International Security: A Very Short Introduction by Christopher S. Browning

International Security: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : International Security: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Christopher S. Browning
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0199668531
  • Pages : 131
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

An accessible, succinct introduction to the complicated issues surrounding today's international security considers such factors as climate change, migration, poverty, health and international terrorism while exploring the nature of key debates as reflected by a broad range of international examples. Original.


The United Nations by Jussi M. Hanhimäki

The United Nations
  • Title : The United Nations
  • Author : Jussi M. Hanhimäki
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN Code : 0190222700
  • Pages : 172
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

The United Nations has been called everything from "the best hope of mankind" to "irrelevant" and "obsolete." In this concise overview, Jussi Hanhimaki sheds light on the current debate over the UN's effectiveness as he provides a clear understanding of how it was originally conceived, how it has come to its present form, and how it must confront new challenges in a rapidly changing world. After a brief history of the UN, the author examines its successes and failures as a guardian of international peace and security, as a promoter of human rights, as a protector of international law, and as an engineer of socioeconomic development.


International Law by Vaughan Lowe

International Law
  • Title : International Law
  • Author : Vaughan Lowe
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN Code : 0199239339
  • Pages : 130
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Interest in international law has increased greatly over the past decade, largely because of its central place in discussions such as the Iraq War and Guantanamo, the World Trade Organisation, the anti-capitalist movement, the Kyoto Convention on climate change, and the apparent failure of theinternational system to deal with the situations in Palestine and Darfur, and the plights of refugees and illegal immigrants around the world. This Very Short Introduction explains what international law is, what its role in international society is, and how it operates. Vaughan Lowe examines what international law can and cannot do and what it is and what it isn't doing to make the world a better place. Focussing on the problems the worldfaces, Lowe uses terrorism, environmental change, poverty, and international violence to demonstrate the theories and practice of international law, and how the principles can be used for international co-operation.


International Relations: a Very Short Introduction by Christian Reus-Smit

International Relations: a Very Short Introduction
  • Title : International Relations: a Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Christian Reus-Smit
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN Code : 0198850212
  • Pages : 176
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

International relations affects everyone's lives: their security, economic well-being, rights and freedoms, and the environment they share. Recently we have seen the transformation from a world of empires to today's world of sovereign states, which are enmeshed in a complex array of international institutions, all exercising degrees of political authority. The new global organization of political authority has far-reaching consequences. This Very Short Introduction untangles this complex world, providing an accessible framework for understanding the contours of global political change. Christian Reus-Smit treats theory as an indispensable tool for grasping international relations, but demystifies theorizing, introducing it as an everyday human practice. He surveys a range of theories, from realism to feminism: reading them as contrasting perspectives on the global organization of political authority. Historically, such organization has been shaped by diverse social forces, four of which are discussed in detail: shifting patterns of warfare, changing economic conditions, struggles for rights, and the politics of culture. Reus-Smit concludes with a reflection on the future of international relations in an era of profound global change. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


International Relations: A Very Short Introduction by Paul Wilkinson

International Relations: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : International Relations: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Paul Wilkinson
  • Publisher : Oxford Paperbacks
  • ISBN Code : 0192801570
  • Pages : 144
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Covers topics such as foreign policy, the world economy, and globalization, showing how many disciplines come together in the study of international events. This book explains the theories underlying the subject of International Relations and uses them to investigate issues of foreign policy, arms control, the environment, and world poverty.


Modern War: A Very Short Introduction by Richard English

Modern War: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Modern War: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Richard English
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0199607893
  • Pages : 132
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

In this accessible and authoritative Very Short Introduction, Richard English considers what modern warfare is and what it achieves. Addressing our assumptions about war in the modern period, and drawing upon direct accounts of warfare, he considers its impact on society, culture, economics, as well its future.


International Migration by Khalid Koser

International Migration
  • Title : International Migration
  • Author : Khalid Koser
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0198753772
  • Pages : 160
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

In recent years, global migration has transformed in terms of its numbers and reach, its political significance, and its impact. The rising rates of international migration have been matched by growing public and media interest around the world. Today, the political and media attention on migration and greater public interest and concern feed into an international debate that is all too often poorly informed and one-sided. This Very Short Introduction looks at the phenomenon of international human migration - both legal and illegal - and offers an objective stance on the topic, and its benefits and challenges. Khalid Koser reveals the opportunities migration presents that must be taken advantage of in the current economic climate, and debunks common myths to demonstrate that society, as we now know it, cannot function without migrants. Using interviews with migrants from around the world, Koser presents the human side of issues such as asylum, human trafficking, migrant smuggling, and the international labour force, inviting readers to come to their own conclusions on the international migration situation today. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Nuclear Weapons by Joseph M. Siracusa

Nuclear Weapons
  • Title : Nuclear Weapons
  • Author : Joseph M. Siracusa
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN Code : 0198727232
  • Pages : 127
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Despite not having been used in anger since Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the atomic bomb is still the biggest threat that faces us in the 21st century. As Bill Clinton's first secretary of defense, Les Aspin, aptly put it, "The Cold War is over, the Soviet Union is no more. But the post-Cold War world is decidedly not post-nuclear." For all the effort to reduce nuclear stockpiles to zero, it seems that the bomb is here to stay. This Very Short Introduction reveals why. The history and politics of the bomb are explained: from the technology of nuclear weapons, to the revolutionary implications of the H-bomb, and the politics of nuclear deterrence. The issues are set against a backdrop of the changing international landscape, from the early days of development through the Cold War. In this new edition, Joseph M. Siracusa includes a new concluding chapter, moving away from the emphasis of nuclear weapons in the "age of terrorism," to the significant lessons to be learnt from the history of the nuclear weapons era. Siracusa shows that because 21st century nuclear proliferation has deep roots in the past, an understanding of the lessons of this nuclear history is paramount for future global policies to be successful. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Diplomacy: A Very Short Introduction by Joseph M. Siracusa

Diplomacy: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Diplomacy: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Joseph M. Siracusa
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0199588503
  • Pages : 139
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Diplomacy means different things to different people, the definitions ranging from the elegant ("the management of relations between independent states by the process of negotiations") to the jocular ("the art of saying 'nice doggie' until you can find a rock"). Written by Joseph M. Siracusa, an internationally recognized expert, this lively volume introduces the subject of diplomacy from a historical perspective, providing examples from significant historical phases and episodes to illustrate the art of diplomacy in action, highlighting the milestones in its evolution. The book shows that, like war, diplomacy has been around a very long time, at least since the Bronze Age. It was primitive by today's standards, there were few rules, but it was a recognizable form of diplomacy. Since then, diplomacy has evolved greatly, to the extent that the major events of modern international diplomacy have dramatically shaped the world in which we live. Indeed, the case studies chosen here demonstrate that diplomacy was and remains a key element of statecraft, and that without skilful diplomacy political success may remain elusive.


Terrorism: A Very Short Introduction by Charles Townshend

Terrorism: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Terrorism: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Charles Townshend
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0199603944
  • Pages : 161
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Is terrorism crime or war? Can there be a 'war against terrorism'? In this fully updated edition, Charles Townshend unravels the questions at the heart of the problem of terrorism - its causes, methods, effects and limitations - suggesting that it must be understood as a political strategy whose threat can be rationally grasped and answered.


Nuclear Weapons: A Very Short Introduction by Joseph M. Siracusa

Nuclear Weapons: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Nuclear Weapons: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Joseph M. Siracusa
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • ISBN Code : 0191578827
  • Pages : 160
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Despite not having been used in anger since Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Bomb is still the biggest threat that faces us in the 21st century. As Bill Clinton's first secretary of defence, Les Aspin, aptly put it: 'The Cold War is over, the Soviet Union is no more. But the post-Cold War world is decidedly not post-nuclear'. For all the effort to reduce nuclear stockpiles to zero, it seems that the Bomb is here to stay. This Very Short Introduction reveals why. The history, and politics of the bomb are explained: from the technology of nuclear weapons, to the revolutionary implications of the H-bomb, and the politics of nuclear deterrence. The issues are set against a backdrop of the changing international landscape, from the early days of development, through the Cold War, to the present-day controversy of George W. Bush's National Missile Defence, and the threat and role of nuclear weapons in the so-called Age of Terror. Joseph M. Siracusa provides a comprehensive, accessible, and at times chilling overview of the most deadly weapon ever invented. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


American Foreign Relations by Andrew Preston

American Foreign Relations
  • Title : American Foreign Relations
  • Author : Andrew Preston
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN Code : 0199899398
  • Pages : 168
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

"For better or worse, be it militarily, diplomatically, politically, economically, or culturally, Americans have had a profound role in shaping the wider world beyond them. Unsurprisingly, most non-Americans have passionate views about the nature of U.S. foreign policy. America has been a savior to some, a curse to others-and both have good reason to feel that way. And yet, such views are often also based on a caricature of American actions and intentions. For their part, Americans themselves have strong opinions about their role in the world and how it has evolved over time. Yet these views are shrouded as much in myth as they are grounded in fact. American Foreign Relations, then, suffers from being a subject of immense worldwide importance but almost complete misunderstanding; it provokes strong emotions and much debate in newspapers daily, but is accompanied by little comprehension. This Very Short Introduction aims to offer analysis of key events, episodes, crises, and individuals in the making of American foreign relations. It will discuss events such as the Revolutionary War, the Louisiana Purchase, the War of 1812, manifest destiny, the Mexican War, the Civil War, industrialization, the beginnings of globalization, the Spanish-American War, imperialism, the annexation of the Philippines, informal imperialism and the Open Door policy, World War I, isolationism, World War II, the Cold War from its origins to its end (including the Korean and Vietnam Wars), the Iraq Wars, 9/11, and Afghanistan. Such topics will be situated within an analytical narrative that follows chronology generally, but not strictly or comprehensively."--Provided by publisher.


The BRICS: A Very Short Introduction by Andrew F. Cooper

The BRICS: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : The BRICS: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Andrew F. Cooper
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0198723393
  • Pages : 144
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

In the wake of the post-Cold War era, the aftermath of 9/11, the 2008 global financial crisis, and the emergence of the G20 at the leaders level, few commentators expected a reshaping of the global system towards multipolarity, and away from the United States. And yet, the BRICS - encompassing Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa - has emerged as a challenge to the international status quo. But what is its capacity as a transformative force? And can it provide a significant counter-narrative to the Western dominated global order? In this Very Short Introduction Andrew Cooper explores the emergence of the BRICS as a concept. Drawing on historical precedent, Cooper provides a contemporary analysis of the BRICS' practice and influence as as a forum and a lobby group in advancing a distinctive but amorphous agenda amongst global politics. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Identity by Florian Coulmas

Identity
  • Title : Identity
  • Author : Florian Coulmas
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN Code : 0198828543
  • Pages : 147
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

This book introduces identity, one of the most iconic concepts of our time, which is used ubiquitously but rarely explained. It discusses the various uses of 'identity' separately for different fields of study - philosophy, psychology, sociology, gender studies, and linguistics. This book also compares Western concepts and theories of identity with similar concepts in other parts of the world. It explains how contemporary trends in marketization and globalization have made identity increasingly important to us in the last 50 years. This book also outlines the historical background to the concept of identity.


Cryptography: A Very Short Introduction by Fred Piper,Sean Murphy

Cryptography: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Cryptography: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Fred Piper,Sean Murphy
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • ISBN Code : 0191577758
  • Pages : 160
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

This book is a clear and informative introduction to cryptography and data protection - subjects of considerable social and political importance. It explains what algorithms do, how they are used, the risks associated with using them, and why governments should be concerned. Important areas are highlighted, such as Stream Ciphers, block ciphers, public key algorithms, digital signatures, and applications such as e-commerce. This book highlights the explosive impact of cryptography on modern society, with, for example, the evolution of the internet and the introduction of more sophisticated banking methods. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction by David Garland

The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : The Welfare State: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : David Garland
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0199672660
  • Pages : 144
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

The programmes that make up the welfare state vary from nation to nation and from time to time, and the balance between markets and government, and free enterprise and social protection is perennially in question. In contemporary political debate the welfare state seems to be mostly viewed asa problem rather than a solution, and welfare programmes appear constantly on the defensive. ThisVery Short Introduction describes the modern welfare state, explaining its historical and contemporary significance and arguing that far from being 'a failure' or 'a problem', welfare states are an essential element of contemporary capitalism, and a vital concomitant of democratic government.In this accessible and entertaining account, David Garland cuts through the fog of misunderstandings to explain in clear and simple terms, what the welfare state is, how it works, and why it matters.ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, andenthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Human Rights: A Very Short Introduction by Andrew Clapham

Human Rights: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Human Rights: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Andrew Clapham
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • ISBN Code : 0191578592
  • Pages : 216
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Today it is usually not long before a problem gets expressed as a human rights issue. An appeal to human rights in the face of injustice can be a heartfelt and morally justified demand for some, while for others it remains merely an empty slogan. Taking an international perspective and focusing on highly topical issues such as torture, arbitrary detention, privacy, health and discrimination, this Very Short Introduction will help readers to understand for themselves the controversies and complexities behind this vitally relevant issue. Looking at the philosophical justification for rights, the historical origins of human rights and how they are formed in law, Andrew Clapham explains what our human rights actually are, what they might be, and where the human rights movement is heading. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Fire: a Very Short Introduction by Andrew C. Scott

Fire: a Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Fire: a Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Andrew C. Scott
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN Code : 0198830033
  • Pages : 176
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Fire is rarely out of the headlines, from large natural wildfires raging across the Australian or Californian countrysides to the burning of buildings such as the disasters of Grenfell tower and Notre Dame. Fire on these scales can represent a serious risk to human life and property. But the advent of fire made and controlled by humans also represented a crucial point in our evolution, allowing us to cook our food, forge our weapons, and warm our homes. This Very Short Introduction covers the fundamentals of fire, whether wild or under human control, starting with the basics of ignition, combustion, and fuel. Andrew Scott considers both natural wildfires and the role of humans in making and suppressing fire. Despite frightening reports of wildfire destruction, he also shows how landscape fires have been part of our planet's history for 400 million years, and do not always have to be extinguished. He also considers the problem of fires in urban settings, including new ways to prevent fires. The cost of wildfire can be steep - as well as the burning, post-fire erosion and flooding can have a great impact on both humans and the environment. It can also have a lasting effect in shaping ecosystems and plant life. Scott ends by examining the relationship between fire and the climate, and considering the future of wildfire in a warming world. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Crystallography by A. M. Glazer

Crystallography
  • Title : Crystallography
  • Author : A. M. Glazer
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0198717598
  • Pages : 140
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Crystals have fascinated us for centuries with their beauty and symmetry, and have often been invested with magical powers. The use of X-ray diffraction, first pioneered in 1912 by father and son William and Lawrence Bragg, enabled us to probe the structure of molecules, and heralded the scientific study of crystals, leading to an understanding of their atomic arrangements at a fundamental level. The new discipline, called X-ray crystallography, has subsequently evolved into a formidable science that underpins many other scientific areas. Starting from the determination of the structures of very simple crystals, such as that of common salt, today it has become almost routine to determine the positions of tens of thousands of atoms in a crystal. In this Very Short Introduction Mike Glazer shows how the discoveries in crystallography have been applied to the creation of new and important materials, to drugs and pharmaceuticals and to our understanding of genetics, cell biology, proteins, and viruses. Tracing the history of crystallography, he analyses astonishing developments in new sources of X-rays, as well as of neutrons, and in electron microscopy, and considers the impact they have on the study of crystals today. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


The Cold War: A Very Short Introduction by Robert J. McMahon

The Cold War: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : The Cold War: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Robert J. McMahon
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • ISBN Code : 0191577588
  • Pages : 200
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

The massive disorder and economic ruin following the Second World War inevitably predetermined the scope and intensity of the Cold War. But why did it last so long? And what impact did it have on the United States, the Soviet Union, Europe, and the Third World? Finally, how did it affect the broader history of the second half of the twentieth century - what were the human and financial costs? This Very Short Introduction provides a clear and stimulating interpretive overview of the Cold War, one that will both invite debate and encourage deeper investigation. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


The European Union: A Very Short Introduction by John Pinder,Simon Usherwood

The European Union: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : The European Union: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : John Pinder,Simon Usherwood
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0199681694
  • Pages : 181
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Fully updated to include the Lisbon treaty, the EU fiscal crisis, and the state of the Euro currency, this accessible Very Short Introduction shows how and why the EU has developed, how its institutions works, and what it does - from the single market to the Euro, and from agriculture to peace-keeping and the environment.


Law by Raymond Wacks

Law
  • Title : Law
  • Author : Raymond Wacks
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN Code : 0198745621
  • Pages : 166
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Law is at the heart of every society, protecting rights, imposing duties, and establishing a framework for the conduct of almost all social, political, and economic activity. Despite this, the law often seems a highly technical, perplexing mystery, with its antiquated and often impenetrable jargon, obsolete procedures, and endless stream of complex statutes and legislation. In this Very Short Introduction Raymond Wacks introduces the major branches of the law, describing what lawyers do, and how courts operate, and considers the philosophy of law and its pursuit of justice, freedom, and equality. In this second edition, Wacks locates the discipline in our contemporary world, considering the pressures of globalization and digitalisation and the nature of the law in our culture of threatened security and surveillance. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


War and Technology by Alex Roland

War and Technology
  • Title : War and Technology
  • Author : Alex Roland
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0190605383
  • Pages : 152
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

"Warfare and technology predate human history. The dynamic relationship between them is timeless, echoing through human history in patterns that link the bow and arrow with the IED (improvised explosive device), the walls of Jericho with reconnaissance satellites. This book traces those patterns, from the Scheoningen spears to cyberwarfare."--Provided by publisher.


Development by Ian Goldin

Development
  • Title : Development
  • Author : Ian Goldin
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0198736258
  • Pages : 216
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

What do we mean by development? How can citizens, governments, and the international community foster development? The process by which nations escape poverty and achieve economic and social progress has been the subject of extensive examination for hundreds of years. The notion of development itself has evolved from an original preoccupation with incomes and economic growth to a much broader understanding of development. In this Very Short Introduction Ian Goldin considers the contributions that education, health, gender, equity, and other dimensions of human well-being make to development, and discusses why it is also necessary to include the role of institutions and the rule of law as well as sustainability and environmental concerns. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Nothing: A Very Short Introduction by Frank Close

Nothing: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Nothing: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Frank Close
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • ISBN Code : 0191574643
  • Pages : 176
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

What is 'nothing'? What remains when you take all the matter away? Can empty space - a void - exist? This Very Short Introduction explores the science and the history of the elusive void: from Aristotle who insisted that the vacuum was impossible, via the theories of Newton and Einstein, to our very latest discoveries and why they can tell us extraordinary things about the cosmos. Frank Close tells the story of how scientists have explored the elusive void, and the rich discoveries that they have made there. He takes the reader on a lively and accessible history through ancient ideas and cultural superstitions to the frontiers of current research. He describes how scientists discovered that the vacuum is filled with fields; how Newton, Mach, and Einstein grappled with the nature of space and time; and how the mysterious 'aether' that was long ago supposed to permeate the void may now be making a comeback with the latest research into the 'Higgs field'. We now know that the vacuum is far from being empty - it seethes with virtual particles and antiparticles that erupt spontaneously into being, and it also may contain hidden dimensions that we were previously unaware of. These new discoveries may provide answers to some of cosmology's most fundamental questions: what lies outside the universe, and, if there was once nothing, then how did the universe begin? ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Intelligence: A Very Short Introduction by Ian J. Deary

Intelligence: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Intelligence: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Ian J. Deary
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • ISBN Code : 0191579491
  • Pages : 148
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

People value their powers of thinking and most of us are interested in why some people seem to drive a highly tuned Rolls Royce brain while others potter along with a merely serviceable Ford Fiesta. This Very Short Introduction describes what psychologists have discovered about how and why people differ in their thinking powers. The book takes readers from no knowledge about the science of human intelligence to a stage where they are able to make judgements for themselves about some of the key questions about human mental ability differences. Each chapter deals with a central issue that is both scientifically lively and of considerable general interest, and is structured around a diagram which is explained in the course of the chapter. The issues discussed include whether there are several different types of intelligence, whether intelligence differences are caused by genes or the environment, the biological basis of intelligence differences, and whether intelligence declines or increases as we grow older. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Robotics: A Very Short Introduction by Alan Winfield

Robotics: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Robotics: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Alan Winfield
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • ISBN Code : 0191646482
  • Pages : 168
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Robotics is a key technology in the modern world. Robots are a well-established part of manufacturing and warehouse automation, assembling cars or washing machines, and, for example, moving goods to and from storage racks for Internet mail order. More recently robots have taken their first steps into homes and hospitals, and seen spectacular success in planetary exploration. Yet, despite these successes, robots have failed to live up to the predictions of the 1950s and 60s, when it was widely thought - by scientists and engineers as well as the public - that by turn of the 21st century we would have intelligent robots as butlers, companions, or co-workers. This Very Short Introduction explains how it is that robotics can be both a success story and a disappointment, how robots can be both ordinary and remarkable, and looks at their important developments in science and their applications to everyday life. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Dementia: a Very Short Introduction by Kathleen Taylor

Dementia: a Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Dementia: a Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Kathleen Taylor
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN Code : 0198825781
  • Pages : 176
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

As more of us live longer, the fear of an old age devastated by brain diseases like dementia is growing. Many people are already facing the challenges posed by these progressive and terminal conditions, whether in person or because they are caring for loved ones. Dementia is now the fifth most common cause of death across the world. It is a small wonder that understanding, preventing, and finally curing these illnesses is now a global priority. Recent advances in brain research have given scientists a better chance than ever of finding ways to help patients, carers, and clinicians dealing with dementia. Yet there is still no effective treatment. Why has progress been so slow? And what can we all do to reduce our chances of getting the disease? In this Very Short Introduction Kathleen Taylor offers a guide to the science of dementia and brain ageing. Never forgetting the human costs of brain disorders - movingly illustrated throughout the book - she also discusses their costs to society. Clearly explaining the research, she sets out the main ideas which have driven dementia science, and the new contenders hoping to make a breakthrough. Taylor also looks at risk factors, and how to lower our chances of succumbing to dementia. Assessing current and potential treatments, including both drugs and other approaches, she explains, clearly and gently, what help is available for someone who is diagnosed with dementia, and how to boost the chances of living well with the condition. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Innovation: A Very Short Introduction by Mark Dodgson,David Gann

Innovation: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Innovation: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Mark Dodgson,David Gann
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • ISBN Code : 0191614254
  • Pages : 168
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

What is innovation? How is innovation used in business? How can we use it to succeed? Innovation - the ways ideas are made valuable - makes an important contribution to economic and social development, and is an increasingly topical issue. Not so long ago, there were no information technologies, commercial airlines, or television companies. Our parents were born into a world very different to today's, where television had yet to be invented, and there was no penicillin or frozen food. When our grandparents were born there were no internal combustion engines, aeroplanes, cinemas, or radios. In the last 150 years our world has been transformed - largely in part due to innovation. This Very Short Introduction looks at what innovation is and why it affects us so profoundly. It examines how it occurs, who stimulates it, how it is pursued, and what its outcomes are, both positive and negative. Innovation is hugely challenging and failure is common, yet it is essential to our social and economic progress. Mark Dodgson and David Gann consider the extent to which our understanding of innovation developed over the past century and how it might be used to interpret the global economy we all face in the future. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Peace: A Very Short Introduction by Oliver P. Richmond

Peace: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Peace: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Oliver P. Richmond
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0199656002
  • Pages : 144
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

The modern concept of peace has broadened from the mere absence of violence to something much more sophisticated, incorporating terms such as 'peacemaking' and 'conflict resolution'. In this Very Short Introduction, Oliver Richmond explores the evolution of peace in practice and in theory, considering our modern assumptions about peace.


Branding: a Very Short Introduction by Robert Jones

Branding: a Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Branding: a Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Robert Jones
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0198749910
  • Pages : 144
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

In this 'Very Short Introduction' Robert Jones discusses the rising omnipresence of brands, and analyses how they work their magic. He considers the incredible potency of brands as a commercial, social, and cultural force, and looks at the many different kinds of brands that exist - from products, services, and artistic properties, to companies, charities, sports clubs, and political parties. Defining what we mean by the word 'brand', he explores both the positive and negative aspects of brands. Finally Jones considers the business of branding, and asks whether the idea of brands and branding is starting to decline, or whether it has a long future ahead.


National, International, and Human Security by Laura Neack

National, International, and Human Security
  • Title : National, International, and Human Security
  • Author : Laura Neack
  • Publisher : Rowman & Littlefield
  • ISBN Code : 1442275278
  • Pages : 236
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

This clear and concise new edition offers a comprehensive comparison of national, international, and human security concepts and policies. Laura Neack skillfully argues that security remains elusive because of a centuries-old ethic insisting that states are the primary and most important international actors, that they can rely ultimately only on themselves for protection, and that they must keep all options on the table for national security. This is particularly apparent with the increase in “glocalized” terrorism and the forced migration of millions of people. Although security as a concept can be widened to encompass almost any aspect of existence, Neack focuses especially on security from physical violence. Case studies throughout bring life to the concepts. New cases in this revised edition include the Syrian refugee crisis and the responses from European states, the growth and reach of jihadist terrorist groups and the unilateral and multilateral military actions taken to confront them, drug trafficking organizations and the Mexican government’s failure to protect citizens, the overt use of preventive war by major and regional powers and the increasing American reliance on drone warfare, multilateral "train-and-assist" operations aimed at peacekeeping and counterterrorism in Africa, UN civilian protection mandates in Libya and Côte d’Ivoire and their absence in Syria, and how terrorism and refugee crises are intimately connected. The first edition of this book was published under the title Elusive Security: States First, People Last in 2007.


Capitalism: A Very Short Introduction by James Fulcher

Capitalism: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Capitalism: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : James Fulcher
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • ISBN Code : 0191039012
  • Pages : 160
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

What is capitalism? Is capitalism the same everywhere? Is there an alternative? The word 'capitalism' is one that is heard and used frequently, but what is capitalism really all about, and what does it mean? This Very Short Introduction addresses questions such as 'what is capital?' before discussing the history and development of capitalism through several detailed case studies, ranging from the tulipomania of 17th century Holland, the Great Depression of the 1930s, and in this new edition, the impact of the global financial crisis that started in 2007-8. James Fulcher looks at the different forms that capitalism takes in Britain, Japan, Sweden, and the United States, and explores whether capitalism has escaped the nation-state by going global. It ends by asking whether there is an alternative to capitalism, discussing socialism, communal and cooperative experiments, and the alternatives proposed by environmentalists. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Military Justice by Eugene R. Fidell

Military Justice
  • Title : Military Justice
  • Author : Eugene R. Fidell
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0199303495
  • Pages : 160
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

"You can't handle the truth." These iconic words, bellowed by Jack Nicholson as Colonel Jessup in the 1992 movie A Few Good Men, became an emblem of the conflict between honor and truth that the collective imagination often considers the quintessence of military justice. The military is the rare part of contemporary society that enjoys the privilege of policing its own members' behavior, with special courts and a separate body of rules. Whether one is for or against this system, military trials are fascinating and little understood. This book opens a window on the military judicial system, offering an accessible and balanced assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of military legal regimes around the world. It illuminates US military justice through a comparison with civilian and foreign models for the administration of justice, with a particular emphasis on the UK and Canadian military justice systems. Drawing on his experience as a serving officer, private practitioner, and law professor, Eugene R. Fidell presents a hard-hitting tour of the field, exploring military justice trends across different countries and compliance (or lack thereof) with contemporary human rights standards. He digs into critical issues such as the response to sexual assault in the armed forces, the challenges of protecting judicial independence, and the effect of social media and modern technology on age-old traditions of military discipline. A rich series of case studies, ranging from examples of misconduct, such as the devastating Abu Ghraib photos, to political tangles, such as the Guantanamo military commissions, throw light on the high profile and occasionally obscure circumstances that emerge from today's military operations around the world. As Fidell's account shows, by understanding the mechanism of military justice we can better comprehend the political values of a country. "


Maritime Security by Michael McNicholas

Maritime Security
  • Title : Maritime Security
  • Author : Michael McNicholas
  • Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
  • ISBN Code : 0080919537
  • Pages : 472
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

The commercial maritime sector is highly vulnerable to theft and piracy, and presents a probable target for a major terrorist attack. The best way to prevent losses is to apply lessons learned in another arena-–the struggle to curb drug smuggling. This effort has shown that successes can be achieved when effective and comprehensive security measures and procedures are implemented at key initial links in the cargo supply chain. The integrity and security of whole system are improved when efforts are focused at the primary "choke point" – the load seaports and their ships. This book provides practical, experience-based, and proven knowledge - and a "how-to-guide" - on maritime security. McNicholas explains in clear language how commercial seaports and vessels function; what threats currently exist; what security policies, procedures, systems, and measures must be implemented to mitigate these threats; and how to conduct ship and port security assessments and plans. Whether the problem is weapons of mass destruction or cargo theft, Maritime Security provides invaluable guidance for the professionals who protect our shipping and ports. Holds the keys to successfully designing, implementing, and managing effective port and vessel security programs in a high-risk environment Provides real-world experience in Maritime Security from the Managing Director of Phoenix Management Services Group in the USA and Panama. Offers specifics of a model port security program and case studies of effective tactics in a high-threat environment


Pain by Rob Boddice

Pain
  • Title : Pain
  • Author : Rob Boddice
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0198738560
  • Pages : 144
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

In this 'Very Short Introduction', Rob Boddice explores the history, culture, and medical science of pain. Charting the shifting meanings of pain across time and place, he focusses on how the experience and treatment of pain have changed. He describes historical hierarchies of pain experience that related pain to social class and race, and the privileging of human states of pain over that of other animals. From the pain concepts of classical antiquity to expressions of pain in contemporary art, and modern medical approaches to the understanding, treatment, and management of pain, Boddice weaves a multifaceted account of this central human experience. Ranging from neuroscientific innovations in experimental medicine to the constructionist arguments of social scientists, pain is shown to resist a timeless definition. Pain is physical and emotional, of body and mind, and is always experienced subjectively and contextually.


Encounters with World Affairs by Emilian Kavalski

Encounters with World Affairs
  • Title : Encounters with World Affairs
  • Author : Emilian Kavalski
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • ISBN Code : 131714385X
  • Pages : 452
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

This book is designed to familiarise students with leading International Relations (IR) theories and their explanation of political events, phenomena, and processes which cross the territorial boundaries of the state. Thus, students will be exposed to the interplay between power, interest, ideas, identity, and resistance, in explaining continuity and change in international relations. Developed to provide students with the analytical tools and intellectual frameworks needed to understand the behaviour of different international actors in contemporary global affairs. This textbook responds to the challenges of a dynamic job market by assisting students to gain both thorough theoretical knowledge and training them to apply this knowledge to real world problems. In short, this textbook delivers: A comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach to the examination of national, regional and global trends in politics, economics and socio-cultural developments allowing students to understand: ¢ the practice and theory of contemporary international relations ¢ the politics, culture, history, and economies of different regions around the world ¢ the role played by international interactions, culture, and government in local, national, and global settings. Equipping students with the proficiency: ¢ to understand and interpret the dynamics, patterns, and issues of global affairs ¢ to know how to get more information about particular questions ¢ to evaluate that information independently and effectively. To these ends, the textbook provides a number of features that will appeal to students and avoids overwhelming students with chapters on topics which (in practice) are rarely on courses, while nonetheless providing a comprehensive overview of the field. Introduces students to the main debates, topics, and terms in the field and allows them to decide which they would like to focus on in their further studies.


Governance: A Very Short Introduction by Mark Bevir

Governance: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Governance: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Mark Bevir
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0199606412
  • Pages : 132
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Generally referring to all forms of social coordination and patterns of rule, the term 'governance' is used in many different contexts. In this Very Short Introduction, Mark Bevir explores the main theories of governance and considers their impact on ideas of governance in the corporate, public, and global arenas.


Navigation by Jim Bennett

Navigation
  • Title : Navigation
  • Author : Jim Bennett
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0198733712
  • Pages : 144
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

From the Bronze Age mariners of the Mediterranean to contemporary sailors using satellite-based technologies, the history of navigation at sea, the art of finding a position and setting a course, is fascinating. The scientific and technological developments that have enabled accurate measurements of position were central to exploration, trade, and the opening up of new continents, and the resulting journeys taken under their influence have had a profound influence on world history. In this Very Short Introduction Jim Bennett looks at the history of navigation, starting with the distinctive cultures of navigation that are defined geographically - the Mediterranean Sea, and the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic Oceans. He shows how the adoption of mathematical methods, the use of instruments, the writing of textbooks and the publication of charts all combined to create a more standardized practice. Methods such as longitude-finding by chronometer and lunar distance were complemented by the routine business of recording courses and reckoning position 'by account'. Bennett also introduces the incredible array of instruments relied on by sailors, from astrolabes, sextants, and chronometers, to our more modern radio receivers, electronic equipment, and charts, and highlights the crucial role played by the individual qualities of endeavor and resourcefulness from mathematicians, scientists, and seamen in finding their way at sea. The story of navigation combines the societal, the technical, and the human, and it was vital for shaping the modern world.


Earth System Science by Tim Lenton

Earth System Science
  • Title : Earth System Science
  • Author : Tim Lenton
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 019871887X
  • Pages : 144
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

When humanity first glimpsed planet Earth from space, the unity of the system that supports humankind entered the popular consciousness. The concept of the Earth's atmosphere, biosphere, oceans, soil, and rocks operating as a closely interacting system has rapidly gained ground in science. This new field, involving geographers, geologists, biologists, oceanographers, and atmospheric physicists, is known as Earth System Science. In this Very Short Introduction, Tim Lenton considers how a world in which humans could evolve was created; how, as a species, we are now reshaping that world; and what a sustainable future for humanity within the Earth System might look like. Drawing on elements of geology, biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics, Lenton asks whether Earth System Science can help guide us onto a sustainable course before we alter the Earth system to the point where we destroy ourselves and our current civilisation. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.