Download A Z Of Quantitative Pcr Pdf

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Gene Quantification

Gene Quantification Pdf/ePub eBook Author:
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461241642
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Gene Quantification by Summary

Geneticists and molecular biologists have been interested in quantifying genes and their products for many years and for various reasons (Bishop, 1974). Early molecular methods were based on molecular hybridization, and were devised shortly after Marmur and Doty (1961) first showed that denaturation of the double helix could be reversed - that the process of molecular reassociation was exquisitely sequence dependent. Gillespie and Spiegelman (1965) developed a way of using the method to titrate the number of copies of a probe within a target sequence in which the target sequence was fixed to a membrane support prior to hybridization with the probe - typically a RNA. Thus, this was a precursor to many of the methods still in use, and indeed under development, today. Early examples of the application of these methods included the measurement of the copy numbers in gene families such as the ribosomal genes and the immunoglo bulin family. Amplification of genes in tumors and in response to drug treatment was discovered by this method. In the same period, methods were invented for estimating gene num bers based on the kinetics of the reassociation process - the so-called Cot analysis. This method, which exploits the dependence of the rate of reassociation on the concentration of the two strands, revealed the presence of repeated sequences in the DNA of higher eukaryotes (Britten and Kohne, 1968). An adaptation to RNA, Rot analysis (Melli and Bishop, 1969), was used to measure the abundance of RNAs in a mixed population.

Real-time PCR

Real-time PCR Pdf/ePub eBook Author: M Tevfik Dorak
Editor: Garland Science
ISBN: 0203967313
FileSize: 324kb
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Real-time PCR by M Tevfik Dorak Summary

With a variety of detection chemistries, an increasing number of platforms, multiple choices for analytical methods and the jargon emerging along with these developments, real-time PCR is facing the risk of becoming an intimidating method, especially for beginners. Real-time PCR provides the basics, explains how they are exploited to run a real-time PCR assay, how the assays are run and where these assays are informative in real life. It addresses the most practical aspects of the techniques with the emphasis on 'how to do it in the laboratory'. Keeping with the spirit of the Advanced Methods Series, most chapters provide an experimental protocol as an example of a specific assay.

Principles and Technical Aspects of PCR Amplification

Principles and Technical Aspects of PCR Amplification Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Elizabeth van Pelt-Verkuil,Alex van Belkum,John P. Hays
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402062414
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Principles and Technical Aspects of PCR Amplification by Elizabeth van Pelt-Verkuil,Alex van Belkum,John P. Hays Summary

Kary Mullis was awarded a Nobel Prize for inventing the PCR technique more than a decade ago in 1993. Since its "discovery", multiple adaptations and variations of the standard PCR technique have been described. This publication aims to provide the reader with a guide to the standard PCR technique and its many available variants, with particular emphasis being placed on the role of these PCR techniques in the clinical diagnostic laboratory (the central theme of this book).

The Elements of Statistical Learning

The Elements of Statistical Learning Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Trevor Hastie,Robert Tibshirani,Jerome Friedman
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387216065
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The Elements of Statistical Learning by Trevor Hastie,Robert Tibshirani,Jerome Friedman Summary

During the past decade there has been an explosion in computation and information technology. With it have come vast amounts of data in a variety of fields such as medicine, biology, finance, and marketing. The challenge of understanding these data has led to the development of new tools in the field of statistics, and spawned new areas such as data mining, machine learning, and bioinformatics. Many of these tools have common underpinnings but are often expressed with different terminology. This book describes the important ideas in these areas in a common conceptual framework. While the approach is statistical, the emphasis is on concepts rather than mathematics. Many examples are given, with a liberal use of color graphics. It should be a valuable resource for statisticians and anyone interested in data mining in science or industry. The book’s coverage is broad, from supervised learning (prediction) to unsupervised learning. The many topics include neural networks, support vector machines, classification trees and boosting---the first comprehensive treatment of this topic in any book. This major new edition features many topics not covered in the original, including graphical models, random forests, ensemble methods, least angle regression & path algorithms for the lasso, non-negative matrix factorization, and spectral clustering. There is also a chapter on methods for “wide” data (p bigger than n), including multiple testing and false discovery rates. Trevor Hastie, Robert Tibshirani, and Jerome Friedman are professors of statistics at Stanford University. They are prominent researchers in this area: Hastie and Tibshirani developed generalized additive models and wrote a popular book of that title. Hastie co-developed much of the statistical modeling software and environment in R/S-PLUS and invented principal curves and surfaces. Tibshirani proposed the lasso and is co-author of the very successful An Introduction to the Bootstrap. Friedman is the co-inventor of many data-mining tools including CART, MARS, projection pursuit and gradient boosting.

Genomics

Genomics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Mike Starkey,Ramnath Elaswarapu
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470711620
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Genomics by Mike Starkey,Ramnath Elaswarapu Summary

Genomics research has made significant advances in recent years. In this book, a team of internationally-renowned researchers share the most up-to-date information in a field that has in recent years switched emphasis from gene identification to functional genomics and the characterization of genes and gene products. This volume approaches this complex subject with a broad perspective to supply the reader with a vital overview of genomics and its derivative fields, with a focus on pivotal issues such as data analysis. Expansive and current, this book is a comprehensive research guide that describes both the key new techniques and more established methods. Every chapter discusses the merits and limitations of the various approaches and then provides selected tried-and-tested protocols, as well as a plethora of good practical advice for immediate use at the bench. Key features: Provides a broad introduction to current practices and techniques for lab-based research in genomics Explains clearly and precisely how to carry out selected techniques in addition to background information on the various approaches Chapters are written by a leading international authorities in the field and cover both well-known and new, tried and tested, methods for working in genomics Includes troubleshooting guide and reviews of alternative techniques An essential laboratory manual for students and researchers at all levels

Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology

Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Lawrence A. Lacey,Harry K. Kaya
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401715475
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Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology by Lawrence A. Lacey,Harry K. Kaya Summary

The 38 chapters of this Field Manual provide the tools required for planning experiments with entomopathogens and their implementation in the field. Basic tools include chapters on the theory and practice of microbial control agents, statistical design of experiments, equipment and application strategies. The major pathogen groups are covered in individual chapters (virus, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, nematodes). Subsequent chapters deal with the impact of naturally occurring and introduced exotic pathogens and inundative application of microbial control agents. The largest section of the Manual is composed of 21 chapters on the application and evaluation of entomopathogens in a wide range of agricultural, forest, domestic and aquatic habitats. Mites and slugs broaden the scope of the book. Supplementary techniques and media for follow-up laboratory studies are described. Three final chapters cover the evaluation of Bt transgenic plants, resistance to insect pathogens and strategies to manage it, and guidelines for evaluating the effects of MCAs on nontarget organisms. Readership: Researchers, graduate students, practitioners of integrated pest management, regulators, those doing environmental impact studies. The book is a stand-alone reference, but is also complementary to the laboratory-oriented Manual of Techniques in Insect Pathology and similar comprehensive texts.

The Polymerase Chain Reaction

The Polymerase Chain Reaction Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Kary B. Mullis,Francois Ferre,Richard A. Gibbs
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461202574
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The Polymerase Chain Reaction by Kary B. Mullis,Francois Ferre,Richard A. Gibbs Summary

James D. Watson When, in late March of 1953, Francis Crick and I came to write the first Nature paper describing the double helical structure of the DNA molecule, Francis had wanted to include a lengthy discussion of the genetic implications of a molecule whose struc ture we had divined from a minimum of experimental data and on theoretical argu ments based on physical principles. But I felt that this might be tempting fate, given that we had not yet seen the detailed evidence from King's College. Nevertheless, we reached a compromise and decided to include a sentence that pointed to the biological significance of the molecule's key feature-the complementary pairing of the bases. "It has not escaped our notice," Francis wrote, "that the specific pairing that we have postulated immediately suggests a possible copying mechanism for the genetic material." By May, when we were writing the second Nature paper, I was more confident that the proposed structure was at the very least substantially correct, so that this second paper contains a discussion of molecular self-duplication using templates or molds. We pointed out that, as a consequence of base pairing, a DNA molecule has two chains that are complementary to each other. Each chain could then act ". . . as a template for the formation on itself of a new companion chain, so that eventually we shall have two pairs of chains, where we only had one before" and, moreover, " ...

The Pangenome

The Pangenome Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Hervé Tettelin
Editor: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030382818
FileSize: 409kb
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The Pangenome by Hervé Tettelin Summary

This open access book offers the first comprehensive account of the pan-genome concept and its manifold implications. The realization that the genetic repertoire of a biological species always encompasses more than the genome of each individual is one of the earliest examples of big data in biology that opened biology to the unbounded. The study of genetic variation observed within a species challenges existing views and has profound consequences for our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underpinning bacterial biology and evolution. The underlying rationale extends well beyond the initial prokaryotic focus to all kingdoms of life and evolves into similar concepts for metagenomes, phenomes and epigenomes. The books respective chapters address a range of topics, from the serendipitous emergence of the pan-genome concept and its impacts on the fields of microbiology, vaccinology and antimicrobial resistance, to the study of microbial communities, bioinformatic applications and mathematical models that tie in with complex systems and economic theory. Given its scope, the book will appeal to a broad readership interested in population dynamics, evolutionary biology and genomics.

Encyclopedia of Infectious Diseases

Encyclopedia of Infectious Diseases Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Michel Tibayrenc
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470114193
FileSize: 530kb
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Encyclopedia of Infectious Diseases by Michel Tibayrenc Summary

Discover how the application of novel multidisciplinary, integrative approaches and technologies are dramatically changing our understanding of the pathogenesis of infectious diseases and their treatments. Each article presents the state of the science, with a strong emphasis on new and emerging medical applications. The Encyclopedia of Infectious Diseases is organized into five parts. The first part examines current threats such as AIDS, malaria, SARS, and influenza. The second part addresses the evolution of pathogens and the relationship between human genetic diversity and the spread of infectious diseases. The next two parts highlight the most promising uses of molecular identification, vector control, satellite detection, surveillance, modeling, and high-throughput technologies. The final part explores specialized topics of current concern, including bioterrorism, world market and infectious diseases, and antibiotics for public health. Each article is written by one or more leading experts in the field of infectious diseases. These experts place all the latest findings from various disciplines in context, helping readers understand what is currently known, what the next generation of breakthroughs is likely to be, and where more research is needed. Several features facilitate research and deepen readers' understanding of infectious diseases: Illustrations help readers understand the pathogenesis and diagnosis of infectious diseases Lists of Web resources serve as a gateway to important research centers, government agencies, and other sources of information from around the world Information boxes highlight basic principles and specialized terminology International contributions offer perspectives on how infectious diseases are viewed by different cultures A special chapter discusses the representation of infectious diseases in art With its multidisciplinary approach, this encyclopedia helps point researchers in new promising directions and helps health professionals better understand the nature and treatment of infectious diseases.

The Protein Protocols Handbook

The Protein Protocols Handbook Pdf/ePub eBook Author: John M. Walker
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1603272593
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The Protein Protocols Handbook by John M. Walker Summary

In The Protein Protocols Handbook, I have attempted to provide a cross-section of analytical techniques commonly used for proteins and peptides, thus providing a benehtop manual and guide both for those who are new to the protein chemistry laboratory and for those more established workers who wish to use a technique for the first time. We each, of course, have our own favorite, commonly used gel system, g- staining method, blotting method, and so on; I'm sure you will find yours here. H- ever, I have also described a variety of altematives for many of these techniques; though they may not be superior to the methods you commonly use, they may nev- theless be more appropriate in a particular situation. Only by knowing the range of techniques that are available to you, and the strengths and limitations of these te- niques, will you be able to choose the method that best suits your purpose.

The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster, and Other Rodents

The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster, and Other Rodents Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Mark A. Suckow,Karla A. Stevens,Ronald P. Wilson
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123809215
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The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster, and Other Rodents by Mark A. Suckow,Karla A. Stevens,Ronald P. Wilson Summary

The Laboratory Rabbit, Guinea Pig, Hamster, and Other Rodents is a single volume, comprehensive book sanctioned by the American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine (ACLAM), covering the rabbit, guinea pig, hamster, gerbil and other rodents often used in research. This well-illustrated reference won a 2012 PROSE Award for Best Single Volume Reference in Science from the Association of American Publishers. The book includes basic biology, anatomy, physiology, behavior, infectious and noninfectious diseases, husbandry and breeding, common experimental methods, and use of the species as a research model. With many expert contributors, this will be an extremely valuable publication for biomedical researchers, laboratory animal veterinarians and other professionals engaged in laboratory animal science. 2012 PROSE Award winner for Best Single Volume Reference in Science from the Association of American Publishers One-stop resource for advancements in the humane and responsible care of: rabbit, guinea pig, hamster, gerbil, chinchilla, deer mouse, kangaroo rat, cotton rat, sand rat, and degu Includes up-to-date, common experimental methods Organized by species for easy access during bench research