Thaddeus Williams transcends our religious and political tribalism and challenges readers to discover what the Bible and the example of Jesus have to teach us about justice. He presents a compelling vision of justice for all God's image-bearers that offers hopeful answers to life's biggest questions.

Encyclopedia of Race and Crime

Encyclopedia of Race and Crime Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Helen Taylor Greene,Shaun L. Gabbidon
Editor: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1452266093
FileSize: 536kb
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Encyclopedia of Race and Crime by Helen Taylor Greene,Shaun L. Gabbidon Summary

"The organization of the reader's guide—especially the groupings of landmark cases, race riots, and criminology theories—is impressive ... Other related titles lack the breadth, detail, and accessibility of this work ... Recommended for all libraries; essential for comprehensive social studies collections." —Library Journal As seen almost daily on local and national news, race historically and presently figures prominently in crime and justice reporting within the United States, in the areas of hate crimes, racial profiling, sentencing disparities, wrongful convictions, felon disenfranchisement, political prisoners, juveniles and the death penalty, and culturally specific delinquency prevention programs. The Encyclopedia of Race and Crime covers issues in both historical and contemporary context, with information on race and ethnicity and their impact on crime and the administration of justice. These two volumes offer a greater appreciation for the similar historical experiences of varied racial and ethnic groups and illustrate how race and ethnicity has mattered and continues to matter in the administration of American criminal justice. Key Features Covers a number of broad thematic areas: basic concepts and theories of criminal justice; the police, courts, and corrections; juvenile justice; public policy; the media; organizations; specific groups and populations; and specific cases and biographies Addresses such topics as gender, hate/bias crimes, immigrant experiences, international and cross-cultural issues, race and gangs, and race and law, Presents experiences of all major racial and ethnic groups in the U.S., including Asians, Blacks, Latinos, Native Americans, and Ethnic Whites, as well as religious minorities, such as Muslims Includes coverage of recent incidents like the alleged rape of a black female North Carolina Central University student by white male members of the Duke University Lacrosse Team;, the Jena 6 incident; the Tulia, Texas drug arrests; the Rodney King beating; the O. J. Simpson trials in the 1990s; and more recent racial profiling incidents Two appendices provide information on locating and interpreting statistical data on race and crime, as well as detailed instructions on how to access statistical data on the web for such specific areas as arrests, drugs, gang membership, hate crimes, homicide trends, juvenile justice, prison populations, racial profiling, the death penalty, and victimization Because the topic of race and crime is of wide interest and relevance, entries in this Encyclopedia are written in an accessible style to appeal to a broad audience, making it a welcome addition to academic and public libraries alike.

Race Neutrality

Race Neutrality Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Samuel L. Myers,Inhyuck Ha
Editor: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 0739185624
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Race Neutrality by Samuel L. Myers,Inhyuck Ha Summary

Using illustrations from research on racial inequality in varied domains from public procurement and contracting to mortgage lending to child maltreatment to competitive swimming, Race Neutrality: Rationalizing Remedies to Racial Inequality argues that race neutrality—while desirable on its face—often fails to do what it is intended to do.

Toward What Justice?

Toward What Justice? Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Eve Tuck,K. Wayne Yang
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1351240919
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Toward What Justice? by Eve Tuck,K. Wayne Yang Summary

Toward What Justice? brings together compelling ideas from a wide range of intellectual traditions in education to discuss corresponding and sometimes competing definitions of justice. Leading scholars articulate new ideas and challenge entrenched views of what justice means when considered from the perspectives of diverse communities. Their chapters, written boldly and pressing directly into the difficult and even strained questions of justice, reflect on the contingencies and incongruences at work when considering what justice wants and requires. At its heart, Toward What Justice? is a book about justice projects, and the incommensurable investments that social justice projects can make. It is a must-have volume for scholars and students working at the intersection of education and Indigenous studies, critical disability studies, climate change research, queer studies, and more.

Economic Freedom and Social Justice

Economic Freedom and Social Justice Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Wanjiru Njoya
Editor: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030848523
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Economic Freedom and Social Justice by Wanjiru Njoya Summary

This book analyses the egalitarian foundations of equality law from a classical liberal perspective by asking two central questions: does justice ideally demand equality? Are differences in abilities among people in some sense unfair? The book examines these questions in the context of racial diversity. Racial justice as a component of social justice is often considered to be so emotionally and morally compelling that its implications for economic freedom are rarely subjected to critical scrutiny. In defending the classical ideal of formal equality in contexts of racial diversity this book questions the ethical status of egalitarian social and moral ideals. Economic Freedom and Social Justice argues that egalitarian ideals, like all subjective value judgements, must be subjected to critical intellectual inquiry rather than treated axiomatically. Drawing upon the legal framework in the UK and other common law jurisdictions, this book shows some of the ways in which egalitarian ideals, in addition to resting on false premises, are costly, harmful, and ultimately inimical to justice and liberty. The book argues that legal entitlements and policy guidelines constructed upon notions of racial equity are wrongly constituted as the main prism through which liberal market democracies govern private relationships, including the employment relationship. Written in a clear and forthright style, this book will be of interest to students and scholars in law, economics, philosophy and political economy.

Eliminating Healthcare Disparities in America

Eliminating Healthcare Disparities in America Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Richard Allen Williams
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1597454850
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Eliminating Healthcare Disparities in America by Richard Allen Williams Summary

In this book, Dr. Richard Allen Williams has assembled the very best scholars on healthcare disparities to raise the public consciousness of this issue. Arranged into discrete categories, this volume contains comprehensive coverage, both historical and current, of the healthcare disparity crisis currently plaguing our country in hopes of leading us all to a brighter future.