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Human Epigenetics: How Science Works

Human Epigenetics: How Science Works Pdf/ePub eBook Author:
Editor: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030229076
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Human Epigenetics: How Science Works by Summary

The view “It’s all in our genes and we cannot change it” developed in the past 150 years since Gregor Mendel’s experiments with flowering pea plants. However, there is a special form of genetics, referred to as epigenetics, which does not involve any change of our genes but regulates how and when they are used. In the cell nucleus our genes are packed into chromatin, which is a complex of histone proteins and genomic DNA, representing the molecular basis of epigenetics. Our environment and lifestyle decisions influence the epigenetics of our cells and organs, i.e. epigenetics changes dynamically throughout our whole life. Thus, we have the chance to change our epigenetics in a positive as well as negative way and present the onset of diseases, such a type 2 diabetes or cancer. This textbook provides a molecular explanation how our genome is connected with environmental signals. It outlines that epigenetic programming is a learning process that results in epigenetic memory in each of the cells of our body. The central importance of epigenetics during embryogenesis and cellular differentiation as well as in the process of aging and the risk for the development of cancer are discussed. Moreover, the role of the epigenome as a molecular storage of cellular events not only in the brain but also in metabolic organs and in the immune system is described. The book represents an updated but simplified version of our textbook “Human Epigenomics” (ISBN 978-981-10-7614-8). The first five chapters explain the molecular basis of epigenetics, while the following seven chapters provide examples for the impact of epigenetics in human health and disease.

Human Epigenomics

Human Epigenomics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Carsten Carlberg,Ferdinand Molnár
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 9811076146
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Human Epigenomics by Carsten Carlberg,Ferdinand Molnár Summary

The term epigenetics describes regulatory and information storing mechanisms of specific genes that do not involve any change of their DNA sequence. Epigenetics is closely related to the extensively folded state, in which the genome is packaged, known as chromatin. New genomic tools nowadays allow the genome-wide assessment of, for example, chromatin states and DNA modifications, and led to the discovery of unexpected new epigenetic principles, such as epigenomic memory. This was the start of the field of epigenomics, the relation of which to human health and disease is discussed in this textbook. This book aims to summarize, in a condensed form, the role of epigenomics in defining chromatin states that are representative of active genes (euchromatin) and repressed genes (heterochromatin). Moreover, this book discusses the principles of gene regulation, chromatin stability, genomic imprinting and the reversibility of DNA methylation and histone modifications. This information should enable a better understanding of cell type identities and will provide new directions for studies of, for example, cellular reprograming, the response of chromatin to environmental signals and epigenetic therapies that can improve or restore human health. In order to facilitate the latter, we favor a high figure-to-text ratio following the rule “a picture tells more than thousand words”. The content of the book is based on the lecture course “Molecular Medicine and Genetics” that is given by one of us (C. Carlberg) in different forms since 2002 at the University of Eastern Finland in Kuopio. Thematically, this book is located between our textbooks “Mechanisms of Gene Regulation” (ISBN 978-94-017-7741-4) and “Nutrigenomics” (ISBN 978-3-319-30415-1), studying of which may also be interesting to our readers. The book is sub-divided into three sections and 13 chapters. Following the Introduction (section A), section B will explain the molecular basis of epigenomics, while section C will provide examples for the impact of epigenomics in human health and disease. The lecture course is primarily designed for Master level students of biomedicine, but is also frequented by PhD students as well as by students of other bioscience disciplines. Besides its value as a textbook, Human Epigenomics will be a useful reference for individuals working in biomedicine.

Nutrigenomics: How Science Works

Nutrigenomics: How Science Works Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Carsten Carlberg,Stine Marie Ulven,Ferdinand Molnár
Editor: Springer Nature
ISBN: 303036948X
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Nutrigenomics: How Science Works by Carsten Carlberg,Stine Marie Ulven,Ferdinand Molnár Summary

The fascinating area of Nutrigenomics describes this daily communication between our diet and our genome. This book describes how nutrition shapes human evolution and demonstrates its consequences for our susceptibility to diseases, such as diabetes and atherosclerosis. Inappropriate diet can yield stress for our cells, tissues and organs and then it is often associated with low-grade chronic inflammation. Overnutrition paired with physical inactivity leads to overweight and obesity and results in increased burden for a body that originally was adapted for a life in the savannahs of East Africa. Therefore, this textbook does not discuss a theoretical topic in science, but it talks about real life and our life-long “chat” with diet. We are all food consumers, thus each of us is concerned by the topic of this book and should be aware of its mechanisms. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview on the principles of nutrigenomics and their relation to health or disease. The content of this book is based on the lecture course “Nutrigenomics”, which is held since 2003 once per year by Prof. Carlberg at the University of Eastern Finland in Kuopio. The book represents an updated but simplified version of our textbook “Nutrigenomics” (ISBN 978-3-319-30413-7). Besides its value as a textbook, “Nutrigenomics: how science works” will be a useful reference for individuals working in biomedicine

Mechanisms of Gene Regulation: How Science Works

Mechanisms of Gene Regulation: How Science Works Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Carsten Carlberg,Ferdinand Molnár
Editor: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030523217
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Mechanisms of Gene Regulation: How Science Works by Carsten Carlberg,Ferdinand Molnár Summary

This textbook aims to describe the fascinating area of eukaryotic gene regulation for graduate students in all areas of the biomedical sciences. Gene expression is essential in shaping the various phenotypes of cells and tissues and as such, regulation of gene expression is a fundamental aspect of nearly all processes in physiology, both in healthy and in diseased states. Th is pivotal role for the regulation of gene expression makes this textbook essential reading for students of all the biomedical sciences, in order to be better prepared for their specialized disciplines. A complete understanding of transcription factors and the processes that alter their activity is a major goal of modern life science research. The availability of the whole human genome sequence (and that of other eukaryotic genomes) and the consequent development of next-generation sequencing technologies have significantly changed nearly all areas of the biological sciences. For example, the genome-wide location of histone modifications and transcription factor binding sites, such as provided by the ENCODE consortium, has greatly improved our understanding of gene regulation. Therefore, the focus of this book is the description of the post-genome understanding of gene regulation.

Handbook of Epigenetics

Handbook of Epigenetics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Trygve Tollefsbol
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128054778
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Handbook of Epigenetics by Trygve Tollefsbol Summary

Handbook of Epigenetics: The New Molecular and Medical Genetics, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive analysis of epigenetics, from basic biology, to clinical application. Epigenetics is considered by many to be the new genetics in that many biological phenomena are controlled, not through gene mutations, but rather through reversible and heritable epigenetic processes. These epigenetic processes range from DNA methylation to prions. The biological processes impacted by epigenetics are vast and encompass effects in lower organisms and humans that include tissue and organ regeneration, X-chromosome inactivation, stem cell differentiation, genomic imprinting, and aging. The first edition of this important work received excellent reviews; the second edition continues its comprehensive coverage adding more current research and new topics based on customer and reader reviews, including new discoveries, approved therapeutics, and clinical trials. From molecular mechanisms and epigenetic technology, to discoveries in human disease and clinical epigenetics, the nature and applications of the science is presented for those with interests ranging from the fundamental basis of epigenetics, to therapeutic interventions for epigenetic-based disorders. Timely and comprehensive collection of fully up-to-date reviews on epigenetics that are organized into one volume and written by leading figures in the field Covers the latest advances in many different areas of epigenetics, ranging from basic aspects, to technologies, to clinical medicine Written at a verbal and technical level that can be understood by scientists and college students Updated to include new epigenetic discoveries, newly approved therapeutics, and clinical trials

Political Biology

Political Biology Pdf/ePub eBook Author: M. Meloni
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 1137377720
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Political Biology by M. Meloni Summary

This book explores the socio-political implications of human heredity from the second half of the nineteenth century to the present postgenomic moment. It addresses three main phases in the politicization of heredity: the peak of radical eugenics (1900-1945), characterized by an aggressive ethos of supporting the transformation of human society via biological knowledge; the repositioning, after 1945, of biological thinking into a liberal-democratic, human rights framework; and the present postgenomic crisis in which the genome can no longer be understood as insulated from environmental signals. In Political Biology, Maurizio Meloni argues that thanks to the ascendancy of epigenetics we may be witnessing a return to soft heredity - the idea that these signals can cause changes in biology that are themselves transferable to succeeding generations. This book will be of great interest to scholars across science and technology studies, the philosophy and history of science, and political and social theory.

Prognostic Epigenetics

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Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 012814260X
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Prognostic Epigenetics by Summary

This volume provides comprehensive information on how mapping an individual’s epigenome can be medically relevant and holds the potential to improve preventive medicine and precision therapeutics at an early-stage (prior to disease onset). In order to advance clinical adoption of the recently developed epigenetic approaches, it is necessary for translational scientists, clinicians, and students to gain a better understanding about epigenetic mechanisms that are associated with a particular disorder; and to be able to effectively identify biomarkers that can be applied in drug development and for better diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. Prognostic Epigenetics is the most-inclusive volume to-date specifically dedicated to epigenetic markers that have been developed for prognosis of diseases, recent advances in this field, the clinical implementation of this research, and the future outlook. Compiles all known information on prognostic epigenetics and its role in preventive medicine and drug discovery Covers the basic functionality of epigenetic mechanisms involved in early disease prognosis and diagnosis, and provides tools for the identification and development of these biomarkers for a wide range of diseases Enables clinicians, researchers, and pharmacologists to improve preventive medicine and precision therapeutics throughout a person’s lifetime Features chapter contributions from leading international researchers

Cancer Biology: How Science Works

Cancer Biology: How Science Works Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Carsten Carlberg,Eunike Velleuer
Editor: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030756998
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Cancer Biology: How Science Works by Carsten Carlberg,Eunike Velleuer Summary

Cancer is a collection of diseases that can affect basically every organ of our body, all of which have in common uncontrolled cellular growth. The cells forming our body have the potential to grow in the context of wound healing or for the constant replacement of cells in our blood, skin or intestine. Behind every newly diagnosed malignant tumor in adulthood there is an individual history of probably 20 or more years of tumorigenesis. Therefore, malignant tumor formation often takes time making cancer in most cases to an aging-related disease that we seem not to be able to evade. However, tumorigenesis is dependent on multiple environmental influences, many of which we have under control by lifestyle decisions, such as retaining from smoking, selecting healthy food and being physically active. Thus, cancer preventive interventions are the most effective way to fight against cancer. This textbook wants not only to describe basic mechanisms leading to cancer but also to provide the readers with a more holistic view including cancer surveaillance mechanisms of the immune system. We will place these insights in the context of the personal consequences of everyone’s lifestyle decisions. The content of the book is linked to the lecture course in “Cancer Biology”, which is given by Prof. Carlberg since 2005 at the University of Eastern Finland in Kuopio. Moreover, biological processes explained in this book will be set into a clinical context using the experience of Dr. Velleuer in the daily care in oncology. This book also relates to the textbooks “Mechanisms of Gene Regulation: How Science Works” (ISBN 978-3-030-52321-3), “Human Epigenetics: How Science Works” (ISBN 978-3-030-22907-8) and “Nutrigenomics: How Science Works” (ISBN 978-3-030-36948-4), the studying of which may be interesting to readers who like to get more detailed information.

Dog behaviour

Dog behaviour Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Ann-Sofie Sundman
Editor: Linköping University Electronic Press
ISBN: 9176850722
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Dog behaviour by Ann-Sofie Sundman Summary

Dogs, Canis familiaris, share the lives of humans all over the world. That dogs, and the behavior of dogs, are of interest to many is therefore no surprise. In this thesis, the main aim has been to identify factors that affect dogs’ behaviours. The dog, Canis familiaris, is our first domesticated animal. Since domestication, various types of dogs have developed through adaptation to an environment shared with humans and through our selective breeding, resulting in a unique variation in morphology and behaviour. Although there is an individual variation in the behaviour of dogs, there is also a difference between breeds. Moreover, selection during the last decades has split some breeds into divergent types. Labrador and golden retrievers are divided into a common type, for show and companionship, and a field type, for hunting. By comparing the breed types, we can study the effects of recent selection. In Paper I, we investigate differences in general behavioural traits between Labrador and golden retriever and between common and field type within the two breeds by using results from the standardized behaviour test Dog Mentality Assessment. There were differences between breeds and types for all behavioural traits. However, there was also an interaction between breed and type. Thus, a common/field-type Labrador does not behave like a common/field-type golden retriever. Even though they have been selected for similar traits, the selection has affected the general behavioural traits differently in the two breeds. In paper II, we were interested in dogs’ human-directed social skills. Dogs have a high social competence when it comes to humans. Two experiments commonly used to study these skills are the problem-solving test, where dogs’ human-directed behaviours when faced with a problem are measured, and the pointing test, where dogs are tested on how well they understand human gestures. We compared the social skills of German shepherds and Labrador retrievers, and of common- and field-type Labradors. Labradors were more successful in the pointing test and German shepherds stayed closer to their owners during the problem solving. Among Labrador types, the field type had more human eye contact than the common type. Importantly, when comparing the two experiments, we found no positive correlations between the problem-solving test and the pointing test, suggesting that the two tests measure different aspects of human-directed social behaviour in dogs. A previous study has identified two suggestive genetic regions for human-directed social behaviours during the problem-solving test in beagles. In paper III, we show that these SNPs are also associated to social behaviours in Labrador and golden retrievers. Moreover, the Labrador breed types differed significantly in allele frequencies. This indicates that the two SNPs have been affected by recent selection and may have a part in the differences in sociability between common and field type. The behaviour of dogs cannot simply be explained by genetics, there is also an environmental component. In paper IV, we study which factors that affect long-term stress in dogs. Long-term cortisol can be measured by hair samples. We found a clear synchronization in hair cortisol concentrations between dogs and their owners. Neither dogs’ activity levels nor their behavioural traits affected the cortisol, however, the personality of the owners did. Therefore, we suggest that dogs mirror the stress level of their owners. The mediator between genes and the environment is epigenetics, and one epigenetic factor is DNA methylation. In paper V, we compared methylation patterns of wolves and dogs as well as dog breeds. Between both wolves and dogs and among dogs there were substantial differences in methylated DNA regions, suggesting that DNA methylation is likely to contribute to the vast variation among canines. We hypothesize that epigenetic factors have been important during domestication and in breed formation. In this thesis, I cover several aspects on how dogs’ behaviours can be affected, and paint an intricate picture on how genetics, epigenetics, and human-dog relations forms dog behaviour.

Developmental Human Behavioral Epigenetics

Developmental Human Behavioral Epigenetics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Livio Provenzi,Rosario Montirosso
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128192631
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Developmental Human Behavioral Epigenetics by Livio Provenzi,Rosario Montirosso Summary

Developmental Human Behavioral Epigenetics: Principles, Methods, Evidence, and Future Directions, Volume 23, a new volume in the Translational Epigenetics series, offers the first systematic account of theoretical G79 frameworks, methodological approaches, findings, and future directions in the field of human behavioral epigenetics. Featuring contributions from leading scientists and international researchers, this book provides a comprehensive overview of human behavioral epigenetics, with a close examination of evidence gathered to-date from animal models, challenges of human-based research and clinical translation, pathways towards drug discovery, and next steps in research. Areas of focus include prenatal stress exposures, preterm behavioral epigenetics, intergenerational exposures, trauma and neglect, socio-economic conditions, maternal caregiving and attachment, study design, and epigenetics and psychotherapy. Enables more effective study design and methods application in behavioral epigenetics research across human and animal models Examines findings in human behavioral epigenetics to-date Features contributions from leading international researchers in behavioral epigenetics

Mechanisms of Gene Regulation

Mechanisms of Gene Regulation Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Carsten Carlberg,Ferdinand Molnár
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400779054
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Mechanisms of Gene Regulation by Carsten Carlberg,Ferdinand Molnár Summary

This textbook aims to describe the fascinating area of eukaryotic gene regulation for graduate students in all areas of the biomedical sciences. Gene expression is essential in shaping the various phenotypes of cells and tissues and as such, regulation of expression is a fundamental aspect of nearly all processes in physiology, both in healthy and in diseased states. This pivotal role for the regulation of gene expression makes this textbook essential reading from students of all the biomedical sciences in order to be better prepared for their specialized disciplines. A complete understanding of transcription factors and the processes that alter their activity is a major goal of modern life science research. The availability of the whole human genome sequence (and that of other eukaryotic genomes) and the consequent development of next-generation sequencing technologies have significantly changed nearly all areas of the biological sciences. For example, the genome-wide location of histone modifications and transcription factor binding sites, such as provided by the ENCODE consortium, has greatly improved our understanding of gene regulation. Therefore, the focus of this book is the description of the post-genome understanding of gene regulation. The purpose of this book is to provide, in a condensed form, an overview on the present understanding of the mechanisms of gene regulation. The authors are not aiming to compete with comprehensive treatises, but rather focus on the essentials. Therefore, the authors have favored a high figure-to-text ratio following the rule which states that “a picture tells more than thousand words”. The content of the book is based on the lecture course, which is given by Prof. Carlberg since 2001 at the University of Eastern Finland in Kuopio. The book is subdivided into 4 sections and 13 chapters. Following the Introduction there are three sections, which take a view on gene regulation from the perspective of transcription factors, chromatin and non-coding RNA, respectively. Besides its value as a textbook, Mechanisms of Gene Regulation will be a useful reference for individuals working in biomedical laboratories.

Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation

Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Suming Huang,Michael D Litt,C. Ann Blakey
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128004711
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Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation by Suming Huang,Michael D Litt,C. Ann Blakey Summary

Epigenetic Gene Expression and Regulation reviews current knowledge on the heritable molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, contribute to disease susceptibility, and point to potential treatment in future therapies. The book shows how these heritable mechanisms allow individual cells to establish stable and unique patterns of gene expression that can be passed through cell divisions without DNA mutations, thereby establishing how different heritable patterns of gene regulation control cell differentiation and organogenesis, resulting in a distinct human organism with a variety of differing cellular functions and tissues. The work begins with basic biology, encompasses methods, cellular and tissue organization, topical issues in epigenetic evolution and environmental epigenesis, and lastly clinical disease discovery and treatment. Each highly illustrated chapter is organized to briefly summarize current research, provide appropriate pedagogical guidance, pertinent methods, relevant model organisms, and clinical examples. Reviews current knowledge on the heritable molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression, contribute to disease susceptibility, and point to potential treatment in future therapies Helps readers understand how epigenetic marks are targeted, and to what extent transgenerational epigenetic changes are instilled and possibly passed onto offspring Chapters are replete with clinical examples to empower the basic biology with translational significance Offers more than 100 illustrations to distill key concepts and decipher complex science

Epigenetics: Development and Disease

Epigenetics: Development and Disease Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Tapas Kumar Kundu
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400745257
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Epigenetics: Development and Disease by Tapas Kumar Kundu Summary

Epigenetics fine-tunes the life processes dictated by DNA sequences, but also kick-starts pathophysiological processes including diabetes, AIDS and cancer. This volume tracks the latest research on epigenetics, including work on new-generation therapeutics.

The Maternal Imprint

The Maternal Imprint Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Sarah S. Richardson
Editor: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022680707X
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The Maternal Imprint by Sarah S. Richardson Summary

Leading gender and science scholar Sarah S. Richardson charts the untold history of the idea that a woman's health and behavior during pregnancy can have long-term effects on her descendants' health and welfare. The idea that a woman may leave a biological trace on her gestating offspring has long been a commonplace folk intuition and a matter of scientific intrigue, but the form of that idea has changed dramatically over time. Beginning with the advent of modern genetics at the turn of the twentieth century, biomedical scientists dismissed any notion that a mother—except in cases of extreme deprivation or injury—could alter her offspring’s traits. Consensus asserted that a child’s fate was set by a combination of its genes and post-birth upbringing. Over the last fifty years, however, this consensus was dismantled, and today, research on the intrauterine environment and its effects on the fetus is emerging as a robust program of study in medicine, public health, psychology, evolutionary biology, and genomics. Collectively, these sciences argue that a woman’s experiences, behaviors, and physiology can have life-altering effects on offspring development. Tracing a genealogy of ideas about heredity and maternal-fetal effects, this book offers a critical analysis of conceptual and ethical issues—in particular, the staggering implications for maternal well-being and reproductive autonomy—provoked by the striking rise of epigenetics and fetal origins science in postgenomic biology today.

Epigenetics of Aging and Longevity

Epigenetics of Aging and Longevity Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Alexey Moskalev,Alexander M. Vaiserman
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 012811083X
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Epigenetics of Aging and Longevity by Alexey Moskalev,Alexander M. Vaiserman Summary

Epigenetics of Aging and Longevity provides an in-depth analysis of the epigenetic nature of aging and the role of epigenetic factors in mediating the link between early-life experiences and life-course health and aging. Chapters from leading international contributors explore the effect of adverse conditions in early-life that may result in disrupted epigenetic pathways, as well as the potential to correct these disrupted pathways via targeted therapeutic interventions. Intergenerational epigenetic inheritance, epigenetic drug discovery, and the role of epigenetic mechanisms in regulating specific age-associated illnesses—including cancer and cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases—are explored in detail. This book will help researchers in genomic medicine, epigenetics, and biogerontology better understand the epigenetic determinants of aging and longevity, and ultimately aid in developing therapeutics to extend the human life-span and treat age-related disease. Offers a comprehensive overview of the epigenetic nature of aging, as well as the impact of epigenetic factors on longevity and regulating age-related disease Provides readers with clinical and epidemiological evidence for the role of epigenetic mechanisms in mediating the link between early-life experiences, life-course health and aging trajectory Applies current knowledge of epigenetic regulatory pathways towards developing therapeutic interventions for age-related diseases and extending the human lifespan

Clinical Epigenetics

Clinical Epigenetics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Luke B. Hesson,Antonia L. Pritchard
Editor: Springer Nature
ISBN: 9811389586
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Clinical Epigenetics by Luke B. Hesson,Antonia L. Pritchard Summary

In genetic pathology, epigenetic testing is rare and under utilised. In this book, we introduce epigenetics to a non-expert scientific audience and describe current and future clinical utility of epigenetic testing. By focussing on epigenetics in human disease this book will guide professionals (scientists and clinicians) to understand how epigenetics is relevant in a clinical context, and to implement epigenetic testing in diagnostic laboratories. The book begins with a historical perspective of genetics and epigenetics and describes the work of pioneers who have helped shape these fields. The various mechanisms by which epigenetics can regulate the function of the genome is described. These include DNA methylation, histone modifications, histone variants, nucleosome positioning, cis-regulatory elements, non-coding RNAs and the three-dimensional organisation of chromatin in the nucleus. These are discussed in the context of embryological development, cancer and imprinting disorders, and include examples of epigenetic changes that can be used in diagnosis, prediction of therapeutic response, prognostication or disease monitoring. Finally, for those wishing to implement epigenetic testing in a diagnostic setting, the book includes a case study that illustrates the clinical utility of epigenetic testing.

Twin and Family Studies of Epigenetics

Twin and Family Studies of Epigenetics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Shuai Li,John Hopper
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128209526
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Twin and Family Studies of Epigenetics by Shuai Li,John Hopper Summary

Twin and Family Studies of Epigenetics, Volume 29, the latest release in the Translational Epigenetics series, gathers expert opinions on epigenetic twin and family study research methods, recent findings across various disease areas, and future directions. The book provides in-depth coverage of epigenetics fundamentals, twin and family epigenetic study design, and the broader role of epigenetics in answering questions on the developmental origins of health and disease. Throughout the volume, twin and family studies are employed to examine causes of epigenetic variation, the relationship between epigenetic modifications and mental illness, cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, and more. Emerging research methods applied in twin and family studies discussed include imaging epigenetics, exposure-specific DNA methylation changes, and unravelling time trends in epigenetic effects. Offers a practical, interdisciplinary approach across epigenetics, epidemiology and various disease specialties Applies epigenetic twin and family studies to determine the relationship between epigenetics and mental illness, cancers, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity and high blood pressure, among other diseases and disorders Features chapter contributions from a wide range of international researchers in the field

Stem Cell Epigenetics

Stem Cell Epigenetics Pdf/ePub eBook Author:
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128140860
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Stem Cell Epigenetics by Summary

Stem Cell Epigenetics, Volume 16, examines how epigenetics are involved in stem cell differentiation, how a stem cell rapidly transitions into a molecularly distinct cell type, and how this process may be reversed or managed via epigenetic reprogramming. Topics discussed include chromatin in pluripotency, epigenetic regulation of reprogramming, stem cells and DNA methylation, histone modifications in stem cells and differentiation, higher-order chromatin conformation in pluripotent cells, epigenetics and disease modeling, organoids from pluripotent cells, transcriptional regulation in stem cells and differentiation, non-coding RNAs in pluripotency and early differentiation, and diseases caused by epigenetic alterations in stem cells. Additionally, the potential implementation of stem cell epigenetics in drug discovery, regenerative medicine, and disease treatment is discussed in detail, helping researchers and physicians bring this exciting and fast evolving field to the clinic. Provides genetic researchers, students and physicians with evidence indicating the epigenetic mechanisms involved in stem cell differentiation Highlights the specific characteristics of the epigenetic modifications and misregulations that may result in disease pathogenesis Examines the potential application of stem cell epigenetics towards developing therapeutic interventions for disease and advancing regenerative medicine Features chapter contributions by leading international experts

The Developing Genome

The Developing Genome Pdf/ePub eBook Author: David S. Moore
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199922357
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The Developing Genome by David S. Moore Summary

Why do we grow up to look, act, and feel as we do? Through most of the twentieth century, scientists and laypeople answered this question by referring to two factors alone: our experiences and our genes. But recent discoveries about how genes work have revealed a new way to understand the developmental origins of our characteristics. These discoveries have emerged from the new science of behavioral epigenetics--and just as the whole world has now heard of DNA, "epigenetics" will be a household word in the near future. Behavioral epigenetics is important because it explains how our experiences get under our skin and influence the activity of our genes. Because of breakthroughs in this field, we now know that the genes we're born with don't determine if we'll end up easily stressed, likely to fall ill with cancer, or possessed of a powerful intellect. Instead, what matters is what our genes do. And because research in behavioral epigenetics has shown that our experiences influence how our genes function, this work has changed how scientists think about nature, nurture, and human development. Diets, environmental toxins, parenting styles, and other environmental factors all influence genetic activity through epigenetic mechanisms; this discovery has the potential to alter how doctors treat diseases, and to change how mental health professionals treat conditions from schizophrenia to post-traumatic stress disorder. These advances could also force a reworking of the theory of evolution that dominated twentieth-century biology, and even change how we think about human nature itself. In spite of the importance of this research, behavioral epigenetics is still relatively unknown to non-biologists. The Developing Genome is an introduction to this exciting new discipline; it will allow readers without a background in biology to learn about this work and its revolutionary implications.

Epigenetics

Epigenetics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Reinhard Heil,Stefanie B. Seitz,Harald König,Jürgen Robienski
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3658144602
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Epigenetics by Reinhard Heil,Stefanie B. Seitz,Harald König,Jürgen Robienski Summary

Modern epigenetics unites scientists from life sciences, organic chemistry as well as computer and engineering sciences to find an answer to the question of how environmental influences can have a lasting effect on gene expression, maybe even into the next generations. This volume examines from an interdisciplinary perspective the ethical, legal and social aspects of epigenetics.

Neurodegenerative Diseases

Neurodegenerative Diseases Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Shamim I. Ahmad
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461406536
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Neurodegenerative Diseases by Shamim I. Ahmad Summary

The editor of this volume, having research interests in the field of ROS production and the damage to cellular systems, has identified a number of enzymes showing ·OH scavenging activities details of which are anticipated to be published in the near future as confirmatory experiments are awaited. It is hoped that the information presented in this book on NDs will stimulate both expert and novice researchers in the field with excellent overviews of the current status of research and pointers to future research goals. Clinicians, nurses as well as families and caregivers should also benefit from the material presented in handling and treating their specialised cases. Also the insights gained should be valuable for further understanding of the diseases at molecular levels and should lead to development of new biomarkers, novel diagnostic tools and more effective therapeutic drugs to treat the clinical problems raised by these devastating diseases.

Epigenetics

Epigenetics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Lyle Armstrong
Editor: Garland Science
ISBN: 1000319733
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Epigenetics by Lyle Armstrong Summary

The concept of epigenetics has been known about since the 1940s, but it is only in the last 10 years that research has shown just how wide ranging its effects are. It is now a very widely-used term, but there is still a lot of confusion surrounding what it actually is and does.Epigenetics is a new textbook that brings together the structure and mac

Evolution in Four Dimensions, revised edition

Evolution in Four Dimensions, revised edition Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Eva Jablonka,Marion J. Lamb
Editor: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262322692
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Evolution in Four Dimensions, revised edition by Eva Jablonka,Marion J. Lamb Summary

A pioneering proposal for a pluralistic extension of evolutionary theory, now updated to reflect the most recent research. This new edition of the widely read Evolution in Four Dimensions has been revised to reflect the spate of new discoveries in biology since the book was first published in 2005, offering corrections, an updated bibliography, and a substantial new chapter. Eva Jablonka and Marion Lamb's pioneering argument proposes that there is more to heredity than genes. They describe four “dimensions” in heredity—four inheritance systems that play a role in evolution: genetic, epigenetic (or non-DNA cellular transmission of traits), behavioral, and symbolic (transmission through language and other forms of symbolic communication). These systems, they argue, can all provide variations on which natural selection can act. Jablonka and Lamb present a richer, more complex view of evolution than that offered by the gene-based Modern Synthesis, arguing that induced and acquired changes also play a role. Their lucid and accessible text is accompanied by artist-physician Anna Zeligowski's lively drawings, which humorously and effectively illustrate the authors' points. Each chapter ends with a dialogue in which the authors refine their arguments against the vigorous skepticism of the fictional “I.M.” (for Ipcha Mistabra—Aramaic for “the opposite conjecture”). The extensive new chapter, presented engagingly as a dialogue with I.M., updates the information on each of the four dimensions—with special attention to the epigenetic, where there has been an explosion of new research. Praise for the first edition “With courage and verve, and in a style accessible to general readers, Jablonka and Lamb lay out some of the exciting new pathways of Darwinian evolution that have been uncovered by contemporary research.” —Evelyn Fox Keller, MIT, author of Making Sense of Life: Explaining Biological Development with Models, Metaphors, and Machines “In their beautifully written and impressively argued new book, Jablonka and Lamb show that the evidence from more than fifty years of molecular, behavioral and linguistic studies forces us to reevaluate our inherited understanding of evolution.” —Oren Harman, The New Republic “It is not only an enjoyable read, replete with ideas and facts of interest but it does the most valuable thing a book can do—it makes you think and reexamine your premises and long-held conclusions.” —Adam Wilkins, BioEssays

Environmental Epigenetics

Environmental Epigenetics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: L. Joseph Su,Tung-chin Chiang
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 1447166787
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Environmental Epigenetics by L. Joseph Su,Tung-chin Chiang Summary

This book examines the toxicological and health implications of environmental epigenetics and provides knowledge through an interdisciplinary approach. Included in this volume are chapters outlining various environmental risk factors such as phthalates and dietary components, life states such as pregnancy and ageing, hormonal and metabolic considerations and specific disease risks such as cancer cardiovascular diseases and other non-communicable diseases. Environmental Epigenetics imparts integrative knowledge of the science of epigenetics and the issues raised in environmental epidemiology. This book is intended to serve both as a reference compendium on environmental epigenetics for scientists in academia, industry and laboratories and as a textbook for graduate level environmental health courses. Environmental Epigenetics imparts integrative knowledge of the science of epigenetics and the issues raised in environmental epidemiology. This book is intended to serve both as a reference compendium on environmental epigenetics for scientists in academia, industry and laboratories and as a textbook for graduate level environmental health courses.

Lysenko’s Ghost

Lysenko’s Ghost Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Loren Graham
Editor: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674969049
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Lysenko’s Ghost by Loren Graham Summary

Lysenko became one of the most notorious figures in twentieth-century science after his genetic theories were discredited decades ago. Yet some scientists now claim that discoveries in epigenetics prove that he was right after all. Loren Graham reopens the case, to determine whether new developments in molecular biology validate Lysenko’s claims.

Epigenetics in Psychiatry

Epigenetics in Psychiatry Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jacob Peedicayil,Dennis R. Grayson,Dimitri Avramopoulos
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128235780
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Epigenetics in Psychiatry by Jacob Peedicayil,Dennis R. Grayson,Dimitri Avramopoulos Summary

Epigenetics in Psychiatry, Second Edition covers all major areas of psychiatry in which extensive epigenetic research has been performed, fully encompassing a diverse and maturing field, including drug addiction, bipolar disorder, epidemiology, cognitive disorders, and the uses of putative epigenetic-based psychotropic drugs. Uniquely, each chapter correlates epigenetics with relevant advances across genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. The book acts as a catalyst for further research in this growing area of psychiatry. This new edition has been fully revised to address recent advances in epigenetic understanding of psychiatric disorders, evoking data consortia (e.g., CommonMind, ATAC-seq), single cell analysis, and epigenome-wide association studies to empower new research. The book also examines epigenetic effects of the microbiome on psychiatric disorders, and the use of neuroimaging in studying the role of epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression. Ongoing advances in epigenetic therapy are explored in-depth. Fully revised to discuss new areas of research across neuronal stem cells, cognitive disorders, and transgenerational epigenetics in psychiatric disease Relates broad advances in psychiatric epigenetics to a modern understanding of the genome, transcriptome, and proteins Catalyzes knowledge discovery in both basic epigenetic biology and epigenetic targets for drug discovery Provides guidance in research methods and protocols, as well how to employ data from consortia, single cell analysis, and epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) Features chapter contributions from international leaders in the field

DNA Methylation and Complex Human Disease

DNA Methylation and Complex Human Disease Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Michel Neidhart
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0127999205
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DNA Methylation and Complex Human Disease by Michel Neidhart Summary

DNA Methylation and Complex Human Disease reviews the possibilities of methyl-group-based epigenetic biomarkers of major diseases, tailored epigenetic therapies, and the future uses of high-throughput methylome technologies. This volume includes many pertinent advances in disease-bearing research, including obesity, type II diabetes, schizophrenia, and autoimmunity. DNA methylation is also discussed as a plasma and serum test for non-invasive screening, diagnostic and prognostic tests, as compared to biopsy-driven gene expression analysis, factors which have led to the use of DNA methylation as a potential tool for determining cancer risk, and diagnosis between benign and malignant disease. Therapies are at the heart of this volume and the possibilities of DNA demethylation. In cancer, unlike genetic mutations, DNA methylation and histone modifications are reversible and thus have shown great potential in the race for effective treatments. In addition, the authors present the importance of high-throughput methylome analysis, not only in cancer, but also in non-neoplastic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Discusses breaking biomarker research in major disease families of current health concern and research interest, including obesity, type II diabetes, schizophrenia, and autoimmunity Summarizes advances not only relevant to cancer, but also in non-neoplastic disease, currently an emerging field Describes wholly new concepts, including the linking of metabolic pathways with epigenetics Provides translational researchers with the knowledge of both basic research and clinic applications of DNA methylation in human diseases

The Human Spark

The Human Spark Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jerome Kagan
Editor: Basic Books
ISBN: 0465037739
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The Human Spark by Jerome Kagan Summary

As infants we are rife with potential. For a short time, we have before us a seemingly infinite number of developmental paths. Soon, however, we become limited to certain paths as we grow into unique products of our genetics and experience. But what factors account for the variation -- in skills, personalities, values -- that results? How do experiences shape what we bring into the world? In The Human Spark, pioneering psychologist Jerome Kagan offers an unflinching examination of personal, moral, and cultural development that solidifies his place as one of the most influential psychologists of the past century. In this definitive analysis of the factors that shape the human mind, Kagan explores the tension between biology and the environment. He reviews major advances in the science of development over the past three decades and offers pointed critiques and new syntheses. In so doing, Kagan calls out the shortcomings of the modern fad for neuroscience, shows why theories of so-called attachment parenting are based on a misinterpretation of research, and questions the field's reflexive tendency to pathologize the behavior of the young. Most importantly, he reminds us that a life, however influenced by biology and upbringing, is still a tapestry to be woven, not an outcome to be endured. A profound exploration of what is universal and what is individual in human development, The Human Spark is the result of a scientist's lifelong quest to discover how we become who we are. Whether the reader is a first-time parent wondering what influence she, her genes, and the wider world will have on her child; an educator seeking insight into the development of her students; or simply a curious soul seeking self-knowledge, Kagan makes an expert and companionable guide.

Epigenetic Epidemiology

Epigenetic Epidemiology Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Karin B. Michels
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400724950
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Epigenetic Epidemiology by Karin B. Michels Summary

The exploding field of epigenetics is challenging the dogma of traditional Mendelian inheritance. Epigenetics plays an important role in shaping who we are and contributes to our prospects of health and disease. While early epigenetic research focused on plant and animal models and in vitro experiments, population-based epidemiologic studies increasingly incorporate epigenetic components. The relevance of epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, genomic imprinting, and histone modification for disease causation has yet to be fully explored. This book covers the basic concepts of epigenetic epidemiology, discusses challenges in study design, analysis, and interpretation, epigenetic laboratory techniques, the influence of of age and environmental factors on shaping the epigenome, the role of epigenetics in the developmental origins hypothesis, and provides the state of the art on the epigenetic epidemiology of various health conditions including childhood syndromes, cancer, infectious diseases, inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders, psychiatric disorders, diabetes, obesity and metabolic disorders, and atherosclerosis. With contributions from: Peter Jones, Jean-Pierre Issa, Gavin Kelsey, Robert Waterland, and many other experts in epigenetics!

Epigenetics and Dermatology

Epigenetics and Dermatology Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Qianjin Lu,Christopher C. Chang,Bruce C. Richardson
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128012722
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Epigenetics and Dermatology by Qianjin Lu,Christopher C. Chang,Bruce C. Richardson Summary

Epigenetics and Dermatology explores the role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of autoimmune-related skin diseases and skin cancer. Leading contributors cover common and uncommon skin conditions in which extensive epigenetic research has been done. They explain how environmental exposures (chemicals, drugs, sunlight, diet, stress, smoking, infection, etc.) in all stages of life (from a fetus in-utero to an elderly person) may result in epigenetic changes that lead to development of some skin diseases in life. They also discuss the possibilities of new and emergent epigenetic treatments which are gradually being adopted in management of various skin diseases. Chapters follow a conventional structure, covering fundamental biology of the disease condition, etiology and pathogenesis, diagnosis, commonly available treatments, and epigenetic therapy where applicable. Discusses the basic biology of skin diseases and skin cancers induced or aggravated by aberrant epigenetic changes Evaluates how to approach autoimmune-related skin diseases from a therapeutic perspective using the wealth of emergent epigenetic clinical trials Offers a coherent and structured table of contents with basic epigenetic biology followed by discussion of the spectrum of rheumatologic through neoplastic skin diseases, finally ending with a discourse on epigenetic therapy

Personalized Epigenetics

Personalized Epigenetics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Trygve Tollefsbol
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128004363
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Personalized Epigenetics by Trygve Tollefsbol Summary

Personalized Epigenetics discusses the core translatability of epigenetics to health management of individuals who have unique variations in their epigenetic signatures that can guide both disorder and disease prevention and therapy. The book details inter-individual variability in the major epigenetic process in humans consisting of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA, and the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic potential of the field, it also reviews the impact of the environment on epigenetic variations among individuals and the role of pharmacology and drug development in personalized epigenetics. Most importantly, the text covers personalized epigenetics from a disease-oriented perspective, presenting chapters that provide advances in widespread disorders or diseases, including diabetes, cancer, autoimmune disorders, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and pain management. Discusses the core translatability of epigenetics to health management of individuals who have unique variations in their epigenetic signatures Details inter-individual variability in the major epigenetic process in humans consisting of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA, and the consequent diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic potential of the field Reviews the impact of the environment on epigenetic variations among individuals and the roles of pharmacology and drug development Devotes several chapters to the advances made in widespread disorders or diseases, including diabetes, cancer, autoimmune disorders, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and pain management

Epigenetics Methods

Epigenetics Methods Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Trygve Tollefsbol
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128194154
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Epigenetics Methods by Trygve Tollefsbol Summary

In recent years, the field of epigenetics has grown significantly, driving new understanding of human developmental processes and disease expression, as well as advances in diagnostics and therapeutics. As the field of epigenetics continues to grow, methods and technologies have multiplied, resulting in a wide range of approaches and tools researchers might employ. Epigenetics Methods offers comprehensive instruction in methods, protocols, and experimental approaches applied in field of epigenetics. Here, across thirty-five chapters, specialists offer step-by-step overviews of methods used to study various epigenetic mechanisms, as employed in basic and translational research. Leading the reader from fundamental to more advanced methods, the book begins with thorough instruction in DNA methylation techniques and gene or locus-specific methylation analyses, followed by histone modification methods, chromatin evaluation, enzyme analyses of histone methylation, and studies of non-coding RNAs as epigenetic modulators. Recently developed techniques and technologies discussed include single-cell epigenomics, epigenetic editing, computational epigenetics, systems biology epigenetic methods, and forensic epigenetic approaches. Epigenetics methods currently in-development, and their implication for future research, are also considered in-depth. In addition, as with the wider life sciences, reproducibility across experiments, labs, and subdisciplines is a growing issue for epigenetics researchers. This volume provides consensus-driven methods instruction and overviews. Tollefsbol and contributing authors survey the range of existing methods; identify best practices, common themes, and challenges; and bring unity of approach to a diverse and ever-evolving field. Includes contributions by leading international investigators involved in epigenetic research and clinical and therapeutic application Integrates technology and translation with fundamental chapters on epigenetics methods, as well as chapters on more novel and advanced epigenetics methods Written at verbal and technical levels that can be understood by scientists and students alike Includes chapters on state-of-the-art techniques such as single-cell epigenomics, use of CRISPR/Cas9 for epigenetic editing, and epigenetics methods applied to forensics

Innate

Innate Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Kevin J. Mitchell
Editor: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691184992
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Innate by Kevin J. Mitchell Summary

A leading neuroscientist explains why your personal traits are more innate than you think What makes you the way you are—and what makes each of us different from everyone else? In Innate, leading neuroscientist and popular science blogger Kevin Mitchell traces human diversity and individual differences to their deepest level: in the wiring of our brains. Deftly guiding us through important new research, including his own groundbreaking work, he explains how variations in the way our brains develop before birth strongly influence our psychology and behavior throughout our lives, shaping our personality, intelligence, sexuality, and even the way we perceive the world. We all share a genetic program for making a human brain, and the program for making a brain like yours is specifically encoded in your DNA. But, as Mitchell explains, the way that program plays out is affected by random processes of development that manifest uniquely in each person, even identical twins. The key insight of Innate is that the combination of these developmental and genetic variations creates innate differences in how our brains are wired—differences that impact all aspects of our psychology—and this insight promises to transform the way we see the interplay of nature and nurture. Innate also explores the genetic and neural underpinnings of disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and epilepsy, and how our understanding of these conditions is being revolutionized. In addition, the book examines the social and ethical implications of these ideas and of new technologies that may soon offer the means to predict or manipulate human traits. Compelling and original, Innate will change the way you think about why and how we are who we are.

Stress: Genetics, Epigenetics and Genomics

Stress: Genetics, Epigenetics and Genomics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: George Fink
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128131578
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Stress: Genetics, Epigenetics and Genomics by George Fink Summary

This fourth volume in the Handbook of Stress series, Stress: Genetics, Epigenetics and Genomics, deals with the influence that genetics, epigenetics, and genomics have on the effects of and responses to stress. Chapters refer to epigenetic mechanisms that involve DNA methylation, histone modification, and/or noncoding RNA-associated gene activation or silencing. There is also coverage of epigenetic mechanisms in stress-related transgenerational transmission of characteristics, and how these may help explain heritability in some complex human diseases. The Handbook of Stress series, comprised of self-contained volumes that each focus on a specific stress area, covers the significant advances made since the publication of Elsevier’s Encyclopedia of Stress (2000 and 2007). Volume 4 is ideal for graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, faculty and clinicians interested in stress genetics, epigenetics and genomics involved in neuroendocrinology, neuroscience, biomedicine, endocrinology, psychology, psychiatry and the social sciences. Articles carefully selected by eminent stress researchers and prepared by contributors representing outstanding scholarship in the field, with each chapter fully vetted for reliable expert knowledge Richly illustrated with explanatory figures and tables Each chapter includes a boxed “Key points call out section Affordably priced, self-contained volume for readers specifically interested in stress genetics and epigenetics, removing the need to purchase the whole Handbook series

Physics of Biological Membranes

Physics of Biological Membranes Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Patricia Bassereau,Pierre Sens
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3030006301
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Physics of Biological Membranes by Patricia Bassereau,Pierre Sens Summary

This book mainly focuses on key aspects of biomembranes that have emerged over the past 15 years. It covers static and dynamic descriptions, as well as modeling for membrane organization and shape at the local and global (at the cell level) scale. It also discusses several new developments in non-equilibrium aspects that have not yet been covered elsewhere. Biological membranes are the seat of interactions between cells and the rest of the world, and internally, they are at the core of complex dynamic reorganizations and chemical reactions. Despite the long tradition of membrane research in biophysics, the physics of cell membranes as well as of biomimetic or synthetic membranes is a rapidly developing field. Though successful books have already been published on this topic over the past decades, none include the most recent advances. Additionally, in this domain, the traditional distinction between biological and physical approaches tends to blur. This book gathers the most recent advances in this area, and will benefit biologists and physicists alike.

Genome

Genome Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Matt Ridley
Editor: Harper Collins
ISBN: 0062253468
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Genome by Matt Ridley Summary

“Ridley leaps from chromosome to chromosome in a handy summation of our ever increasing understanding of the roles that genes play in disease, behavior, sexual differences, and even intelligence. . . . . He addresses not only the ethical quandaries faced by contemporary scientists but the reductionist danger in equating inheritability with inevitability.” — The New Yorker The genome's been mapped. But what does it mean? Matt Ridley’s Genome is the book that explains it all: what it is, how it works, and what it portends for the future Arguably the most significant scientific discovery of the new century, the mapping of the twenty-three pairs of chromosomes that make up the human genome raises almost as many questions as it answers. Questions that will profoundly impact the way we think about disease, about longevity, and about free will. Questions that will affect the rest of your life. Genome offers extraordinary insight into the ramifications of this incredible breakthrough. By picking one newly discovered gene from each pair of chromosomes and telling its story, Matt Ridley recounts the history of our species and its ancestors from the dawn of life to the brink of future medicine. From Huntington's disease to cancer, from the applications of gene therapy to the horrors of eugenics, Ridley probes the scientific, philosophical, and moral issues arising as a result of the mapping of the genome. It will help you understand what this scientific milestone means for you, for your children, and for humankind.

Impressionable Biologies

Impressionable Biologies Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Maurizio Meloni
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 135168938X
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Impressionable Biologies by Maurizio Meloni Summary

During the twentieth century, genes were considered the controlling force of life processes, and the transfer of DNA the definitive explanation for biological heredity. Such views shaped the politics of human heredity: in the eugenic era, controlling heredity meant intervening in the distribution of "good" and "bad" genes. However, since the turn of the twenty-first century, this centrality of genes has been challenged by a number of "postgenomic" disciplines. The rise of epigenetics in particular signals a shift from notions of biological fixedness to ideas of plasticity and "impressionability" of biological material. This book investigates a long history of the beliefs about the plasticity of human biology, starting with ancient medicine, and analyses the biopolitical techniques required to govern such permeability. It looks at the emergence of the modern body of biomedicine as a necessary displacement or possibly reconfiguration of earlier plastic views. Finally, it analyses the returning of plasticity to contemporary postgenomic views and argues that postgenomic plasticity is neither a modernistic plasticity of instrumental management of the body nor a postmodernist celebration of potentialities. It is instead a plasticity that disrupts clear boundaries between openness and determination, individual and community, with important implications for notions of risk, responsibility and intervention.

The WEIRDest People in the World

The WEIRDest People in the World Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Joseph Henrich
Editor: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
ISBN: 0374710457
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The WEIRDest People in the World by Joseph Henrich Summary

A New York Times Notable Book of 2020 A Bloomberg Best Non-Fiction Book of 2020 A Behavioral Scientist Notable Book of 2020 A Human Behavior & Evolution Society Must-Read Popular Evolution Book of 2020 A bold, epic account of how the co-evolution of psychology and culture created the peculiar Western mind that has profoundly shaped the modern world. Perhaps you are WEIRD: raised in a society that is Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic. If so, you’re rather psychologically peculiar. Unlike much of the world today, and most people who have ever lived, WEIRD people are highly individualistic, self-obsessed, control-oriented, nonconformist, and analytical. They focus on themselves—their attributes, accomplishments, and aspirations—over their relationships and social roles. How did WEIRD populations become so psychologically distinct? What role did these psychological differences play in the industrial revolution and the global expansion of Europe during the last few centuries? In The WEIRDest People in the World, Joseph Henrich draws on cutting-edge research in anthropology, psychology, economics, and evolutionary biology to explore these questions and more. He illuminates the origins and evolution of family structures, marriage, and religion, and the profound impact these cultural transformations had on human psychology. Mapping these shifts through ancient history and late antiquity, Henrich reveals that the most fundamental institutions of kinship and marriage changed dramatically under pressure from the Roman Catholic Church. It was these changes that gave rise to the WEIRD psychology that would coevolve with impersonal markets, occupational specialization, and free competition—laying the foundation for the modern world. Provocative and engaging in both its broad scope and its surprising details, The WEIRDest People in the World explores how culture, institutions, and psychology shape one another, and explains what this means for both our most personal sense of who we are as individuals and also the large-scale social, political, and economic forces that drive human history. Includes black-and-white illustrations.

Introduction to Epigenetics

Introduction to Epigenetics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Renato Paro,Ueli Grossniklaus,Raffaella Santoro,Anton Wutz
Editor: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030686701
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Introduction to Epigenetics by Renato Paro,Ueli Grossniklaus,Raffaella Santoro,Anton Wutz Summary

This open access textbook leads the reader from basic concepts of chromatin structure and function and RNA mechanisms to the understanding of epigenetics, imprinting, regeneration and reprogramming. The textbook treats epigenetic phenomena in animals, as well as plants. Written by four internationally known experts and senior lecturers in this field, it provides a valuable tool for Master- and PhD- students who need to comprehend the principles of epigenetics, or wish to gain a deeper knowledge in this field. After reading this book, the student will: Have an understanding of the basic toolbox of epigenetic regulation Know how genetic and epigenetic information layers are interconnected Be able to explain complex epigenetic phenomena by understanding the structures and principles of the underlying molecular mechanisms Understand how misregulated epigenetic mechanisms can lead to disease

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