Download Multiscale Operational Organic Chemistry Pdf

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Deep Oil Spills

Deep Oil Spills Pdf/ePub eBook Author:
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3030116050
FileSize: 1694kb
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Deep Oil Spills by Summary

The demand for oil and gas has brought exploration and production to unprecedented depths of the world’s oceans. Currently, over 50% of the oil from the Gulf of Mexico now comes from waters in excess of 1,500 meters (one mile) deep, where no oil was produced just 20 years ago. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill blowout did much to change the perception of oil spills as coming just from tanker accidents, train derailments, and pipeline ruptures. In fact, beginning with the Ixtoc 1 spill off Campeche, Mexico in 1979-1980, there have been a series of large spill events originating at the sea bottom and creating a myriad of new environmental and well control challenges. This volume explores the physics, chemistry, sub-surface oil deposition and environmental impacts of deep oil spills. Key lessons learned from the responses to previous deep spills, as well as unresolved scientific questions for additional research are highlighted, all of which are appropriate for governmental regulators, politicians, industry decision-makers, first responders, researchers and students wanting an incisive overview of issues surrounding deep-water oil and gas production.

The Routledge Handbook of Research Methods for Social-Ecological Systems

The Routledge Handbook of Research Methods for Social-Ecological Systems Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Reinette Biggs,Alta de Vos,Rika Preiser,Hayley Clements,Kristine Maciejewski,Maja Schlüter
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1000401510
FileSize: 1690kb
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The Routledge Handbook of Research Methods for Social-Ecological Systems by Reinette Biggs,Alta de Vos,Rika Preiser,Hayley Clements,Kristine Maciejewski,Maja Schlüter Summary

The Routledge Handbook of Research Methods for Social-Ecological Systems provides a synthetic guide to the range of methods that can be employed in social-ecological systems (SES) research. The book is primarily targeted at graduate students, lecturers and researchers working on SES, and has been written in a style that is accessible to readers entering the field from a variety of different disciplinary backgrounds. Each chapter discusses the types of SES questions to which the particular methods are suited and the potential resources and skills required for their implementation, and provides practical examples of the application of the methods. In addition, the book contains a conceptual and practical introduction to SES research, a discussion of key gaps and frontiers in SES research methods, and a glossary of key terms in SES research. Contributions from 97 different authors, situated at SES research hubs in 16 countries around the world, including South Africa, Sweden, Germany and Australia, bring a wealth of expertise and experience to this book. The first book to provide a guide and introduction specifically focused on methods for studying SES, this book will be of great interest to students and scholars of sustainability science, environmental management, global environmental change studies and environmental governance. The book will also be of interest to upper-level undergraduates and professionals working at the science–policy interface in the environmental arena.

Comprehensive Organic Chemistry Experiments for the Laboratory Classroom

Comprehensive Organic Chemistry Experiments for the Laboratory Classroom Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Carlos A M Afonso,Nuno R Candeias,Dulce Pereira Simão,Alexandre F Trindade,Jaime A S Coelho,Bin Tan,Robert Franzén
Editor: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 183916297X
FileSize: 851kb
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Comprehensive Organic Chemistry Experiments for the Laboratory Classroom by Carlos A M Afonso,Nuno R Candeias,Dulce Pereira Simão,Alexandre F Trindade,Jaime A S Coelho,Bin Tan,Robert Franzén Summary

This expansive and practical textbook contains organic chemistry experiments for teaching in the laboratory at the undergraduate level covering a range of functional group transformations and key organic reactions.The editorial team have collected contributions from around the world and standardized them for publication. Each experiment will explore a modern chemistry scenario, such as: sustainable chemistry; application in the pharmaceutical industry; catalysis and material sciences, to name a few. All the experiments will be complemented with a set of questions to challenge the students and a section for the instructors, concerning the results obtained and advice on getting the best outcome from the experiment. A section covering practical aspects with tips and advice for the instructors, together with the results obtained in the laboratory by students, has been compiled for each experiment. Targeted at professors and lecturers in chemistry, this useful text will provide up to date experiments putting the science into context for the students.

Fundamentals

Fundamentals Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Ferenc Darvas,Volker Hessel,György Dorman
Editor: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110388758
FileSize: 421kb
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Fundamentals by Ferenc Darvas,Volker Hessel,György Dorman Summary

"Flow Chemistry fills the gap in graduate education by covering chemistry and reaction principles along with current practice, including examples of relevant commercial reaction, separation, automation, and analytical equipment. The Editors of Flow Chemistry are commended for having taken the initiative to bring together experts from the field to provide a comprehensive treatment of fundamental and practical considerations underlying flow chemistry. It promises to become a useful study text and as well as reference for the graduate students and practitioners of flow chemistry." Professor Klavs Jensen Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA Broader theoretical insight in driving a chemical reaction automatically opens the window towards new technologies particularly to flow chemistry. This emerging concept promotes the transformation of present day's organic processes into a more rapid continuous set of synthesis operations, more compatible with the envisioned sustainable world. These two volumes Fundamentals and Applications provide both the theoretical foundation as well as the practical aspects.

Organic Flexible Electronics

Organic Flexible Electronics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Piero Cosseddu,Mario Caironi
Editor: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 012818891X
FileSize: 643kb
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Organic Flexible Electronics by Piero Cosseddu,Mario Caironi Summary

Organic Electronics is a novel field of electronics that has gained an incredible attention over the past few decades. New materials, device architectures and applications have been continuously introduced by the academic and also industrial communities, and novel topics have raised strong interest in such communities, as molecular doping, thermoelectrics, bioelectronics and many others. Organic Flexible Electronics is mainly divided into three sections. The first part is focused on the fundamentals of organic electronics, such as charge transport models in these systems and new approaches for the design and synthesis of novel molecules. The first section addresses the main challenges that are still open in this field, including the important role of interfaces for achieving high-performing devices or the novel approaches employed for improving reliability issues. The second part discusses the most innovative devices which have been developed in recent years, such as devices for energy harvesting, flexible batteries, high frequency circuits, and flexible devices for tattoo electronics and bioelectronics. Finally the book reviews the most important applications moving from more standard flexible back panels to wearable and textile electronics and more futuristic applications like ingestible systems. Reviews the fundamental properties and methods for optimizing organic electronic materials including chemical doping and techniques to address stability issues; Discusses the most promising organic electronic devices for energy, electronics, and biomedical applications; Addresses key applications of organic electronic devices in imagers, wearable electronics, bioelectronics.

Chromic Phenomena

Chromic Phenomena Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Peter Bamfield,Michael Hutchings
Editor: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1788015037
FileSize: 1938kb
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Chromic Phenomena by Peter Bamfield,Michael Hutchings Summary

Chromic or colour related phenomena are produced in response to a chemical or physical stimulus. This new edition will update the information on all those areas where chemicals or materials interact with light to produce colour, a colour change, or luminescence especially in the imaging, analysis, lighting and display areas. The book has been restructured to show greater emphasis on applications where 'coloured' compounds are used to transfer energy or manipulate light in some way therefore reducing the details on classical dyes and pigments. In the past eight years, since the previous edition, there has been a remarkable increase in the number of papers and reviews being produced reflecting the growth of interest in this area. This ongoing research interest is matched by a large number of new technological applications gaining commercial value covering e.g. biomedical areas, energy, data storage, physical colour, bio-inspired materials and photonics. This book appeals to industrial chemists, professionals, postgraduates and as high level recommended reading for colour technology courses.

A Guinea Pig's History Of Biology

A Guinea Pig's History Of Biology Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jim Endersby
Editor: Random House
ISBN: 1448106850
FileSize: 1959kb
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A Guinea Pig's History Of Biology by Jim Endersby Summary

The triumphs of recent biology - understanding hereditary disease, the modern theory of evolution - are all thanks to the fruit fly, the guinea pig, the zebra fish and a handful of other organisms, which have helped us unravel one of life's greatest mysteries - inheritance. Jim Endersby traces his story from Darwin hand-pollinating passion flowers in his back garden in an effort to find out whether his decision to marry his cousin had harmed their children, to today's high-tech laboratories, full of shoals of shimmering zebra fish, whose bodies are transparent until they are mature, allowing scientists to watch every step as a single fertilised cell multiples to become millions of specialised cells that make up a new fish. Each story has - piece by piece - revealed how DNA determines the characteristics of the adult organism. Not every organism was as cooperative as the fruit fly or zebra fish, some provided scientists with misleading answers or encouraged them to ask the wrong questions.

The GEO Handbook on Biodiversity Observation Networks

The GEO Handbook on Biodiversity Observation Networks Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Michele Walters,Robert J. Scholes
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3319272888
FileSize: 1183kb
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The GEO Handbook on Biodiversity Observation Networks by Michele Walters,Robert J. Scholes Summary

Biodiversity observation systems are almost everywhere inadequate to meet local, national and international (treaty) obligations. As a result of alarmingly rapid declines in biodiversity in the modern era, there is a strong, worldwide desire to upgrade our monitoring systems, but little clarity on what is actually needed and how it can be assembled from the elements which are already present. This book intends to provide practical guidance to broadly-defined biodiversity observation networks at all scales, but predominantly the national scale and higher. This is a practical how-to book with substantial policy relevance. It will mostly be used by technical specialists with a responsibility for biodiversity monitoring to establish and refine their systems. It is written at a technical level, but one that is not discipline-bound: it should be intelligible to anyone in the broad field with a tertiary education.

Reductionism, Emergence and Levels of Reality

Reductionism, Emergence and Levels of Reality Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Sergio Chibbaro,Lamberto Rondoni,Angelo Vulpiani
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3319063618
FileSize: 581kb
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Reductionism, Emergence and Levels of Reality by Sergio Chibbaro,Lamberto Rondoni,Angelo Vulpiani Summary

Scientists have always attempted to explain the world in terms of a few unifying principles. In the fifth century B.C. Democritus boldly claimed that reality is simply a collection of indivisible and eternal parts or atoms. Over the centuries his doctrine has remained a landmark, and much progress in physics is due to its distinction between subjective perception and objective reality. This book discusses theory reduction in physics, which states that the whole is nothing more than the sum of its parts: the properties of things are directly determined by their constituent parts. Reductionism deals with the relation between different theories that address different levels of reality, and uses extrapolations to apply that relation in different sciences. Reality shows a complex structure of connections, and the dream of a unified interpretation of all phenomena in several simple laws continues to attract anyone with genuine philosophical and scientific interests. If the most radical reductionist point of view is correct, the relationship between disciplines is strictly inclusive: chemistry becomes physics, biology becomes chemistry, and so on. Eventually, only one science, indeed just a single theory, would survive, with all others merging in the Theory of Everything. Is the current coexistence of different sciences a mere historical venture which will end when the Theory of Everything has been established? Can there be a unified description of nature? Rather than an analysis of full reductionism, this book focuses on aspects of theory reduction in physics and stimulates reflection on related questions: is there any evidence of actual reduction? Are the examples used in the philosophy of science too simplistic? What has been endangered by the search for (the) ultimate truth? Has the dream of reductionist reason created any monsters? Is big science one such monster? What is the point of embedding science Y within science X, if predictions cannot be made on that basis?

Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Process Systems Engineering

Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Process Systems Engineering Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jingzheng Ren,Weifeng Shen,Yi Man,Lichun DOng
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 012821743X
FileSize: 387kb
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Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Process Systems Engineering by Jingzheng Ren,Weifeng Shen,Yi Man,Lichun DOng Summary

Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Process Systems Engineering offers a broad perspective on the issues related to artificial intelligence technologies and their applications in chemical and process engineering. The book comprehensively introduces the methodology and applications of AI technologies in process systems engineering, making it an indispensable reference for researchers and students. As chemical processes and systems are usually non-linear and complex, thus making it challenging to apply AI methods and technologies, this book is an ideal resource on emerging areas such as cloud computing, big data, the industrial Internet of Things and deep learning. With process systems engineering's potential to become one of the driving forces for the development of AI technologies, this book covers all the right bases. Explains the concept of machine learning, deep learning and state-of-the-art intelligent algorithms Discusses AI-based applications in process modeling and simulation, process integration and optimization, process control, and fault detection and diagnosis Gives direction to future development trends of AI technologies in chemical and process engineering

Computer Aided Molecular Design

Computer Aided Molecular Design Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Luke Achenie,Venkat Venkatasubramanian,Rafiqul Gani
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080529431
FileSize: 1019kb
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Computer Aided Molecular Design by Luke Achenie,Venkat Venkatasubramanian,Rafiqul Gani Summary

CAMD or Computer Aided Molecular Design refers to the design of molecules with desirable properties. That is, through CAMD, one determines molecules that match a specified set of (target) properties. CAMD as a technique has a very large potential as in principle, all kinds of chemical, bio-chemical and material products can be designed through this technique. This book mainly deals with macroscopic properties and therefore does not cover molecular design of large, complex chemicals such as drugs. While books have been written on computer aided molecular design relating to drugs and large complex chemicals, a book on systematic formulation of CAMD problems and solutions, with emphasis on theory and practice, which helps one to learn, understand and apply the technique is currently unavailable. · This title brings together the theoretical aspects related to Computer Aided Molecular Design, the different techniques that have been developed and the different applications that have been reported. · Contributing authors are among the leading researchers and users of CAMD · First book available giving a systematic formulation of CAMD problems and solutions

Nature-Based Solutions to Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Areas

Nature-Based Solutions to Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Areas Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Nadja Kabisch,Horst Korn,Jutta Stadler,Aletta Bonn
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3319560913
FileSize: 591kb
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Nature-Based Solutions to Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Areas by Nadja Kabisch,Horst Korn,Jutta Stadler,Aletta Bonn Summary

This open access book brings together research findings and experiences from science, policy and practice to highlight and debate the importance of nature-based solutions to climate change adaptation in urban areas. Emphasis is given to the potential of nature-based approaches to create multiple-benefits for society. The expert contributions present recommendations for creating synergies between ongoing policy processes, scientific programmes and practical implementation of climate change and nature conservation measures in global urban areas. Except where otherwise noted, this book is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Chemical Reaction Engineering

Chemical Reaction Engineering Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Octave Levenspiel
Editor: Wiley Global Education
ISBN: 1119666864
FileSize: 1588kb
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Chemical Reaction Engineering by Octave Levenspiel Summary

Chemical reaction engineering is concerned with the exploitation of chemical reactions on a commercial scale. It's goal is the successful design and operation of chemical reactors. This text emphasizes qualitative arguments, simple design methods, graphical procedures, and frequent comparison of capabilities of the major reactor types. Simple ideas are treated first, and are then extended to the more complex.