Mesoscopic Physics Of Electrons And Photons

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Mesoscopic Physics and Electronics

Mesoscopic Physics and Electronics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: ,
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642719767
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Mesoscopic Physics and Electronics by , Summary

Semiconductor technology has developed considerably during the past several decades. The exponential growth in microelectronic processing power has been achieved by a constant scaling down of integrated cir,cuits. Smaller fea ture sizes result in increased functional density, faster speed, and lower costs. One key ingredient of the LSI technology is the development of the lithog raphy and microfabrication. The current minimum feature size is already as small as 0.2 /tm, beyond the limit imposed by the wavelength of visible light and rapidly approaching fundamental limits. The next generation of devices is highly likely to show unexpected properties due to quantum effects and fluctuations. The device which plays an important role in LSIs is MOSFETs (metal oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors). In MOSFETs an inversion layer is formed at the interface of silicon and its insulating oxide. The inversion layer provides a unique two-dimensional (2D) system in which the electron concentration is controlled almost freely over a very wide range. Physics of such 2D systems was born in the mid-1960s together with the development of MOSFETs. The integer quantum Hall effect was first discovered in this system.

Nanophysics: Coherence and Transport

Nanophysics: Coherence and Transport Pdf/ePub eBook Author: ,
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080461243
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Nanophysics: Coherence and Transport by , Summary

The developments of nanofabrication in the past years have enabled the design of electronic systems that exhibit spectacular signatures of quantum coherence. Nanofabricated quantum wires and dots containing a small number of electrons are ideal experimental playgrounds for probing electron-electron interactions and their interplay with disorder. Going down to even smaller scales, molecules such as carbon nanotubes, fullerenes or hydrogen molecules can now be inserted in nanocircuits. Measurements of transport through a single chain of atoms have been performed as well. Much progress has also been made in the design and fabrication of superconducting and hybrid nanostructures, be they normal/superconductor or ferromagnetic/superconductor. Quantum coherence is then no longer that of individual electronic states, but rather that of a superconducting wavefunction of a macroscopic number of Cooper pairs condensed in the same quantum mechanical state. Beyond the study of linear response regime, the physics of non-equilibrium transport (including non-linear transport, rectification of a high frequency electric field as well as shot noise) has received much attention, with significant experimental and theoretical insights. All these quantities exhibit very specific signatures of the quantum nature of transport, which cannot be obtained from basic conductance measurements. Basic concepts and analytical tools needed to understand this new physics are presented in a series of theoretical fundamental courses, in parallel with more phenomenological ones where physics is discussed in a less formal way and illustrated by many experiments. · Electron-electron interactions in one-dimensional quantum transport · Coulomb Blockade and Kondo physics in quantum dots · Out of equilibrium noise and quantum transport · Andreev reflection and subgap nonlinear transport in hybrid N/S nanosructures. · Transport through atomic contacts · Solid state Q-bits · Written by leading experts in the field, both theorists and experimentalists

Topological Aspects of Condensed Matter Physics

Topological Aspects of Condensed Matter Physics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Claudio Chamon,Mark O. Goerbig,Roderich Moessner,Leticia F. Cugliandolo
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019108879X
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Topological Aspects of Condensed Matter Physics by Claudio Chamon,Mark O. Goerbig,Roderich Moessner,Leticia F. Cugliandolo Summary

This book contains lecture notes by world experts on one of the most rapidly growing fields of research in physics. Topological quantum phenomena are being uncovered at unprecedented rates in novel material systems. The consequences are far reaching, from the possibility of carrying currents and performing computations without dissipation of energy, to the possibility of realizing platforms for topological quantum computation.The pedagogical lectures contained in this book are an excellent introduction to this blooming field. The lecture notes are intended for graduate students or advanced undergraduate students in physics and mathematics who want to immerse in this exciting XXI century physics topic. This Les Houches Summer School presents an overview of this field, along with a sense of its origins and its placement on the map of fundamental physics advancements. The School comprised a set of basic lectures (part 1) aimed at a pedagogical introduction of the fundamental concepts, which was accompanied by more advanced lectures (part 2) covering individual topics at the forefront of today's research in condensed-matter physics.

Quantum Foundations And Open Quantum Systems: Lecture Notes Of The Advanced School

Quantum Foundations And Open Quantum Systems: Lecture Notes Of The Advanced School Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Nieuwenhuizen Theo M,Pombo Claudia,Furtado Claudio
Editor: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814616745
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Quantum Foundations And Open Quantum Systems: Lecture Notes Of The Advanced School by Nieuwenhuizen Theo M,Pombo Claudia,Furtado Claudio Summary

The Advanced School on Quantum Foundations and Open Quantum Systems was an exceptional combination of lectures. These comprise lectures in standard physics and investigations on the foundations of quantum physics.On the one hand it included lectures on quantum information, quantum open systems, quantum transport and quantum solid state. On the other hand it included lectures on quantum measurement, models for elementary particles, sub-quantum structures and aspects on the philosophy and principles of quantum physics.The special program of this school offered a broad outlook on the current and near future fundamental research in theoretical physics.The lectures are at the level of PhD students.

Nano-Physics and Bio-Electronics

Nano-Physics and Bio-Electronics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: T. Chakraborty,F. Peeters,U. Sivan
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080537245
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Nano-Physics and Bio-Electronics by T. Chakraborty,F. Peeters,U. Sivan Summary

This book is a collection of some of the invited talks presented at the international meeting held at the Max Planck Institut fuer Physik Komplexer Systeme, Dresden, Germany during August 6-30, 2001, on the rapidly developing field of nanoscale science in science and bio-electronics Semiconductor physics has experienced unprecedented developments over the second half of the twentieth century. The exponential growth in microelectronic processing power and the size of dynamic memorie has been achieved by significant downscaling of the minimum feature size. Smaller feature sizes result in increased functional density, faster speed, and lower costs. In this process one is reaching the limits where quantum effects and fluctuations are beginning to play an important role. This book reflects the achievements of the present times and future directions of research on nanoscopic dimensions.

From Atomic to Mesoscale

From Atomic to Mesoscale Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Svetlana A Malinovskaya,Irina Novikova
Editor: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814678716
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From Atomic to Mesoscale by Svetlana A Malinovskaya,Irina Novikova Summary

This volume presents the latest advancements and future developments of atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) physics and its vital role in modern sciences and technologies. The chapters are devoted to studies of a wide range of quantum systems, with an emphasis on understanding of quantum coherence and other quantum phenomena originated from light-matter interactions. The book intends to survey the current research landscape and to highlight major scientific trends in AMO physics as well as those interfacing with interdisciplinary sciences. The volume may be particularly useful for young researchers working on establishing their scientific interests and goals. Contents:Collective Phenomena and Long-Range Interactions in Ultracold Atoms and Molecules:Quantum Magnetism with Ultracold Molecules (M L Wall, K R A Hazzard and A M Rey)Optical Manipulation of Light Scattering in Cold Atomic Rubidium (R G Olave, A L Win, K Kemp, S J Roof, S Balik, M D Havey, I M Sokolov and D V Kupriyanov)Seeing Spin Dynamics in Atomic Gases (D M Stamper-Kurn)Atom-like Coherent Solid State Systems:Precision Magnetic Sensing and Imaging Using NV-Diamond (R L Walsworth)Entanglement and Quantum Optics with Quantum Dots (A P Burgers, J R Schaibley and D G Steel)Coherent Nanophotonics and Plasmonics:Enhancement of Single-Photon Sources with Metamaterials (M Y Shalaginov, S Bogdanov, V V Vorobyov, A S Lagutchev, A V Kildishev, A V Akimov, A Boltassevaand V M Shalaev)Linear Optical Properties of Periodic Hybrid Materials at Oblique Incidence: A Numerical Approach (A Blake and M Sukharev)Fundamental Physics:An Introduction to Boson-Sampling (B T Gard, K R Motes, J P Olson, P P Rohde and J P Dowling)New Approach to Quantum Amplification by Superradiant Emission of Radiation (G Shchedrin, Y Rostovtsev, X Zhang and M O Scully)Ultrafast Dynamics in Strong Laser Fields:Circularly Polarized Attosecond Pulses and Molecular Atto-Magnetism (A D Bandrauk and K-J Yuan)Many-Electron Response of Gas-Phase Fullerene Materials to Ultraviolet and Soft X-ray Photons (H S Chakraborty and M Magrakvelidze)Ultracold Chemistry:Collisions and Reactions in Ultracold Gases (N Balakrishnan and J Hazra) Readership: For professional researchers as well as young academics in the field of Atomic, Molecular and Optical (AMO) physics. Key Features:The contributors for this volume are all internationally recognized experts in their fieldsThis book offers a unique overview of the state of current AMO physics, while outlining future directions. No comparable titles have been identified so far (by editors or by reviewers)All contributions include new unpublished research, and will be of interest for anyone pursuing the scientific investigations in the presented areasKeywords:Quantum Coherence;Amo;Atomic Physics;Quantum Control;Ultracold Atoms;Ultracold Molecules;Nv-diamonds;Quantum Dots;Quantum Magnetism;Nanophotonics;Plasmonics;Ultrafast Dynamics;Ultracold Chemistry

Optical Properties of Photonic Structures

Optical Properties of Photonic Structures Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Mikhail F. Limonov,Richard M. De La Rue
Editor: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1439871922
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Optical Properties of Photonic Structures by Mikhail F. Limonov,Richard M. De La Rue Summary

The collection of articles in this book offers a penetrating shaft into the still burgeoning subject of light propagation and localization in photonic crystals and disordered media. While the subject has its origins in physics, it has broad significance and applicability in disciplines such as engineering, chemistry, mathematics, and medicine. Unlike other branches of physics, where the phenomena under consideration require extreme conditions of temperature, pressure, energy, or isolation from competing effects, the phenomena related to light localization survive under the most ordinary of conditions. This provides the science described in this book with broad applicability and vitality. However, the greatest challenge to the further development of this field is in the reliable and inexpensive synthesis of materials of the required composition, architecture and length scale, where the proper balance between order and disorder is realized. Similar challenges have been faced and overcome in fields such as semiconductor science and technology. The challenge of photonic crystal synthesis has inspired a variety of novel fabrication protocols such as self-assembly and optical interference lithography that offer much less expensive approaches than conventional semiconductor microlithography. Once these challenges are fully met, it is likely that light propagation and localization in photonic microstructures will be at the heart of a 21st-century revolution in science and technology. —From the Introduction, Sajeev John, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada One of the first books specifically focused on disorder in photonic structures, Optical Properties of Photonic Structures: Interplay of Order and Disorder explores how both order and disorder provide the key to the different regimes of light transport and to the systematic localization and trapping of light. Collecting contributions from leaders of research activity in the field, the book covers many important directions, methods, and approaches. It describes various one-, two-, and three-dimensional structures, including opals, aperiodic Fibonacci-type photonic structures, photonic amorphous structures, photonic glasses, Lévy glasses, and hypersonic, magnetophotonic, and plasmonic–photonic crystals with nanocavities, quantum dots, and lasing action. The book also addresses practical applications in areas such as optical communications, optical computing, laser surgery, and energy.

Physics of Atomic Nuclei

Physics of Atomic Nuclei Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Vladimir Zelevinsky,Alexander Volya
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527693602
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Physics of Atomic Nuclei by Vladimir Zelevinsky,Alexander Volya Summary

This advanced textbook presents an extensive and diverse study of low-energy nuclear physics considering the nucleus as a quantum system of strongly interacting constituents. The contents guide students from the basic facts and ideas to more modern topics including important developments over the last 20 years, resulting in a comprehensive collection of major modern-day nuclear models otherwise unavailable in the current literature. The book emphasizes the common features of the nucleus and other many-body mesoscopic systems currently in the center of interest in physics. The authors have also included full problem sets that can be selected by lecturers and adjusted to specific interests for more advanced students, with many chapters containing links to freely available computer code. As a result, readers are equipped for scientific work in mesoscopic physics.

Fundamentals and Frontiers of the Josephson Effect

Fundamentals and Frontiers of the Josephson Effect Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Francesco Tafuri
Editor: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030207269
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Fundamentals and Frontiers of the Josephson Effect by Francesco Tafuri Summary

This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date description of the Josephson effect, a topic of never-ending interest in both fundamental and applied physics. In this volume, world-renowned experts present the unique aspects of the physics of the Josephson effect, resulting from the use of new materials, of hybrid architectures and from the possibility of realizing nanoscale junctions. These new experimental capabilities lead to systems where novel coherent phenomena and transport processes emerge. All this is of great relevance and impact, especially when combined with the didactic approach of the book. The reader will benefit from a general and modern view of coherent phenomena in weakly-coupled superconductors on a macroscopic scale. Topics that have been only recently discussed in specialized papers and in short reviews are described here for the first time and organized in a general framework. An important section of the book is also devoted to applications, with focus on long-term, future applications. In addition to a significant number of illustrations, the book includes numerous tables for comparative studies on technical aspects.

Quantum-Enhanced Nonlinear Spectroscopy

Quantum-Enhanced Nonlinear Spectroscopy Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Frank Schlawin
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3319443976
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Quantum-Enhanced Nonlinear Spectroscopy by Frank Schlawin Summary

This thesis focuses on nonlinear spectroscopy from a quantum optics perspective. First, it provides a detailed introduction to nonlinear optical signals; starting from Glauber’s photon counting formalism, it establishes the diagrammatic formulation, which forms the backbone of nonlinear molecular spectroscopy. The main body of the thesis investigates the impact of quantum correlations in entangled photon states on two-photon transitions, with a particular focus on the time-energy uncertainty, which restricts the possible simultaneous time and frequency resolution in measurements. It found that this can be violated with entangled light for individual transitions. The thesis then presents simulations of possible experimental setups that could exploit this quantum advantage. The final chapter is devoted to an application of the rapidly growing field of multidimensional spectroscopy to trapped ion chains, where it is employed to investigate nonequilibrium properties in quantum simulations.

Progress in Optics

Progress in Optics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: ,
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080879314
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Progress in Optics by , Summary

In the fourty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments. Backscattering and Anderson localization of light Advances in oliton manipulation in optical lattices Fundamental quantum noise in optical amplification Invisibility cloaks

Quantum Mechanics with Applications to Nanotechnology and Information Science

Quantum Mechanics with Applications to Nanotechnology and Information Science Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Yehuda B. Band,Yshai Avishai
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0444537872
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Quantum Mechanics with Applications to Nanotechnology and Information Science by Yehuda B. Band,Yshai Avishai Summary

Quantum mechanics transcends and supplants classical mechanics at the atomic and subatomic levels. It provides the underlying framework for many subfields of physics, chemistry and materials science, including condensed matter physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, quantum chemistry, particle physics, and nuclear physics. It is the only way we can understand the structure of materials, from the semiconductors in our computers to the metal in our automobiles. It is also the scaffolding supporting much of nanoscience and nanotechnology. The purpose of this book is to present the fundamentals of quantum theory within a modern perspective, with emphasis on applications to nanoscience and nanotechnology, and information-technology. As the frontiers of science have advanced, the sort of curriculum adequate for students in the sciences and engineering twenty years ago is no longer satisfactory today. Hence, the emphasis on new topics that are not included in older reference texts, such as quantum information theory, decoherence and dissipation, and on applications to nanotechnology, including quantum dots, wires and wells. This book provides a novel approach to Quantum Mechanics whilst also giving readers the requisite background and training for the scientists and engineers of the 21st Century who need to come to grips with quantum phenomena The fundamentals of quantum theory are provided within a modern perspective, with emphasis on applications to nanoscience and nanotechnology, and information-technology Older books on quantum mechanics do not contain the amalgam of ideas, concepts and tools necessary to prepare engineers and scientists to deal with the new facets of quantum mechanics and their application to quantum information science and nanotechnology As the frontiers of science have advanced, the sort of curriculum adequate for students in the sciences and engineering twenty years ago is no longer satisfactory today There are many excellent quantum mechanics books available, but none have the emphasis on nanotechnology and quantum information science that this book has

Nonequilibrium Statistical Physics

Nonequilibrium Statistical Physics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Noëlle Pottier
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191574279
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Nonequilibrium Statistical Physics by Noëlle Pottier Summary

While systems at equilibrium are treated in a unified manner through the partition function formalism, the statistical physics of out-of-equilibrium systems covers a large variety of situations that are often without apparent connection. This book proposes a unified perspective on the whole set of systems near equilibrium: it brings out the profound unity of the laws which govern them and gathers together a large number of results usually fragmented in the literature. The reader will find in this book a pedagogical account of the fundamental results: physical origins of irreversibility, fluctuation-dissipation theorem, Boltzmann equation, linear response, Onsager relations, transport phenomena, Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations. The book's comprehensive organization makes it valuable both as a textbook about irreversible phenomena and as a reference book for researchers.

Functional Surfaces in Biology III

Functional Surfaces in Biology III Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Stanislav N. Gorb,Elena V. Gorb
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3319741446
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Functional Surfaces in Biology III by Stanislav N. Gorb,Elena V. Gorb Summary

This book is devoted to the rapidly growing area of science dealing with structure and properties of biological surfaces in their relation to particular functions. This volume, written by a team of specialists from different disciplines, covers various biological surface functions: sensing, coloration, attachment, drag reduction, moisture harvesting, etc. Because biological surfaces have a virtually endless potential of technological ideas for the development of new materials and systems, inspirations from biology could also be interesting for a broad range of topics in surface engineering. This volume together with two previous volumes “Functional Surfaces in Biology” (vols. 1 & 2 published in 2009) taken together, present a good reference for a novice in the field. The book is intended for use by researchers who are active, or intend to become active, in the field. The appeal of this topic is expected to be broad, ranging from classical biology, biomechanics and physics to such applied fields as materials science and surface engineering.

Nanodevices for Photonics and Electronics

Nanodevices for Photonics and Electronics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Paolo Bettotti
Editor: CRC Press
ISBN: 9814613754
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Nanodevices for Photonics and Electronics by Paolo Bettotti Summary

Photonics and electronics are endlessly converging into a single technology by exploiting the possibilities created by nanostructuring of materials and devices. It is expected that next-generation optoelectronic devices will show great improvements in terms of performance, flexibility, and energy consumption: the main limits of nanoelectronics will be overcome by using a photonics approach, while nanophotonics will become a mature technology, thanks to miniaturization strategies developed in microelectronics. Mastering such a complex subject requires a multidisciplinary approach and a solid knowledge of several topics. This book gives a broad overview of recent advances in several topical aspects of nanophotonics and nanoelectronics, keeping an eye on real applications of such technologies, and focuses on the possibilities created by advanced photon management strategies in optoelectronic devices. Starting from pure photonic systems, the book provides several examples in which the interaction between photonics and electronics is exploited to achieve faster, compact, and more efficient devices. A large number of figures and tables also support each chapter. This book constitutes a valuable resource for researchers, engineers, and professionals working on the development of optoelectronics.

Optics of Aperiodic Structures

Optics of Aperiodic Structures Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Luca Dal Negro
Editor: CRC Press
ISBN: 9814463094
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Optics of Aperiodic Structures by Luca Dal Negro Summary

This book presents state-of-the-art contributions from a number of leading experts that actively work worldwide in the rapidly growing, highly interdisciplinary, and fascinating fields of aperiodic optics and complex photonics. Edited by Luca Dal Negro, a prominent researcher in these areas of optical science, the book covers the fundamental, computational, and experimental aspects of deterministic aperiodic structures, as well as numerous device and engineering applications to dense optical filters, nanoplasmonics photovoltaics and technologies, optical sensing, light sources, and nonlinear optics.

Quantum States and Scattering in Semiconductor Nanostructures

Quantum States and Scattering in Semiconductor Nanostructures Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Camille Ndebeka-Bandou,Francesca Carosella,Gérald Bastard
Editor: World Scientific Publishing Company
ISBN: 1786343045
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Quantum States and Scattering in Semiconductor Nanostructures by Camille Ndebeka-Bandou,Francesca Carosella,Gérald Bastard Summary

This book is an introduction to quantum states and of their scattering in semiconductor nanostructures. Written with exercises and detailed solutions, it is designed to enable readers to start modelling actual electron states and scattering in nanostructures. It first looks at practical aspects of quantum states and emphasises the variational and perturbation approaches. Following this there is analysis of quasi two-dimensional materials, including discussion of the eigenstates of nanostructures, scattering mechanisms and their numerical results. Focussing on practical applications, this book moves away from standard discourse on theory and provides students of physics, nanotechnology and materials science with the opportunity to fully understand the electronic properties of nanostructures. Contents:Practical Quantum Mechanics:Schrödinger EquationBound and Extended StatesApproximate MethodsLandau Quantisation of Electron Motion in Ideal Semiconductor Bulks and HeterostructuresThe Physics of Heterostructures:Background on HeterostructuresElectrons States in NanostructuresBeyond the Ideal WorldScreening at the Semi-Classical ApproximationResults for Static ScatterersResults for Electron-Phonon InteractionBeyond the Born ApproximationExercises Readership: Students of physics, nanoscience and materials science, professionals working with nanomaterials, and researchers.

Fractal Geometry and Dynamical Systems in Pure and Applied Mathematics II

Fractal Geometry and Dynamical Systems in Pure and Applied Mathematics II Pdf/ePub eBook Author: David Carfi,Michel L. Lapidus,Erin P. J. Pearse,Machiel van Frankenhuijsen
Editor: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821891480
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Fractal Geometry and Dynamical Systems in Pure and Applied Mathematics II by David Carfi,Michel L. Lapidus,Erin P. J. Pearse,Machiel van Frankenhuijsen Summary

This volume contains the proceedings from three conferences: the PISRS 2011 International Conference on Analysis, Fractal Geometry, Dynamical Systems and Economics, held November 8-12, 2011 in Messina, Italy; the AMS Special Session on Fractal Geometry in Pure and Applied Mathematics, in memory of Benoît Mandelbrot, held January 4-7, 2012, in Boston, MA; and the AMS Special Session on Geometry and Analysis on Fractal Spaces, held March 3-4, 2012, in Honolulu, HI. Articles in this volume cover fractal geometry and various aspects of dynamical systems in applied mathematics and the applications to other sciences. Also included are articles discussing a variety of connections between these subjects and various areas of physics, engineering, computer science, technology, economics and finance, as well as of mathematics (including probability theory in relation with statistical physics and heat kernel estimates, geometric measure theory, partial differential equations in relation with condensed matter physics, global analysis on non-smooth spaces, the theory of billiards, harmonic analysis and spectral geometry). The companion volume (Contemporary Mathematics, Volume 600) focuses on the more mathematical aspects of fractal geometry and dynamical systems.