Logic And Contemporary Rhetoric The Use Of Reason In Everyday Life Philosophy Philosophy

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Galileo and the Art of Reasoning

Galileo and the Art of Reasoning Pdf/ePub eBook Author: M.A. Finocchiaro
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400990170
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Galileo and the Art of Reasoning by M.A. Finocchiaro Summary

The work of Galileo has long been important not only as a foundation of modern physics but also as a model - and perhaps the paradigmatic model - of scientific method, and therefore as a leading example of scientific rationality. However, as we know, the matter is not so simple. The range of Galileo readings is so varied that one may be led to the conclusion that it is a case of chacun a son Galileo; that here, as with the Bible, or Plato or Kant or Freud or Finnegan's Wake, the texts themselves underdetermine just what moral is to be pointed. But if there is no canonical reading, how can the texts be taken as evidence or example of a canonical view of scientific rationality, as in Galileo? Or is it the case, instead, that we decide a priori what the norms of rationality are and then pick through texts to fmd those which satisfy these norms? Specifically, how and on what grounds are we to accept or reject scientific theories, or scientific reasoning? If we are to do this on the basis of historical analysis of how, in fact, theories came to be accepted or rejected, how shall we distinguish 'is' from 'ought'? What follows (if anything does) from such analysis or reconstruction about how theories ought to be accepted or rejected? Maurice Finocchiaro's study of Galileo brings an important and original approach to the question of scientific rationality by way of a systematic read

Fundamentals of Argumentation Theory

Fundamentals of Argumentation Theory Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Frans H. van Eemeren,Rob Grootendorst,Ralph H. Johnson,Christian Plantin,Charles A. Willard
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 113668803X
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Fundamentals of Argumentation Theory by Frans H. van Eemeren,Rob Grootendorst,Ralph H. Johnson,Christian Plantin,Charles A. Willard Summary

Argumentation theory is a distinctly multidisciplinary field of inquiry. It draws its data, assumptions, and methods from disciplines as disparate as formal logic and discourse analysis, linguistics and forensic science, philosophy and psychology, political science and education, sociology and law, and rhetoric and artificial intelligence. This presents the growing group of interested scholars and students with a problem of access, since it is even for those active in the field not common to have acquired a familiarity with relevant aspects of each discipline that enters into this multidisciplinary matrix. This book offers its readers a unique comprehensive survey of the various theoretical contributions which have been made to the study of argumentation. It discusses the historical works that provide the background to the field and all major approaches and trends in contemporary research. Argument has been the subject of systematic inquiry for twenty-five hundred years. It has been graced with theories, such as formal logic or the legal theory of evidence, that have acquired a more or less settled provenance with regard to specific issues. But there has been nothing to date that qualifies as a unified general theory of argumentation, in all its richness and complexity. This being so, the argumentation theorist must have access to materials and methods that lie beyond his or her "home" subject. It is precisely on this account that this volume is offered to all the constituent research communities and their students. Apart from the historical sections, each chapter provides an economical introduction to the problems and methods that characterize a given part of the contemporary research program. Because the chapters are self-contained, they can be consulted in the order of a reader's interests or research requirements. But there is value in reading the work in its entirety. Jointly authored by the very people whose research has done much to define the current state of argumentation theory and to point the way toward more general and unified future treatments, this book is an impressively authoritative contribution to the field.

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition

Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Theresa Enos
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1136993681
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Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition by Theresa Enos Summary

This reference guide surveys the field, covering rhetoric's principles, concepts, applications, practical tools, and major thinkers. Drawing on the scholarship and expertise of 288 contributors, the Encyclopedia presents a long-needed overview of rhetoric and its role in contemporary education and communications, discusses rhetoric's contributions to various fields, surveys the applications of this versatile discipline to the teaching of English and language arts, and illustrates its usefulness in all kinds of discourse, argument, and exchange of ideas. 媭

On Reasoning and Argument

On Reasoning and Argument Pdf/ePub eBook Author: David Hitchcock
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3319535625
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On Reasoning and Argument by David Hitchcock Summary

This book brings together in one place David Hitchcock’s most significant published articles on reasoning and argument. In seven new chapters he updates his thinking in the light of subsequent scholarship. Collectively, the papers articulate a distinctive position in the philosophy of argumentation. Among other things, the author:• develops an account of “material consequence” that permits evaluation of inferences without problematic postulation of unstated premises.• updates his recursive definition of argument that accommodates chaining and embedding of arguments and allows any type of illocutionary act to be a conclusion. • advances a general theory of relevance.• provides comprehensive frameworks for evaluating inferences in reasoning by analogy, means-end reasoning, and appeals to considerations or criteria.• argues that none of the forms of arguing ad hominem is a fallacy.• describes proven methods of teaching critical thinking effectively.

Adapting Human Thinking and Moral Reasoning in Contemporary Society

Adapting Human Thinking and Moral Reasoning in Contemporary Society Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Yama, Hiroshi,Salvano-Pardieu, Veronique
Editor: IGI Global
ISBN: 1799818136
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Adapting Human Thinking and Moral Reasoning in Contemporary Society by Yama, Hiroshi,Salvano-Pardieu, Veronique Summary

Studies on human thinking have focused on how humans solve a problem and have discussed how human thinking can be rational. A juxtaposition between psychology and sociology allows for a unique perspective of the influence on human thought and morality on society. Adapting Human Thinking and Moral Reasoning in Contemporary Society is an in-depth critical resource that provides comprehensive research on thinking and morality and its influence on societal norms as well as how people adapt themselves to the novel circumstances and phenomena that characterize the contemporary world, including low birthrate, the reduction of violence, and globalization. Furthermore, cultural differences are considered with research targeted towards problems specific to a culture. Featuring a wide range of topics such as logic education, cognition, and knowledge management systems, this book is ideal for academicians, sociologists, researchers, social scientists, psychologists, and students.

Reasoning and Public Health: New Ways of Coping with Uncertainty

Reasoning and Public Health: New Ways of Coping with Uncertainty Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Louise Cummings
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3319150138
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Reasoning and Public Health: New Ways of Coping with Uncertainty by Louise Cummings Summary

This book argues that in order to be truly effective, public health must embrace a group of reasoning strategies that have traditionally been characterized as informal fallacies. It will be demonstrated that these strategies can facilitate judgements about complex public health issues in contexts of uncertainty. The book explains how scientists and lay people routinely resort to the use of these strategies during consideration of public health problems. Although these strategies are not deductively valid, they are nevertheless rationally warranted procedures. Public health professionals must have a sound understanding of these cognitive strategies in order to engage the public and achieve their public health goals. The book draws upon public health issues as wide ranging as infectious diseases, food safety and the potential impact on human health of new technologies. It examines reasoning in the context of these issues within a large-scale, questionnaire-based survey of nearly 900 members of the public in the UK. In addition, several philosophical themes run throughout the book, including the nature of uncertainty, scientific knowledge and inquiry. The complexity of many public health problems demands an approach to reasoning that cannot be accommodated satisfactorily within a general thinking skills framework. This book shows that by developing an awareness of these reasoning strategies, scientists and members of the public can have a more productive engagement with public health problems.

Essais II

Essais II Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jacques Bouveresse
Editor: Agone
ISBN: 2748911059
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Essais II by Jacques Bouveresse Summary

À un moment où l’irrationalisme, le relativisme et l’historicisme radical sont devenus obligatoires pour qui veut être un philosophe de notre époque, il est réellement étonnant que le nom de Spengler n’apparaisse pour ainsi dire jamais. Il est vrai que son cas révèle de façon un peu trop voyante l’existence d’un nietzschéisme de droite (pour ne pas dire plus) : un phénomène dont les interprètes français les plus réputés n’aiment généralement pas beaucoup se souvenir. Le Nietzsche de Spengler fait partie des possibilités et des suites que l’on préfère ignorer hypocritement. De façon générale, l’intermède du IIIe Reich a rejeté dans l’oubli un certain nombre d’antécédents hautement significatifs de l’irrationalisme de la philosophie française contemporaine. On peut se demander si ce n’est pas à ce fait qu’elle doit essentiellement sa réputation d’innocence et de progressisme. Il y a des ancêtres qu’on préfère, autant que possible, ne pas connaître. Mais le mieux est encore de ne pas les avoir. Depuis les années 1960, Jacques Bouveresse n’a cessé de confronter nos modes philosophiques successives aux idées d’auteurs « peu fréquentés » ou « mal famés » : Gottfried Benn, le poète expressionniste ; Oswald Spengler, le penseur du Déclin de l’Occident ; Karl Kraus, le satiriste ; mais aussi les philosophes de la tradition autrichienne, notamment ceux du Cercle de Vienne ; et bien sûr Robert Musil. Il n’y a pas seulement trouvé des armes dans son combat contre les fausses valeurs du monde intellectuel. Il pose en les lisant une question cruciale pour tout rationaliste : quelle part de vérité peut-on reconnaître à l’irrationalisme ou au nietzschéisme sans risquer de perdre l’essentiel ? Professeur au Collège de France, Jacques Bouveresse a publié de nombreux ouvrages de philosophie du langage et de la connaissance mais aussi sur des écrivains comme Robert Musil et Karl Kraus. Il est aussi l’un des principaux commentateurs français de Ludwig Wittgenstein.

La Construction sociale de la réalité - 3e éd.

La Construction sociale de la réalité - 3e éd. Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Peter Berger,Thomas Luckmann
Editor: Armand Colin
ISBN: 2200622600
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La Construction sociale de la réalité - 3e éd. by Peter Berger,Thomas Luckmann Summary

Qu’est-ce que le réel ? Comment le connaître ? Comment se produit l’articulation entre les faits objectifs et les significations subjectives ? Par quels processus un ensemble de typifications devient-il une réalité socialement établie ? Comment finissons-nous par vivre, au milieu de sociétés plurielles, dans un monde commun ? L'importance et le succès durable de ce livre majeur du constructivisme tiennent à la place unique qu’il occupe dans l’histoire de la théorie sociale. L'ouvrage, présenté par D. Martucelli et F. de Singly, s’enrichit d’une introduction inédite qui facilite la compréhension de ce texte exigeant.

Bad Arguments

Bad Arguments Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Robert Arp,Steven Barbone,Michael Bruce
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119165792
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Bad Arguments by Robert Arp,Steven Barbone,Michael Bruce Summary

A timely and accessible guide to 100 of the most infamous logical fallacies in Western philosophy, helping readers avoid and detect false assumptions and faulty reasoning You’ll love this book or you’ll hate it. So, you’re either with us or against us. And if you’re against us then you hate books. No true intellectual would hate this book. Ever decide to avoid a restaurant because of one bad meal? Choose a product because a celebrity endorsed it? Or ignore what a politician says because she’s not a member of your party? For as long as people have been discussing, conversing, persuading, advocating, proselytizing, pontificating, or otherwise stating their case, their arguments have been vulnerable to false assumptions and faulty reasoning. Drawing upon a long history of logical falsehoods and philosophical flubs, Bad Arguments demonstrates how misguided arguments come to be, and what we can do to detect them in the rhetoric of others and avoid using them ourselves. Fallacies—or conclusions that don’t follow from their premise—are at the root of most bad arguments, but it can be easy to stumble into a fallacy without realizing it. In this clear and concise guide to good arguments gone bad, Robert Arp, Steven Barbone, and Michael Bruce take readers through 100 of the most infamous fallacies in Western philosophy, identifying the most common missteps, pitfalls, and dead-ends of arguments gone awry. Whether an instance of sunk costs, is ought, affirming the consequent, moving the goal post, begging the question, or the ever-popular slippery slope, each fallacy engages with examples drawn from contemporary politics, economics, media, and popular culture. Further diagrams and tables supplement entries and contextualize common errors in logical reasoning. At a time in our world when it is crucial to be able to identify and challenge rhetorical half-truths, this bookhelps readers to better understand flawed argumentation and develop logical literacy. Unrivaled in its breadth of coverage and a worthy companion to its sister volume Just the Arguments (2011), Bad Arguments is an essential tool for undergraduate students and general readers looking to hone their critical thinking and rhetorical skills.

Décoloniser l'esprit

Décoloniser l'esprit Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Ngugi Wa Thiong'O
Editor: La fabrique éditions
ISBN: 2358721514
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Décoloniser l'esprit by Ngugi Wa Thiong'O Summary

" Ce livre est mon adieu à l'anglais ": Ngugi wa Thiong'o, romancier kényan, n'y va pas par quatre chemins, il décide que désormais, il n'écrira plus qu'en kikuyu. Pour un auteur dont les oeuvres sont largement diffusées dans le monde anglophone, c'est une lourde décision, dont Décoloniser l'esprit, écrit en 1986, explique les raisons. L'origine remonte à une "Conférence des écrivains africains de langue anglaise", organisée en 1962, en Ouganda : elle excluait les auteurs écrivant dans l'une ou l'autre des langues africaines, et le jeune Ngugi se posait alors la question : "Comment a-t-il été possible que nous, écrivains africains, fassions preuve de tant de faiblesse dans la défense de nos propres langues et de tant d'avidité dans la revendication de langues étrangères, à commencer par celles de nos colonisateurs ?" A travers son parcours personnel de romancier et d'homme de théâtre, Ngugi wa Thiong'o montre que le rôle donné aux littératures orales africaines, la vision de l'Afrique comme un tout et non comme un découpage issu de la colonisation, la référence aux traditions de résistance populaire, tout cela qui passe par la langue est la condition nécessaire pour décoloniser l'esprit. Ngugi wa Thiong'o est actuellement professeur et directeur de l'International Center for Writing and Translation à l'université de Californie à Irvine.

La philosophie - Un art de vivre

La philosophie - Un art de vivre Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Collectif
Editor: Sciences Humaines
ISBN: 2361064537
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La philosophie - Un art de vivre by Collectif Summary

Socrate, Platon, Aristote, Epicure, les sages de l'Orient, Spinoza, Kant, Marx, Sartre, Nietzsche, Cioran, Camus, les penseurs de la deep ecology... Les philosophes d'hier à aujourd'hui nous apportent bien plus que des recettes, une autre manière de voir le monde et de le vivre. Que peut bien nous apporter la philosophie pour la conduite de notre vie ? À l'heure où la psychologie, les religions, les techniques corporelles ou les régimes en tout genre prospèrent, la question mérite d'être posée. On ne peut attendre des philosophies (car elles sont plurielles) qu'elles nous donnent des recettes toutes faites ou des réponses univoques. De l'Antiquité à l'époque contemporaine, de Socrate à Martha Nussbaum ou Richard Shusterman, l'histoire de la philosophie nous montre que les voies de la sagesse sont nombreuses. Du reste, toutes ne recherchent pas le bonheur. Bien conduire sa vie peut, en effet, répondre à d'autres attentes : faire le bien, accepter l'absurde ou la vulnérabilité, vivre en accord avec ses convictions religieuses, être vertueux... Mais toutes nous aident à prendre du recul, à appréhender l'homme autrement, à repenser notre place dans le monde et à élargir notre horizon. Ce faisant, à dépasser une approche trop souvent individualiste de ces questions. Frustrant ? Non, tout simplement lucide et réaliste. Si la recette du bien vivre existait, nous l'aurions déjà trouvée... et tous adoptée. Chacun emprunte sa voie mais gageons que les enseignements des philosophes peuvent aider à construire la sienne. Se décentrer, voir le monde et la place de l'homme sous un autre jour, pas simplement pour penser mais aussi pour vivre différemment. Avec un souci éthique : mettre en cohérence ses idées et son existence. Ce qui n'est en soi pas une mince affaire mais, sinon, à quoi bon penser ?


Ménon Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Platon
Editor: Culture commune
ISBN: 236307792X
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Ménon by Platon Summary

Ménon Platon (traduction Victor Cousin) Cet ouvrage a fait l'objet d'un véritable travail en vue d'une édition numérique. Un travail typographique le rend facile et agréable à lire. Le Ménon est un des dialogues de Platon consacrés à la doctrine de la réminiscence dans lequel Ménon et Socrate essaient de trouver la définition de la vertu, sa nature, afin de savoir si la vertu s'enseigne ou, sinon, de quelle façon elle est obtenue. Dans un premier temps, la question examinée est donc celle de l'essence de la vertu. Néanmoins, après plusieurs vaines tentatives de réponse, Socrate et Ménon examinent la question plus générale encore : la connaissance est-elle seulement possible ? Et comment ? L'interrogation sur la vertu se poursuit dans un troisième temps, avec l'examen de la question posée initialement par Ménon, celle de l'enseignement de la vertu. Retrouvez l'ensemble de nos collections sur http://www.culturecommune.com/

Issues in Political Systems Research: 2011 Edition

Issues in Political Systems Research: 2011 Edition Pdf/ePub eBook Author: N.A
Editor: ScholarlyEditions
ISBN: 1464966265
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Issues in Political Systems Research: 2011 Edition by N.A Summary

Issues in Political Systems Research / 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Political Systems Research. The editors have built Issues in Political Systems Research: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Political Systems Research in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Political Systems Research: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Revisiting Modernism

Revisiting Modernism Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Maria-Ana Tupan
Editor: Aesthetics Media Services
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Revisiting Modernism by Maria-Ana Tupan Summary

By shifting the centre of gravity from author to reader, Roland Barthes had certainly prepared us for a Copernican turn in aesthetics, yet Michael J. Pearce’s Art in the Age of Emergence still sounds unfamiliar two years after its publication. While acknowledging the existence of homologies among the art objects of a cultural phase, the Californian academic also launches an explanatory hypothesis:”I realized that in order to understand art, instead of looking for the similarities between the paintings and the sculptures we have to look at the similarities between the people looking at them. Art is better explained by looking at how the mind works than by looking at the products of mind.”(XV). The substitution of the phenomenology of mind for the phenomenology of the work of art can only have a partial contribution to the understanding of period terms, yet not devoid of relevance. The numerous studies in modernism published of late, for instance, are revisionary, the changing views being motivated by the new historical context rather than by a new assessment of forms. The mind turns out to be working acording to the critical theory it has been exposed to or which it has freely embraced. Relegated to the status of socio-political movement without aesthetic significance since 1939, when Clement Greenberg associated it with kitsch, to Renato Poggioli, Peter Bürger or Christopher Butler (Early Modernism: Literature, Music, and Painting in Europe, 1900-1916, 1994), the avant-garde came to be enshrined as the weightiest artistic phenomenon and “the last post of modernism” by Richard Sheppard in Modernism-Dada-Postmodernism (2000), who joined thus a new party of postmodern critics, among whom, Linda Hutcheon, who see the historical avant-garde as the generative matrix of the post-war literature in the 50s and the 60s, stretching the term to include the French nouveau roman or the Tel Quel. Quoted by Sheppard on Marx’s Communist Manifesto being “the first great modernist work of art”, Marshall Berman (All That Is Solid Melts into Air, 1982) too welcomes modernism into the sixties and seventies. Titles, such as, Avant Garde and After: Rethinking Art Now, by Brandon Taylor, have tilted the scales measuring modernism against the avant-garde into a more balanced position, even if also the leads of the earlier twentieth century have been the object of New-Historicist and culturalist approaches that corrected the Axel Castle icon of egocentric aloofness through readings that evinced the substantial presence of history in the writings of Woolf, Joyce or D. H. Lawrence. With interdisicplinarity the latest buzz word in the academic world, lots of studies have been dedicated to the influence of Non-Euclidian Geometry, relativity and quantum physics on modernist art, for instance, Surrealism, Art and Modern Science. Relativity, Quantum Mechanics,Epistemology by Gavin Parkinson (2008). The most spectacular renovation has probably been undergone by no other than Charles Baudelaire, the founding father, who has been removed from his site with transcendent flavours and symbolic correspondences and inserted into the phantasmagoric pre-cinematic media world : Marit Grotta: Baudelaire's Media Aesthetics (The Gaze of the Flâneur and 19-th Century Media). If we travel back in time to get a feeling of what modernists saw in each other and compare their vision with such contemporary framing, we realize to what extent the history of reception modifies the history of composition. Mina Loy’s ekphrasis of sculptor Brancusi’s Golden Bird, for instance, conveys the modernist artist’s infatuation with archetypes, tropes of immaculate conception, “breast of revelation”or hyperaesthesia – the alchemy whereby the senses projected a secondary reality of mixed perceptions. Is there a possibility to negotiate meanings when talking to the dead, as Stephen Greenblatt has put it in the opening of Shakespearean Negotiations? Used also by Ayendy Bonifacio in his essay on Hart Crane,” interliterariness” is a middle-European term for what Russian semioticians or French and American social critics or American New Historicists had already attempted to achieve: an archeology of meaning, a history and a philosophy of culture that help the visitor of past ages assess meaning and value. The more elements of a culture’s codes are absorbed into an art object, the more representative and valuable is its testimony in the history of the spirit. Understanding such ”serious and heavy” codes, as Pound dubbed them, takes longer, studies of a work’s genealogy bringing it to light in all its complexity. The history of literature is replete with such novas, Irish Flann O’Brien, whose works are an ark of his time’s literary, aesthetic, scientific or political ideas, is the revelation of the last decade, emerging almost out of anonymity thanks to systematic research initiated by a team coordinated by Professor Werner Huber from the University of Vienna. Whether the Virgilian guide be New Historicist Greenblatt, or, as suggested by Professor Sachin C. Ketkar in his essay, Lotman’s semiotics or Dionyz Durisin’s study of the discursive exchanges of semantic energy across national boundaries, it becomes possible, for instance, to read Mardhekar in the context of the international modernist movements and in light of ”interliterary ‘genetic-contactual relations’ instead of the idea of ‘influence’ which invariably brings in normative hierarchy between the influencer and the influenced, placing the latter on a lower or secondary position.” In the beginning, building international communities was indeed a matter of hierarchies of power. Japan or China were forced to open their harbours to international trade, coming out of their ancestral isolation, while the Macaulay law forced Indians into chimeric native bodies and Emglish minds. Merchants or colonizers, however, opened the way to enlightened politicians, scientists or artists. In his History of Romanian Civilization, Eugen Lovinescu, critic and editor of the earlier twentieth century, distinguishes between evolutionary and revolutionary models of culture. The major cultures know a continuous and organic growth, whereas minor ones, lured by centres of influence, break off abrupty from their traditions borrowing foreign models. That is why it is easy to date period terms in the latter, whereas the former have very discreet lines of demarcation. Ezra Pound’s manifesto of imagism, for instance, is heavily indebted to Alfred Binet’s model of reasoning through associations of images instead of syllogisms, but ahead of Binet there was Herbart, and before Herbart, Kant, who had borrowed ideas for his Anthropology from David Hume ... It is again the constitution of homologies across disciplinary spheres and reciprocal loans that allow an observer to identify a territorialization, as Deleuze calls it, that is, a distinct type of culture. Politically speaking, modernism begins with Baudelaire’s declaration of war on the bourgeois: “Vous êtes la majorité, – nombre et intelligence ; – donc vous êtes la force, – qui est la justice.”(You are the majority - in number and intelligence; therefore you are the force – which is justice – Salon de 1846). With its nomination of the working class as being entitled to lead the other social classes – which they did when they had the chance – Marx’s Capital meant even less democracy than the bourgeois republic. The modernist political discourse was one of individualism and human rights, built on Jefferson’s model. It is this fascinating rebel against hypocritical social conventions that still appeals to the nonconformist youth cultures, Shweta Basu undertaking a study in the translation of “Flowers of Evil” across cultures and rmedia in a Japonese manga series. Modernism saw the collapse of dynasties, and the foundation of international leagues of nations enjoying equal rights or of clubs of the intellectual elites of all nations (PEN CLUB). E. M. Forster was writing in 1938: “I believe in aristocracy . . . Not an aristocracy of power, based upon rank and influence, but an aristocracy of the sensitive, the considerate and the plucky.” Under the circumstances of huge differences in point of civilization – Bipin Balachandran mentions the case of Poland and other middle and East-European countries – but capitalizing on the widely circulated narrative of the superiority of culture over civilization, which was considered to be rapidly changing into a soulless machinery, individual contacts of scholars or artists contributed to the emergence of a truly international spirit and a cosmopolitan culture. By contrast, the eighteenth century had thrived on models of justified hierarchies (the best of all possible worlds), colonizing missions, histories of empires to learn from them the rise to international power. The systematic oppositions we can establish between the Enlightenment and modernism prevent us from merging them into ”a singular modernity” (Frederic Jameson). The culture of modernism is a hybrid one, with metropolitan cultures fascinated by the new nations they were put in contact with, open to the foreigners who sought them out to study or pursue a career. Japanese art was studied and imitated, while the interest in India, aroused by the discovery of the common origin of Indo-European languages, by Schopenhauer’s philosophy or by Madame Balavatsky’s esoteric pursuits, emulated by the British and the Americans alike, reached such proportions that references to India almost became a sign of recognition. Even quantum physics pioneers, Heisenber and Schrὅdinger, owned a debt to Hindu mythology and the Indian logic of the included third. Naturally possessed of this mindset, physicist Satyendra Nath Bose initiated calculations of a new state of condensed matter, where atoms lose their identity reaching the peace of a frozen quantum state of superimposed waves. The experiment is known as the Bhose-Einstein condensate. A very fashionable topic of research nowadays, the search for native forms of modernism outside the centrality of Paris, London or New York is usually successful. Paraphrasing, scratch a national culture and you will find traces of modernism. It was not difficult for Rindon Kundu and Saswati Saha to spot out a Wagner in Latin America in the person of Rubén Darío, and even an aesthetic contest between him and Enrique González Martínez, similar to the Wyndham Lewis-Marinetti duel in Europe. For T.S. Eliot, India was a myth of origin from The Love Song of Alfred Prufrock to The Waste Land. As he confessed in a speech in memory of Rudyard Kipling, the former was inspired by The Love Song of Har Dyal. Eliot’s protagonist is spiritualy impoverished, frustrated by lack, not of love affairs but of strong feelings, like those that give lovers the courage to risk their lives in the Indian story. Anindita Mukherjee chooses another contextualization, out of many possible, as is the case with the erudite modernists, and that is Rilke’s thoughts on love disclosed to a young poet who had asked him for advice. In that letter, Rilke says that dragons are but princesses who want to see their lovers courageous. Prufrock is acutely aware of his inferiority in relation to bright, cultivated women, who comment on his weakness, while the imagery surrounding them suggests the strength of warrior-women (And I have known the arms already, known them all— /Arms that are braceleted). The essayist notices though the redemption of the protagonist, his final capacity to dismiss his daily routine as rubbish and reach for transcendence. Sumi Bora looks into textual traces of the relationship between the poet and his rhetorical masks, interrogating the status of the authorial figure and biography in the modernist text. The web of mythic allusions in The Waste Land is a familiar feature of the modernist agenda ”to seek reality and justice in a single vision (Yeats). Nisarga Bhattacharjee and Ananya Chatterjee write on the modernists’ use of myth as part of the mythopoetic tradition, blooming into extended metaphors of life or of the human condition, while Susan Haris is plumbing into the symbolism of unconscious drives and identification with elementary nature in D.H. Lawrence’s personal version of psychoanalysis. The figural psyche of modernist fiction and the gendered landscape of female isolation is Lava Asaad’s focus on the early modernist career of Jean Rhys, better known for her postcolonial rewriting of Jane Eyre. Is there an aesthetic continuity between the historical avant-garde and the Beat Generation or the abstract expressionism in the 50s and 60s? Allen Ginsberg, John Ashbery or Lawrence Ferlinghetti engage often in dialogue with precedent canonical texts, their intertexts sinning on the side of courteous attitudes to tradition, which does not fit into the context of Marinetti’s dismissal of libraries, academies and museums (The Futurist Manifesto). Abstract art is, obviously, something different from found objects, while, in critical theory, the fifties and the sixties saw the rise of semiotics, psychoanalysis, deconstruction, feminism, that is, of the very practice of interdisciplinarity in literary criticism, something at the other pole from New Criticism and other formalisms in which ended up structuralism. Although not irrelevant in point of aesthetic achievement, Ayendy Bonifacio writing persuasively on Hart Crane’s constructivist rhetoric, the avant-garde is still perceived as a self-standing chapter in the cultural history of modernism. The exchange of cultural narratives and traditions, fostered by historical circumstances but also by Worringer’s aesthetics that praised primitive art for its tendencies towards abstraction in flight from a threatening and alien nature, that could provide a spiritual cure to a materialistic civilization, was defining for the poetics of art at the turn of the last century. Modernism was humanity’s first coming together.