From Windfall To Curse

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From Windfall to Curse?

From Windfall to Curse? Pdf/ePub eBook Author:
Editor: Penn State Press
ISBN: 0271076909
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From Windfall to Curse? by Summary

Since the discovery of abundant oil resources in the 1920s, Venezuela has had an economically privileged position among the nations of Latin America, which has led to its being treated by economic and political analysts as an exceptional case. In her well-known study of Venezuela’s political economy, The Paradox of Plenty (1997), Stanford political scientist Terry Karl argued that this oil wealth induced extraordinary corruption, rent-seeking, and centralized intervention that resulted in restricting productivity and growth. What this and other studies of Venezuela’s economy fail to explain, however, is how such conditions have accompanied both growth and stagnation at different periods of Venezuela’s history and why countries experiencing similar levels of corruption and rent-seeking produce divergent developmental outcomes. By investigating the record of economic development in Venezuela from 1920 to the present, Jonathan Di John shows that the key to explaining why the economy performed much better between 1920 and 1980 than in the post-1980 period is to understand how political strategies interacted with economic strategies—specifically, how politics determined state capacity at any given time and how the stage of development and development strategies affected the nature of political conflicts. In emphasizing the importance of an approach that looks at the political economy, not just at the economy alone, Di John advances the field methodologically while he contributes to a long-needed history of Venezuela’s economic performance in the twentieth century.

Oil to Cash

Oil to Cash Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Todd Moss,Caroline Lambert,Stephanie Majerowicz
Editor: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 1933286873
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Oil to Cash by Todd Moss,Caroline Lambert,Stephanie Majerowicz Summary

What should a country do if it suddenly discovers oil and gas? How should it spend the subsequent cash windfall? How can it protect against corruption? How can citizens truly benefit from national wealth? With many of the world's poorest and most fragile states suddenly joining the ranks of oil and gas producers, these are pressing policy questions. Oil to Cash explores one option that may help avoid the so-called resource curse: just give the money directly to citizens. A universal, transparent, and regular cash transfer would not only provide a concrete benefit to regular people, but would also create powerful incentives for citizens to hold their government accountable. Oil to Cash details how and where this idea could work and how policymakers can learn from the experiences with cash transfers in places like Mexico, Mongolia, and Alaska.

Back to Basics

Back to Basics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Martha Finnemore,Judith Goldstein
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199339716
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Back to Basics by Martha Finnemore,Judith Goldstein Summary

No scholar better exemplifies the intellectual challenges foisted on the Neorealist school of international relations than prominent scholar Stephen Krasner (Graham H. Stuart Professor of International Studies, the Senior Associate Dean for the Social Sciences, School of Humanities & Sciences, and Director of Policy Planning at the US State Department 2005-2007). Throughout his career he has wrestled with realism's promises and limitations. Krasner has always been a prominent defender of realism and the importance of power understood in material terms, whether military or economic. Yet realist frameworks rarely provided a complete explanation for outcomes, in Krasner's analyses, and much of his work involved understanding power's role in situations not well explained by realism. If states seek power, why do we see cooperation? If hegemony promotes cooperation why does cooperation continue in the face of America's decline? Do states actually pursue their national interests or do domestic structures and values derail the rational pursuit of material objectives? Krasner's explanations were as diverse as were the problems. They pushed, to use his phrase, "the limits of realism." Edited by Martha Finnemore and Judith Goldstein, Back to Basics asks scholars to reflect on the role power plays in contemporary politics and how a power politics approach is influential today. The arguments made by the authors in this volume speak to one of three themes that run through Krasner's work: state power and hegemony; the relationship between states and markets; conceptions of the nation state in international politics. These themes appeared regularly in Krasner's scholarship as he wrestled, over his career, with fundamental questions of inter-state politics. Contributors largely agree on the centrality of power but diverge substantially on the ways power is manifest and should be measured and understood. Many of the contributors confronted the same intellectual dilemmas as Krasner in struggling to define power and its relationship to interests, yet their responses are different. Together, these essays explore new ways of thinking about power's role in contemporary politics and demonstrate the concepts continued relevance for both policy and theory.

Venezuela Before Chávez

Venezuela Before Chávez Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Ricardo Hausmann,Francisco R. Rodríguez
Editor: Penn State Press
ISBN: 0271064641
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Venezuela Before Chávez by Ricardo Hausmann,Francisco R. Rodríguez Summary

At the beginning of the twentieth century, Venezuela had one of the poorest economies in Latin America, but by 1970 it had become the richest country in the region and one of the twenty richest countries in the world, ahead of countries such as Greece, Israel, and Spain. Between 1978 and 2001, however, Venezuela’s economy went sharply in reverse, with non-oil GDP declining by almost 19 percent and oil GDP by an astonishing 65 percent. What accounts for this drastic turnabout? The editors of Venezuela Before Chávez, who each played a policymaking role in the country’s economy during the past two decades, have brought together a group of economists and political scientists to examine systematically the impact of a wide range of factors affecting the economy’s collapse, from the cost of labor regulation and the development of financial markets to the weakening of democratic governance and the politics of decisions about industrial policy. Aside from the editors, the contributors are Omar Bello, Adriana Bermúdez, Matías Braun, Javier Corrales, Jonathan Di John, Rafael Di Tella, Javier Donna, Samuel Freije, Dan Levy, Robert MacCulloch, Osmel Manzano, Francisco Monaldi, María Antonia Moreno, Daniel Ortega, Michael Penfold, José Pineda, Lant Pritchett, Cameron A. Shelton, and Dean Yang.

Windfall

Windfall Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jennifer E. Smith
Editor: Delacorte Press
ISBN: 0399559388
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Windfall by Jennifer E. Smith Summary

This romantic story of hope, chance, and change from the author of The Statistical Probability of Love at First Sight is one JENNY HAN says is filled with all of her "favorite things," MORGAN MATSON calls “something wonderful” and STEPHANIE PERKINS says “is rich with the intensity of real love.” Alice has never believed in luck, but that doesn’t stop her from rooting for love. After pining for her best friend Teddy for years, she jokingly gifts him a lottery ticket—attached to a note professing her love—on his birthday. Then, the unthinkable happens: he actually wins. At first, it seems like the luckiest thing on earth. But as Teddy gets swept up by his $140 million windfall and fame and fortune come between them, Alice is forced to consider whether her stroke of good fortune might have been anything but. She bought a winning lottery ticket. He collected the cash. Will they realize that true love’s the real prize? Featured in Seventeen Magazine's "What's Hot Now" “Windfall is about all of my favorite things—a girl’s first big love, her first big loss, and—her first big luck.” —JENNY HAN, New York Times bestselling author of To All the Boys I’ve Loved Before “Windfall is perfectly named; reading it, I felt like I had suddenly found something wonderful.” —MORGAN MATSON, New York Times bestselling author of The Unexpected Everything “Windfall is rich with the intensity of real love— in all its heartache and hope.” —STEPHANIE PERKINS, New York Times bestselling author of Isla and the Happily Ever After "If you’re looking for your next great read, then you’re in 'luck!'" —Justine Magazine

Oil: A Cultural and Geographic Encyclopedia of Black Gold [2 volumes]

Oil: A Cultural and Geographic Encyclopedia of Black Gold [2 volumes] Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Xiaobing Li,Michael Molina
Editor: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1610692721
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Oil: A Cultural and Geographic Encyclopedia of Black Gold [2 volumes] by Xiaobing Li,Michael Molina Summary

Despite ongoing efforts to find alternatives, oil is still one of the most critical—and valuable—commodities on earth. This two-volume set provides extensive background information on key topics relating to oil, profiles countries that are major producers and consumers of oil, and examines relevant political issues. • Offers a complete resource that covers basic concepts relating to the oil industry as well as major incidents such as various oil spills and the specifics of the oil industry in key countries • Includes sidebars throughout the encyclopedia that present interesting information to supplement the main text as well as images, maps, and charts that provide additional meaning and context • Serves as an essential reference for students of social studies, geography, current events, political science, and environmental science

Dragon in the Tropics

Dragon in the Tropics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Javier Corrales,Michael Penfold
Editor: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 0815725949
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Dragon in the Tropics by Javier Corrales,Michael Penfold Summary

This new and expanded edition of Dragon in the Tropics—the widely acclaimed account of how president Hugo Chávez (1999–2013) revamped Venezuela’s political economy—examines the electoral decline of Chavismo after Chavez’s death and the policies adopted by his successor, Nicolás Maduro, to cope with the economic chaos inherited from previous radical populist policies. Corrales and Penfold argue that Maduro has had to struggle with the inherent contradictions of a large and heterogeneous social coalition, a declining oil sector, the strength of entrenched military interests, and fewer resources to appease international allies, which have strenghtened the autocratic features of an already consolidated hybrid regime. In examining the new political realities of Venezuela, the authors offer lessons on the dynamics of succession in hybrid regimes. This book is a must-read for scholars and analysts of Latin America.

Thinking Like a Political Scientist

Thinking Like a Political Scientist Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Christopher Howard
Editor: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022632768X
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Thinking Like a Political Scientist by Christopher Howard Summary

Each year, tens of thousands of students who are interested in politics go through a rite of passage: they take a course in research methods. Many find the subject to be boring or confusing, and with good reason. Most of the standard books on research methods fail to highlight the most important concepts and questions. Instead, they brim with dry technical definitions and focus heavily on statistical analysis, slighting other valuable methods. This approach not only dulls potential enjoyment of the course, but prevents students from mastering the skills they need to engage more directly and meaningfully with a wide variety of research. With wit and practical wisdom, Christopher Howard draws on more than a decade of experience teaching research methods to transform a typically dreary subject and teach budding political scientists the critical skills they need to read published research more effectively and produce better research of their own. The first part of the book is devoted to asking three fundamental questions in political science: What happened? Why? Who cares? In the second section, Howard demonstrates how to answer these questions by choosing an appropriate research design, selecting cases, and working with numbers and written documents as evidence. Drawing on examples from American and comparative politics, international relations, and public policy, Thinking Like a Political Scientist highlights the most common challenges that political scientists routinely face, and each chapter concludes with exercises so that students can practice dealing with those challenges.

Research Handbook on Climate Change Adaptation Policy

Research Handbook on Climate Change Adaptation Policy Pdf/ePub eBook Author: E.C.H. Keskitalo,B.L. Preston
Editor: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1786432528
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Research Handbook on Climate Change Adaptation Policy by E.C.H. Keskitalo,B.L. Preston Summary

This topical and engaging Research Handbook illustrates the variety of research approaches in the field of climate change adaptation policy in order to provide a guide to its social and institutional complexity.

The Curse of Natural Resources

The Curse of Natural Resources Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Sevil Acar
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 1137587237
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The Curse of Natural Resources by Sevil Acar Summary

This book examines the paradox that resource-rich countries often struggle to manage their resources in a way that will help their economies thrive. It looks at how a country's political regime and quality of governance can determine the degree to which it benefits - or suffers - from having natural resources, shifting away from the traditional focus on economic growth data to study the complex implications of these resources for human well-being and sustainable development. To this end, Acar examines a panel of countries in terms of the effects of their natural resources on human development and genuine saving, which is a sustainability indicator that takes into account the welfare of future generations by incorporating the changes in different kinds of capital. Acar finds that the exportation of agricultural raw materials is associated with significant deterioration in human development, while extractive resource exports, such as energy and minerals, have negative implications for genuine savings. Next, the book compares the development path of Norway before and after discovering oil, contrasting it with Sweden's development. The two countries, which followed almost identical paths until the 1970s, diverged significantly in terms of per capita income after Norway found oil.

Governance, Natural Resources and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding

Governance, Natural Resources and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Carl Bruch,Carroll Muffett,Sandra S. Nichols
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1136272062
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Governance, Natural Resources and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding by Carl Bruch,Carroll Muffett,Sandra S. Nichols Summary

When the guns are silenced, those who have survived armed conflict need food, water, shelter, the means to earn a living, and the promise of safety and a return to civil order. Meeting these needs while sustaining peace requires more than simply having governmental structures in place; it requires good governance. Natural resources are essential to sustaining people and peace in post-conflict countries, but governance failures often jeopardize such efforts. This book examines the theory, practice, and often surprising realities of post-conflict governance, natural resource management, and peacebuilding in fifty conflict-affected countries and territories. It includes thirty-nine chapters written by more than seventy researchers, diplomats, military personnel, and practitioners from governmental, intergovernmental, and nongovernmental organizations. The book highlights the mutually reinforcing relationship between natural resource management and good governance. Natural resource management is crucial to rebuilding governance and the rule of law, combating corruption, improving transparency and accountability, engaging disenfranchised populations, and building confidence after conflict. At the same time, good governance is essential for ensuring that natural resource management can meet immediate needs for post-conflict stability and development, while simultaneously laying the foundation for a sustainable peace. Drawing on analyses of the close relationship between governance and natural resource management, the book explores lessons from past conflicts and ongoing reconstruction efforts; illustrates how those lessons may be applied to the formulation and implementation of more effective governance initiatives; and presents an emerging theoretical and practical framework for policy makers, researchers, practitioners, and students. Governance, Natural Resources, and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding is part of a global initiative to identify and analyze lessons in post-conflict peacebuilding and natural resource management. The project has generated six books of case studies and analyses, with contributions from practitioners, policy makers, and researchers. Other books in this series address high-value resources, land, water, livelihoods, and assessing and restoring natural resources.

The Political Economy of Africa

The Political Economy of Africa Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Vishnu Padayachee
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1136989064
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The Political Economy of Africa by Vishnu Padayachee Summary

The Political Economy of Africa addresses the real possibilities for African development in the coming decades when seen in the light of the continent’s economic performance over the last half-century. This involves an effort to emancipate our thinking from the grip of western economic models that have often ignored Africa’s diversity in their rush to peddle simple nostrums of dubious merit. The book addresses the seemingly intractable economic problems of the African continent, and traces their origins. It also brings out the instances of successful economic change, and the possibilities for economic revival and renewal. As well as surveying the variety of contemporary situations, the text will provide readers with a firm grasp of the historical background to the topic. It explores issues such as: employment and poverty social policy and security structural adjustment programs and neo-liberal globalization majority rule and democratization taxation and resource mobilization. It contains a selection of country specific case studies from a range of international contributors, many of whom have lived and worked in Africa. The book will be of particular interest to higher level students in political economy, development studies, area studies (Africa) and economics in general.

U.S.-Venezuela Relations since the 1990s

U.S.-Venezuela Relations since the 1990s Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Javier Corrales,Carlos A. Romero
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1136622179
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U.S.-Venezuela Relations since the 1990s by Javier Corrales,Carlos A. Romero Summary

Oil makes up one-third of Venezuela's entire GDP, and the United States is far and away Venezuela's largest trading partner. Relations between Venezuela and the United States, traditionally close for most of the last two centuries, began to fray as the end of the Cold War altered the international environment. U.S.-Venezuela Relations since the 1990s explores relations between these two countries since 1999, when Hugo Chavez came to office and proceeded to change Venezuela's historical relation with the United States and other democracies. The authors analyze the reasons for rising bilateral conflict, the decision-making process in Venezuela, the role played by public and private actors in shaping foreign policy, the role of other powers such as China, Russia, Iran, and Saudi Arabia in shaping U.S.-Venezuelan relations, the role of Venezuela in Cuba and Colombia, and the impact of broader international dynamics in the bi-lateral relations.

After Neoliberalism?

After Neoliberalism? Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Gustavo A. Flores-Macias
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199891664
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After Neoliberalism? by Gustavo A. Flores-Macias Summary

Gusatvo Flores-Macias' After Neoliberalism? offers the first systemic explanation of why the ever-popular left-wing governments in Latin American countries have become extremely radical or moderate once in power.

Soaring of the Gulf Falcons: Diversification in the GCC Oil Exporters in Seven Propositions

Soaring of the Gulf Falcons: Diversification in the GCC Oil Exporters in Seven Propositions Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Reda Cherif,Fuad Hasanov
Editor: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498319300
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Soaring of the Gulf Falcons: Diversification in the GCC Oil Exporters in Seven Propositions by Reda Cherif,Fuad Hasanov Summary

A key priority for the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries is to create a dynamic non-oil tradable sector to support sustainable growth. Since export diversification takes a long time, it has to start now. We argue that the failure to diversify away from oil stems mainly from market failures rather than government failures. To tackle market failures, the government needs to change the incentive structure for workers and firms. Experiences of oil exporters that managed to diversify suggest that a focus on competing in international markets and an emphasis on technological upgrade and climbing the “quality ladder” are crucial.

Handbook of Alternative Theories of Economic Development

Handbook of Alternative Theories of Economic Development Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Erik S. Reinert,Jayati Ghosh,Rainer Kattel
Editor: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1782544682
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Handbook of Alternative Theories of Economic Development by Erik S. Reinert,Jayati Ghosh,Rainer Kattel Summary

The Handbook of Alternative Theories of Economic Development explores the theories and approaches which, over a prolonged period of time, have existed as viable alternatives to today’s mainstream and neo-classical tenets. With a total of 40 specially commissioned chapters, written by the foremost authorities in their respective fields, this volume represents a landmark in the field of economic development. It elucidates the richness of the alternative and sometimes misunderstood ideas which, in different historical contexts, have proved to be vital to the improvement of the human condition. The subject matter is approached from several complementary perspectives. From a historical angle, the Handbook charts the mercantilist and cameralist theories that emerged from the Renaissance and developed further during the Enlightenment. From a geographical angle, it includes chapters on African, Chinese, Indian, and Muslim approaches to economic development. Different schools are also explored and discussed including nineteenth century US development theory, Marxist, Schumpeterian, Latin American structuralism, regulation theory and world systems theories of development. In addition, the Handbook has chapters on important events and institutions including The League of Nations, The Havana Charter, and UNCTAD, as well as on particularly influential development economists. Contemporary topics such as the role of finance, feminism, the agrarian issue, and ecology and the environment are also covered in depth. This comprehensive Handbook offers an unrivalled review and analysis of alternative and heterodox theories of economic development. It should be read by all serious scholars, teachers and students of development studies, and indeed anyone interested in alternatives to development orthodoxy.

Global Corruption from a Geographic Perspective

Global Corruption from a Geographic Perspective Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Barney Warf
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 303003478X
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Global Corruption from a Geographic Perspective by Barney Warf Summary

This monograph explores the nature of corruption around the world from a geographic perspective. It focuses on historical context and cultural factors. Readers will learn that though corruption is pervasive, geography greatly shapes its character. This book will offer a better understanding of the level of corrupt activity in any given country. The book analyzes an array of countries and regions. Coverage ranges from democratic societies, where corruption is low due to high rates of literacy and a free press, to the most corrupt places, where centralized power structures and lack of a free media allow corruption to unfold unimpeded. Anti-corruption campaigns and their effectiveness are also reflected upon. In addition to data from Transparency International, the text examines relevant political events. In each case, the analysis focuses on the major actors and institutions involved; the cultural norms that often regard corruption as a normal part of doing business; and the attempts by foreign and domestic actors to minimize corruption. This book will help readers better understand the causes and consequences of corruption, as well as its type and severity varies widely across the planet. It will appeal to students, researchers, policy makers, and interested general readers.

Working for Oil

Working for Oil Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Touraj Atabaki,Elisabetta Bini,Kaveh Ehsani
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3319564455
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Working for Oil by Touraj Atabaki,Elisabetta Bini,Kaveh Ehsani Summary

This volume examines the social history of oil workers and investigates how labor relations have shaped the global oil industry during the twentieth century and today. It brings together the work of scholars from a range of disciplines, approaching the social, political, economic and cultural dimensions of oil. The contributors analyze a number of key oil producing regions, including the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, the Caucasus, Europe and Africa.

The Political Economy of Resource Regulation

The Political Economy of Resource Regulation Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Andreas R. Dugstad Sanders,Pål R. Sandvik,Espen Storli
Editor: UBC Press
ISBN: 0774860634
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The Political Economy of Resource Regulation by Andreas R. Dugstad Sanders,Pål R. Sandvik,Espen Storli Summary

Industrialist John Paul Getty famously quipped, “The meek shall inherit the earth, but not its mineral rights.” Throughout history, natural resources have been sources of wealth and power and catalysts for war and peace. The case studies gathered in this innovative volume examine how the intersection of ideas, interest groups, international institutions, and political systems gave birth to distinctive regulatory regimes at various times and places in the modern world. Spanning seven continents and focusing on both advanced and developing economies, it offers unique insights into why some resource-rich countries have flourished while others have been mired in poverty and corruption.

India Today

India Today Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Stuart Corbridge,John Harriss,Craig Jeffrey
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0745665357
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India Today by Stuart Corbridge,John Harriss,Craig Jeffrey Summary

Twenty years ago India was still generally thought of as an archetypal developing country, home to the largest number of poor people of any country in the world, and beset by problems of low economic growth, casteism and violent religious conflict. Now India is being feted as an economic power-house which might well become the second largest economy in the world before the middle of this century. Its democratic traditions, moreover, remain broadly intact. How and why has this historic transformation come about? And what are its implications for the people of India, for Indian society and politics? These are the big questions addressed in this book by three scholars who have lived and researched in different parts of India during the period of this great transformation. Each of the 13 chapters seeks to answer a particular question: When and why did India take off? How did a weak state promote audacious reform? Is government in India becoming more responsive (and to whom)? Does India have a civil society? Does caste still matter? Why is India threatened by a Maoist insurgency? In addressing these and other pressing questions, the authors take full account of vibrant new scholarship that has emerged over the past decade or so, both from Indian writers and India specialists, and from social scientists who have studied India in a comparative context. India Today is a comprehensive and compelling text for students of South Asia, political economy, development and comparative politics as well as anyone interested in the future of the world's largest democracy.