Quantifier Variance and Realism by Eli Hirsch

Quantifier Variance and Realism
  • Title : Quantifier Variance and Realism
  • Author : Eli Hirsch
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0199732116
  • Pages : 261
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Eli Hirsch has contributed steadily to metaphysics since his ground-breaking (and much cited) work on identity through time. This volume collects Hirsch's essays from the last decade (with the exception of one article from 1978) on ontology and metametaphysics which are very much tied to these debates.


Conceptual Ethics and Conceptual Engineering by Alexis Burgess

Conceptual Ethics and Conceptual Engineering
  • Title : Conceptual Ethics and Conceptual Engineering
  • Author : Alexis Burgess
  • Publisher :
  • ISBN Code : 0198801858
  • Pages : 464
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

This is an open access title available under the terms of a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International licence. It is free to read at Oxford Scholarship Online and offered as a free PDF download from OUP and selected open access locations.Conceptual engineering and conceptual ethics are branches of philosophy concerned with questions about how to assess and ameliorate our representational devices (such as concepts and words). It is a part of philosophy that examines which concepts we should use (and why), how concepts can beimproved, when concepts should be abandoned, and how proposals for amelioration can be implemented. Central parts of the history of philosophy have engaged with these issues, but the focus of this volume is on applications to work in contemporary philosophy of language and mind, epistemology,metaphilosophy, gender and race theory, ethics, philosophy of science, and philosophical logic. This is the first volume devoted entirely to conceptual engineering and conceptual ethics. It consists of twenty chapters written by leading philosophers, which explore the possibilities, benefits,problems, and applications of these influential branches of philosophy.


Shadows of Syntax by Jared Warren

Shadows of Syntax
  • Title : Shadows of Syntax
  • Author : Jared Warren
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN Code : 0190086157
  • Pages : 408
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

What is the source of logical and mathematical truth? This volume revitalizes conventionalism as an answer to this question. Conventionalism takes logical and mathematical truth to have their source in linguistic conventions. This was an extremely popular view in the early 20th century, but it was never worked out in detail and is now almost universally rejected in mainstream philosophical circles. In Shadows of Syntax, Jared Warren offers the first book-length treatment and defense of a combined conventionalist theory of logic and mathematics. He argues that our conventions, in the form of syntactic rules of language use, are perfectly suited to explain the truth, necessity, and a priority of logical and mathematical claims. In Part I, Warren explains exactly what conventionalism amounts to and what linguistic conventions are. Part II develops an unrestricted inferentialist theory of the meanings of logical constants that leads to logical conventionalism. This conventionalist theory is elaborated in discussions of logical pluralism, the epistemology of logic, and of the influential objections that led to the historical demise of conventionalism. Part III aims to extend conventionalism from logic to mathematics. Unlike logic, mathematics involves both ontological commitments and a rich notion of truth that cannot be generated by any algorithmic process. To address these issues Warren develops conventionalist-friendly but independently plausible theories of both metaontology and mathematical truth. Finally, Part IV steps back to address big picture worries and meta-worries about conventionalism. This book develops and defends a unified theory of logic and mathematics according to which logical and mathematical truths are reflections of our linguistic rules, mere shadows of syntax.


Jewish Philosophy in an Analytic Age by Samuel Lebens,Dani Rabinowitz,Aaron Segal

Jewish Philosophy in an Analytic Age
  • Title : Jewish Philosophy in an Analytic Age
  • Author : Samuel Lebens,Dani Rabinowitz,Aaron Segal
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN Code : 0198811373
  • Pages : 368
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Since the classical period, Jewish scholars have drawn on developments in philosophy to enrich our understanding of Judaism. This methodology reached its pinnacle in the medieval period with figures like Maimonides and continued into the modern period with the likes of Rosenzweig. The explosion of Anglo-American/analytic philosophy in the twentieth century means that there is now a host of material, largely unexplored by Jewish philosophy, with which to explore, analyze, and develop the Jewish tradition. Jewish Philosophy in an Analytic Age features contributions from leading scholars in the field which investigate Jewish texts, traditions, and/or thinkers, in order to showcase what Jewish philosophy can be in an analytic age. United by the new and engaging style of philosophy, the collection explores rabbinic and Talmudic philosophy; Maimonidean philosophy; philosophical theology; and ethics and value theory.


Oxford Studies in Metaphysics by Karen Bennett,Dean W. Zimmerman

Oxford Studies in Metaphysics
  • Title : Oxford Studies in Metaphysics
  • Author : Karen Bennett,Dean W. Zimmerman
  • Publisher : Oxford Studies in Metaphysics
  • ISBN Code : 0198828195
  • Pages : 304
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Much of the most interesting work in philosophy today is metaphysical in character. Oxford Studies in Metaphysics is a forum for the best new work in this flourishing field. OSM offers a broad view of the subject, featuring not only the traditionally central topics such as existence, identity, modality, time, and causation, but also the rich clusters of metaphysical questions in neighbouring fields, such as philsophy of mind and philosophy of science. Besides independent essays, volumes will often contain a critical essay on a recent book, or a symposium that allows participants to respond to one another's criticisms and questions. Anyone who wants to know what's happening in metaphysics can start here.


The Powers Metaphysic by Neil E. Williams

The Powers Metaphysic
  • Title : The Powers Metaphysic
  • Author : Neil E. Williams
  • Publisher :
  • ISBN Code : 0198833571
  • Pages : 288
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Systematic metaphysics is defined by its task of solving metaphysical problems through the repeated application of single, fundamental ontology. The dominant contemporary metaphysic is that of neo-Humeanism, built on a static ontology typified by its rejection of basic causal and modalfeatures. This book offers a radically distinct metaphysic, one that turns the status quo on its head. Starting with a foundational ontology of inherently causal properties known as "powers", Neil E. Williams develops a metaphysic that appeals to powers in explanations of causation, persistence,laws, and modality. Powers are properties that have their causal natures internal to them: they are responsible for the effects in the world. A unique account of powers is advanced, one that understands this internal nature in terms of blueprint of potential interaction types. After the presentationof the powers ontology, Williams offers solutions to broad metaphysical puzzles, some of which take on different forms in light of the new tools that are available. The defence of the ontology comes from the virtues of metaphysic it can be used to develop. Particular attention is paid to theproblems of causation and persistence, simultaneously solving them as is casts them in a new light. The resultant powers metaphysic is offered as a systematic alternative to neo-Humeanism.


Radical Skepticism and the Shadow of Doubt by Eli Hirsch

Radical Skepticism and the Shadow of Doubt
  • Title : Radical Skepticism and the Shadow of Doubt
  • Author : Eli Hirsch
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • ISBN Code : 1350033847
  • Pages : 250
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Radical Skepticism and the Shadow of Doubt brings something new to epistemology both in content and style. At the outset we are asked to imagine a person named Vatol who grows up in a world containing numerous people who are brains-in-vats and who hallucinate their entire lives. Would Vatol have reason to doubt whether he himself is in contact with reality? If he does have reason to doubt, would he doubt, or is it impossible for a person to have such doubts? And how do we ourselves compare to Vatol? After reflection, can we plausibly claim that Vatol has reason to doubt, but we don't? These are the questions that provide the novel framework for the debates in this book. Topics that are treated here in significantly new ways include: the view that we ought to doubt only when we philosophize; epistemological “dogmatism”; and connections between radical doubt and “having a self.” The book adopts the innovative form of a “dialogue/play.” The three characters, who are Talmud students as well as philosophers, hardly limit themselves to pure philosophy, but regale each other with Talmudic allusions, reminiscences, jokes, and insults. For them the possibility of doubt emerges as an existential problem with potentially deep emotional significance. Setting complex arguments about radical skepticism within entertaining dialogue, this book can be recommended for both beginners and specialists.


Metametaphysics by David Chalmers,David Manley,Ryan Wasserman

Metametaphysics
  • Title : Metametaphysics
  • Author : David Chalmers,David Manley,Ryan Wasserman
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0199546045
  • Pages : 529
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Metaphysics asks questions about existence: for example, do numbers really exist? Metametaphysics asksquestions about metaphysics: for example, do its questions have determinate answers? If so, are these answers deep and important, or are they merely a matter of how we use words? What is the proper methodology for their resolution? These questions have received a heightened degree of attention lately with new varieties of ontological deflationism and pluralism challenging the kind of realism that has become orthodoxy in contemporary analytic metaphysics.This volume concerns the status and ambitions of metaphysics as a discipline. It brings together many of the central figures in the debate with their most recent work on the semantics, epistemology, and methodology of metaphysics.


An Introduction to Metametaphysics by N.A

An Introduction to Metametaphysics
  • Title : An Introduction to Metametaphysics
  • Author : N.A
  • Publisher :
  • ISBN Code : 110707729X
  • Pages : N.A
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:


Ontology After Carnap by Stephan Blatti,Sandra Lapointe

Ontology After Carnap
  • Title : Ontology After Carnap
  • Author : Stephan Blatti,Sandra Lapointe
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0199661987
  • Pages : 256
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Analytic philosophy is once again in a methodological frame of mind. Nowhere is this more evident than in metaphysics, whose practitioners and historians are actively reflecting on the nature of ontological questions, the status of their answers, and the relevance of contributions both from other areas within philosophy (e.g., philosophical logic, semantics) and beyond (notably, the natural sciences). Such reflections are hardly new: the debate between Willard van Orman Quine and Rudolf Carnap about how to understand and resolve ontological questions is widely seen as a turning point in twentieth-century analytic philosophy. And indeed, this volume is occasioned by the fact that the deflationary approach to metaphysics advocated by Carnap in that debate is once again attracting considerable interest and support. Containing eleven original essays by many of today's leading voices in metametaphysics, Ontology After Carnap aims both to deepen our understanding of Carnap's contributions to metaontology and to explore how this legacy might be mined for insights into the contemporary debate. This collection will be of interest to scholars and students working in metaphysics, semantics, philosophical logic, metaphilosophy, and the history of analytic philosophy.


The Concept of Identity by Eli Hirsch

The Concept of Identity
  • Title : The Concept of Identity
  • Author : Eli Hirsch
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
  • ISBN Code : 0195074742
  • Pages : 318
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

In this book, Eli Hirsch focuses on identity through time, first with respect to ordinary bodies, then underlying matter, and eventually persons. These are linked at various points with other aspects of identity, such as the spatial unity of things, the unity of kinds, and the unity of groups. He investigates how our identity concept ordinarily operates in these respects. He also asks why this concept is so cental to our thinking and whether we can justify seeing theworld in terms of such a concept.This is the revised and updated edition of a hardback published in 1982.


Writing the Book of the World by Theodore Sider

Writing the Book of the World
  • Title : Writing the Book of the World
  • Author : Theodore Sider
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0199697906
  • Pages : 318
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Theodore Sider presents a broad new vision of metaphysics centred on the idea of structure. To describe the world well we must use concepts that 'carve at the joints', so that conceptual structure matches reality's structure. This approach illuminates a wide range of topics, such as time, modality, ontology, and the status of metaphysics itself.


Scientific Ontology by Anjan Chakravartty

Scientific Ontology
  • Title : Scientific Ontology
  • Author : Anjan Chakravartty
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0190651458
  • Pages : 274
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Both science and philosophy are interested in questions of ontology - questions about what exists and what these things are like. Science and philosophy, however, seem like very different ways of investigating the world, so how should one proceed? Some defer to the sciences, conceived as something apart from philosophy, and others to metaphysics, conceived as something apart from science, for certain kinds of answers. This book contends that these sorts of deference are misconceived. A compelling account of ontology must appreciate the ways in which the sciences incorporate metaphysical assumptions and arguments. At the same time, it must pay careful attention to how observation, experience, and the empirical dimensions of science are related to what may be viewed as defensible philosophical theorizing about ontology. The promise of an effectively naturalized metaphysics is to encourage beliefs that are formed in ways that do justice to scientific theorizing, modeling, and experimentation. But even armed with such a view, there is no one, uniquely rational way to draw lines between domains of ontology that are suitable for belief, and ones in which it would be better to suspend belief instead. In crucial respects, ontology is in the eye of the beholder: it is informed by underlying commitments with implications for the limits of inquiry, which inevitably vary across rational inquirers. As result, the proper scope of ontology is subject to a striking form of voluntary choice, yielding a new and transformative conception of scientific ontology.


Radical Skepticism and the Shadow of Doubt by Eli Hirsch

Radical Skepticism and the Shadow of Doubt
  • Title : Radical Skepticism and the Shadow of Doubt
  • Author : Eli Hirsch
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • ISBN Code : 1350033871
  • Pages : 248
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Radical Skepticism and the Shadow of Doubt brings something new to epistemology both in content and style. At the outset we are asked to imagine a person named Vatol who grows up in a world containing numerous people who are brains-in-vats and who hallucinate their entire lives. Would Vatol have reason to doubt whether he himself is in contact with reality? If he does have reason to doubt, would he doubt, or is it impossible for a person to have such doubts? And how do we ourselves compare to Vatol? After reflection, can we plausibly claim that Vatol has reason to doubt, but we don't? These are the questions that provide the novel framework for the debates in this book. Topics that are treated here in significantly new ways include: the view that we ought to doubt only when we philosophize; epistemological "dogmatism†?; and connections between radical doubt and "having a self.†? The book adopts the innovative form of a "dialogue/play.†? The three characters, who are Talmud students as well as philosophers, hardly limit themselves to pure philosophy, but regale each other with Talmudic allusions, reminiscences, jokes, and insults. For them the possibility of doubt emerges as an existential problem with potentially deep emotional significance. Setting complex arguments about radical skepticism within entertaining dialogue, this book can be recommended for both beginners and specialists.


Meaning and Method by George Boolos

Meaning and Method
  • Title : Meaning and Method
  • Author : George Boolos
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN Code : 9780521360838
  • Pages : 380
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

This volume is a report on the state of philosophy in a number of significant areas.


Ontology Made Easy by Amie L. Thomasson

Ontology Made Easy
  • Title : Ontology Made Easy
  • Author : Amie L. Thomasson
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN Code : 0199385114
  • Pages : 345
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

In the decades following Quine, debates about existence have taken center stage in the metaphysics. But neo-Quinean ontology has reached a crisis point, given the endless proliferation of positions and lack of any clear idea of how to resolve debates. The most prominent challenge to mainstream ontological debates has come from the idea that disputants can be seen as using the quantifier with different meanings, leaving the dispute merely verbal. Nearly all of the work in defense of hard ontology has gone into arguing against quantifier variance. This volume argues that hard ontology faces an entirely different challenge, which remains even if the threat of quantifier variance can be avoided. The challenge comes from the 'easy approach to ontology': a view that is arguably the heir to Carnap's own position. The idea of the easy approach is that many ontological questions can be answered by undertaking trivial inferences from uncontroversial premises, making prolonged disputes about the questions out of place. This book aims to develop the easy approach to ontology, showing how it leads to both a first-order simple realism about the disputed entities and a form of meta-ontological deflationism that takes ontological disputes themselves to be misguided, since existence questions may be answered by straightforward conceptual and/or empirical work. It also aims to defend the easy approach against a range of arguments wielded against it and to show it to be a viable and attractive alternative to the quagmire of hard ontology.


Being: Developments in Contemporary Metaphysics by Royal Institute of Philosophy. Annual Conference

Being: Developments in Contemporary Metaphysics
  • Title : Being: Developments in Contemporary Metaphysics
  • Author : Royal Institute of Philosophy. Annual Conference
  • Publisher :
  • ISBN Code :
  • Pages : 212
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

These essays focus on central concerns of contemporary metaphysics and the growing interest in ontological issues.


Ontology and Metaontology by Francesco Berto,Matteo Plebani

Ontology and Metaontology
  • Title : Ontology and Metaontology
  • Author : Francesco Berto,Matteo Plebani
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • ISBN Code : 1472573307
  • Pages : 208
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Ontology and Metaontology: A Contemporary Guide is a clear and accessible survey of ontology, focusing on the most recent trends in the discipline. Divided into parts, the first half characterizes metaontology: the discourse on the methodology of ontological inquiry, covering the main concepts, tools, and methods of the discipline, exploring the notions of being and existence, ontological commitment, paraphrase strategies, fictionalist strategies, and other metaontological questions. The second half considers a series of case studies, introducing and familiarizing the reader with concrete examples of the latest research in the field. The basic sub-fields of ontology are covered here via an accessible and captivating exposition: events, properties, universals, abstract objects, possible worlds, material beings, mereology, fictional objects. The guide's modular structure allows for a flexible approach to the subject, making it suitable for both undergraduates and postgraduates looking to better understand and apply the exciting developments and debates taking place in ontology today.


An Introduction to Ontology by Nikk Effingham

An Introduction to Ontology
  • Title : An Introduction to Ontology
  • Author : Nikk Effingham
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN Code : 0745665470
  • Pages : 224
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

In this engaging and wide-ranging new book, Nikk Effingham provides an introduction to contemporary ontology - the study of what exists - and its importance for philosophy today. He covers the key topics in the field, from the ontology of holes, numbers and possible worlds, to space, time and the ontology of material objects - for instance, whether there are composite objects such as tables, chairs or even you and me. While starting from the basics, every chapter is up-to-date with the most recent developments in the field, introducing both longstanding theories and cutting-edge advances. As well as discussing the latest issues in ontology, Effingham also helpfully deals in-depth with different methodological principles (including theory choice, Quinean ontological commitment and Meinongianism) and introduces them alongside an example ontological theory that puts them into practice. This accessible and comprehensive introduction will be essential reading for upper-level undergraduate and post-graduate students, as well as any reader interested in the present state of the subject.


Theory and Applications of Ontology: Computer Applications by Roberto Poli,Michael Healy,Achilles Kameas

Theory and Applications of Ontology: Computer Applications
  • Title : Theory and Applications of Ontology: Computer Applications
  • Author : Roberto Poli,Michael Healy,Achilles Kameas
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN Code : 9789048188475
  • Pages : 576
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Ontology was once understood to be the philosophical inquiry into the structure of reality: the analysis and categorization of ‘what there is’. Recently, however, a field called ‘ontology’ has become part of the rapidly growing research industry in information technology. The two fields have more in common than just their name. Theory and Applications of Ontology is a two-volume anthology that aims to further an informed discussion about the relationship between ontology in philosophy and ontology in information technology. It fills an important lacuna in cutting-edge research on ontology in both fields, supplying stage-setting overview articles on history and method, presenting directions of current research in either field, and highlighting areas of productive interdisciplinary contact. Theory and Applications of Ontology: Computer Applications presents ontology in ways that philosophers are not likely to find elsewhere. The volume offers an overview of current research in ontology, distinguishing basic conceptual issues, domain applications, general frameworks, and mathematical formalisms. It introduces the reader to current research on frameworks and applications in information technology in ways that are sure to invite reflection and constructive responses from ontologists in philosophy.


The Fragmentation of Being by Kris McDaniel

The Fragmentation of Being
  • Title : The Fragmentation of Being
  • Author : Kris McDaniel
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0198719655
  • Pages : 336
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

The Fragmentation of Being offers answers to some of the most fundamental questions in ontology. There are many kinds of beings but are there also many kinds of being? The world contains a variety of objects, each of which, let us provisionally assume, exists, but do some objects exist in different ways? Do some objects enjoy more being or existence than other objects? Are there different ways in which one object might enjoy more being than another? Most contemporary metaphysicians would answer -no- to each of these questions. So widespread is this consensus that the questions this book addressed are rarely even raised let alone explicitly answered. But Kris McDaniel carefully examines a wide range of reasons for answering each of these questions with a -yes-. In doing so, he connects these questions with many important metaphysical topics, including substance and accident, time and persistence, the nature of ontological categories, possibility and necessity, presence and absence, persons and value, ground and consequence, and essence and accident. In addition to discussing contemporary problems and theories, McDaniel also discusses the ontological views of many important figures in the history of philosophy, including Aquinas, Aristotle, Descartes, Heidegger, Husserl, Kant, Leibniz, Meinong, and many more.


Contemporary Debates in Metaphysics by Theodore Sider,John Hawthorne,Dean W. Zimmerman

Contemporary Debates in Metaphysics
  • Title : Contemporary Debates in Metaphysics
  • Author : Theodore Sider,John Hawthorne,Dean W. Zimmerman
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN Code : 1118712323
  • Pages : 416
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

In a series of thought-provoking and original essays, eighteenleading philosophers engage in head-to-head debates of nine of themost cutting edge topics in contemporary metaphysics. Explores the fundamental questions in contemporary metaphysicsin a series of eighteen original essays - 16 of which are newlycommissioned for this volume Features an introductory essay by the editors on the nature ofmetaphysics to prepare the reader for ongoing discussions Offers readers the unique opportunity to observe leadingphilosophers engage in head-to-head debate on cutting-edgemetaphysical topics Provides valuable insights into the flourishing field ofcontemporary metaphysics


Ontological Semantics by Sergei Nirenburg,Victor Raskin

Ontological Semantics
  • Title : Ontological Semantics
  • Author : Sergei Nirenburg,Victor Raskin
  • Publisher : MIT Press
  • ISBN Code : 9780262140867
  • Pages : 420
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

'Ontological Semantics' introduces a comprehensive approach to the treatment of text meaning by computer, arguing that being able to use meaning is crucial to the success of natural language processing applications.


Epistemic Pluralism by Annalisa Coliva,Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen

Epistemic Pluralism
  • Title : Epistemic Pluralism
  • Author : Annalisa Coliva,Nikolaj Jang Lee Linding Pedersen
  • Publisher : Springer
  • ISBN Code : 3319654608
  • Pages : 347
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

This book examines epistemic pluralism, a brand new area of research in epistemology with dramatic implications for the discipline. Challenging traditional assumptions about the nature of justification, an expert team of contributors explores pluralism about justification, with compelling first-order results – including analysis of the various requisites one might want to impose on the notion of justification (and therefore of knowledge) and why. It is shown why a long-lasting dispute within epistemology about the nature of justification has reached a stalemate and how embracing a different overarching outlook might lead to progress and aid better appreciation of the relationship between the various epistemic projects scholars have been pursuing. With close connections to the idea of epistemic relativism, and with specific applications to various areas of contemporary epistemology (such as the debate over epistemic norms of action and assertion, epistemic peers' disagreement, self-knowledge and the status of philosophical disputes about ontology) this fascinating new volume is essential reading for scholars, researchers and advanced students in the discipline.


Creativity in Intelligent Technologies and Data Science by Alla Kravets,Maxim Shcherbakov,Marina Kultsova,Peter Groumpos

Creativity in Intelligent Technologies and Data Science
  • Title : Creativity in Intelligent Technologies and Data Science
  • Author : Alla Kravets,Maxim Shcherbakov,Marina Kultsova,Peter Groumpos
  • Publisher : Springer
  • ISBN Code : 3319655515
  • Pages : 887
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second Conference on Creativity in Intelligent Technologies and Data Science, CIT&DS 2017, held in Volgograd, Russia, in September 2017. The 58 revised full papers and two keynote papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 194 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on Knowledge Discovery in Patent and Open Sources for Creative Tasks; Open Science Semantic Technologies; Computer Vision and Knowledge-Based Control; Pro-Active Modeling in Intelligent Decision Making Support; Data Science in Energy Management and Urban Computing; Design Creativity in CASE/CAI/CAD/PDM; Intelligent Internet of Services and Internet of Things; Data Science in Social Networks Analysis; Creativity and Game-Based Learning; Intelligent Assistive Technologies: Software Design and Application.


God and Abstract Objects by William Lane Craig

God and Abstract Objects
  • Title : God and Abstract Objects
  • Author : William Lane Craig
  • Publisher : Springer
  • ISBN Code : 3319553844
  • Pages : 540
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

This book is an exploration and defense of the coherence of classical theism’s doctrine of divine aseity in the face of the challenge posed by Platonism with respect to abstract objects. A synoptic work in analytic philosophy of religion, the book engages discussions in philosophy of mathematics, philosophy of language, metaphysics, and metaontology. It addresses absolute creationism, non-Platonic realism, fictionalism, neutralism, and alternative logics and semantics, among other topics. The book offers a helpful taxonomy of the wide range of options available to the classical theist for dealing with the challenge of Platonism. It probes in detail the diverse views on the reality of abstract objects and their compatibility with classical theism. It contains a most thorough discussion, rooted in careful exegesis, of the biblical and patristic basis of the doctrine of divine aseity. Finally, it challenges the influential Quinean metaontological theses concerning the way in which we make ontological commitments.


Fields of Sense by Markus Gabriel

Fields of Sense
  • Title : Fields of Sense
  • Author : Markus Gabriel
  • Publisher : Edinburgh University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0748692916
  • Pages : 400
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Markus Gabriel proposes a radical form of ontological pluralism that divorces ontology from metaphysics, understood as the most fundamental theory of absolutely everything (the world). He argues that the concept of existence is incompatible with the exist


Dividing Reality by Eli Hirsch

Dividing Reality
  • Title : Dividing Reality
  • Author : Eli Hirsch
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
  • ISBN Code : 0195111427
  • Pages : 247
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

"Important and challenging, and covers much territory.... Hirsch leads us through the heart of metaphysics, [leaving] his special mark on all the topics he touches. I'd put it on the Metaphysician's Must Read list."--Philosophy and Phenomenological Research


The Tools of Metaphysics and the Metaphysics of Science by Theodore Sider

The Tools of Metaphysics and the Metaphysics of Science
  • Title : The Tools of Metaphysics and the Metaphysics of Science
  • Author : Theodore Sider
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN Code : 019881156X
  • Pages : 256
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Metaphysics is sensitive to the conceptual tools we choose to articulate metaphysical problems. Those tools are a lens through which we view metaphysical problems, and the same problems will look different when we change the lens. In this book, Theodore Sider identifies how the shift from modal to "postmodal" conceptual tools in recent years has affected the metaphysics of science and mathematics. He highlights, for instance, how the increased consideration of concepts of ground, essence, and fundamentality has transformed the debate over structuralism in many ways. Sider then examines three structuralist positions through a postmodal lens. First, nomic essentialism, which says that scientific properties are secondary and lawlike relationships among them are primary. Second, structuralism about individuals, a general position of which mathematical structuralism and structural realism are instances, which says that scientific and mathematical objects are secondary and the pattern of relations among them is primary. And third, comparativism about quantities, which says that particular values of scientific quantities, such as having exactly 1000g mass, are secondary, and quantitative relations, such as being-twice-as-massive-as, are primary. Sider concludes these discussions by considering the meta-question of when theories are equivalent and how that impacts the debate over structuralism.


The Concise Encyclopaedia of Western Philosophy and Philosophers by James Opie Urmson

The Concise Encyclopaedia of Western Philosophy and Philosophers
  • Title : The Concise Encyclopaedia of Western Philosophy and Philosophers
  • Author : James Opie Urmson
  • Publisher :
  • ISBN Code :
  • Pages : 431
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:


The Foundations of Arithmetic by Gottlob Frege

The Foundations of Arithmetic
  • Title : The Foundations of Arithmetic
  • Author : Gottlob Frege
  • Publisher : Northwestern University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0810106051
  • Pages : 119
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

The Foundations of Arithmetic is undoubtedly the best introduction to Frege's thought; it is here that Frege expounds the central notions of his philosophy, subjecting the views of his predecessors and contemporaries to devastating analysis. The book represents the first philosophically sound discussion of the concept of number in Western civilization. It profoundly influenced developments in the philosophy of mathematics and in general ontology.


Objects and Persons by Trenton Merricks

Objects and Persons
  • Title : Objects and Persons
  • Author : Trenton Merricks
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 019926631X
  • Pages : 203
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Objects and Persons presents an original theory about what kinds of things exist. Trenton Merricks argues that there are no non-living inanimate macrophysical objects--no statues or rocks or chairs or stars--because they would have no causal role over and above the causal role of their microphysical parts. Humans do exist: we have non-redundant causal powers. Along the way, Merricks has interesting things to say about mental causation, free will, and various philosophical puzzles. Anyone working in metaphysics will enjoy this lucid and provocative book.


Absolute Generality by Agustín Rayo,Gabriel Uzquiano

Absolute Generality
  • Title : Absolute Generality
  • Author : Agustín Rayo,Gabriel Uzquiano
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
  • ISBN Code : 0199276420
  • Pages : 396
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Is it possible to quantify over absolutely all there is? Or must all of our quantifiers range over a less-than-all-inclusive domain? It has commonly been thought that the question of absolute generality is intimately connected with the set-theoretic antinomies. But the topic of absolute generality has enjoyed a surge of interest in recent years. It has become increasingly apparent that its ramifications extend well beyond the foundations of set theory. Connections include semanticindeterminacy, logical consequence, higher-order languages, and metaphysics.Rayo and Uzquiano present for the first time a collection of essays on absolute generality. These newly commissioned articles -- written by an impressive array of international scholars -- draw the reader into the forefront of contemporary research on the subject. The volume represents a variety of approaches to the problem, with some of the contributions arguing for the possibility of all-inclusive quantification and some of them arguing against it. An introduction by the editors draws ahelpful map of the philosophical terrain.


ADP-Ribosylation Reactions by Osamu Hayaishi

ADP-Ribosylation Reactions
  • Title : ADP-Ribosylation Reactions
  • Author : Osamu Hayaishi
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • ISBN Code : 0323142990
  • Pages : 724
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

ADP-Ribosylation Reactions: Biology and Medicine deals with the biochemical and physiological aspects of poly(ADP-ribose) and ADP-ribosylation of proteins. Topics covered range from pyridine nucleotide metabolism and ADP-ribosylation to the structure and properties of poly(ADP-ribose), along with acceptor proteins of poly(ADP-ribose). ADP-ribosyl protein linkages and poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase are also discussed. Comprised of 39 chapters, this book begins with a historical background on the discovery of poly(ADP-ribose) and the significance of poly- and mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions in molecular biology. The next section explores the role of ADP-ribosylation in NAD metabolism, paying particular attention to poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase-DNA interaction and the link between chromatin structure and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Subsequent chapters focus on subfractions and subcellular distribution of mono(ADP-ribosyl) proteins in eukaryotic cells; polyadenylylation and ADP-ribosylation of reovirus proteins; poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis in plants; and immunohistochemistry of poly(ADP-ribose). The final chapter analyzes the ADP-ribosylation activity of toxin A and exoenzyme S in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This monograph is written for students, practitioners, and researchers in fields such as molecular biology, medical chemistry, and biochemistry.


Ontological Categories:Their Nature and Significance by Jan Westerhoff

Ontological Categories:Their Nature and Significance
  • Title : Ontological Categories:Their Nature and Significance
  • Author : Jan Westerhoff
  • Publisher : Clarendon Press
  • ISBN Code : 9780199285044
  • Pages : 276
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

The concept of an ontological category is central to metaphysics. Metaphysicians argue about which category an object should be assigned to, whether one category can be reduced to another one, or whether there might be different equally adequate systems of categorization. Answers to these questions presuppose a clear understanding of what precisely an ontological category is, an issue which is rarely addressed; Jan Westerhoff presents the first in-depth analysis both of the use made of ontological categories in the metaphysical literature, and of various attempts at defining them. He also develops a new theory of ontological categories which implies that there will be no unique system, and that the ontological category an object belongs to is not an essential property of that object. Systems of ontological categories are structures imposed on the world, rather than reflections of a deep metaphysical reality already present. All metaphysicians should find Westerhoff's book highly stimulating.


Metaphysics by Alyssa Ney

Metaphysics
  • Title : Metaphysics
  • Author : Alyssa Ney
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • ISBN Code : 1317676343
  • Pages : 310
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Metaphysics: An Introduction combines comprehensive coverage of the core elements of metaphysics with contemporary and lively debates within the subject. It provides a rigorous and yet accessible overview of a rich array of topics, connecting the abstract nature of metaphysics with the real world. Topics covered include: Basic logic for metaphysics An introduction to ontology Abstract objects Material objects Critiques of metaphysics Free will Time Modality Persistence Causation Social ontology: the metaphysics of race This outstanding book not only equips the reader with a thorough knowledge of the fundamentals of metaphysics but provides a valuable guide to contemporary metaphysics and metaphysicians. Additional features such as exercises, annotated further reading, a glossary, and a companion website www.routledge.com/cw/ney will help students find their way around this subject and assist teachers in the classroom.


Material Beings by Peter van Inwagen

Material Beings
  • Title : Material Beings
  • Author : Peter van Inwagen
  • Publisher : Cornell University Press
  • ISBN Code : 9780801483066
  • Pages : 299
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Introduction -- The special composition question -- Contact, a representative answer to the special composition question -- *The general composition question -- *What we shall not presuppose -- Answers to the special composition question according to which composition occurs when some type of physical bonding occurs -- *Answers to the special composition question according to which composition occurs when combinations of various types of physical bonding occur -- Extreme answers to the special composition question : Nihilism and Universalism -- The proposed answer -- Why the proposed answer to the special composition question, radical though it is, does not contradict our ordinary beliefs -- The topic of the previous section continued : paraphrase -- Unity and thinking -- Artifacts -- The identities of material objects -- Brain transplants -- Two problems about personal identity : memory and commissurotomy -- The problem of the many and the vagueness of composition -- The vagueness of identity.


Ordinary Objects by Amie L. Thomasson

Ordinary Objects
  • Title : Ordinary Objects
  • Author : Amie L. Thomasson
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0199764441
  • Pages : 240
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Arguments that ordinary inanimate objects such as tables and chairs, sticks and stones, simply do not exist have become increasingly common and increasingly prominent. Some are based on demands for parsimony or for a non-arbitrary answer to the special composition question; others arise from prohibitions against causal redundancy, ontological vagueness, or co-location; and others still come from worries that a common sense ontology would be a rival to a scientific one. Until now, little has been done to address these arguments in a unified and systematic way. Ordinary Objects is designed to fill this gap, demonstrating that the mistakes behind all of these superficially diverse eliminativist arguments may be traced to a common source. It aims to develop an ontology of ordinary objects subject to no such problems, providing perhaps the first sustained defense of a common sense ontology in two generations. The work done along the way addresses a number of major issues in philosophy of language and metaphysics, contributing to debates about analyticity, identity conditions, co-location and the grounding problem, vagueness, overdetermination, parsimony, and ontological commitment. In the end, the most important result of addressing these eliminativist arguments is not merely avoiding their conclusions; examining their failings also gives us reason to suspect that many apparent disputes in ontology are pseudo-debates. For it brings into question widely-held assumptions about which uses of metaphysical principles are appropriate, which metaphysical demands are answerable, and how we should go about addressing such fundamental questions as "What exists?". As a result, the work of Ordinary Objects promises to provide not only the route to a reflective understanding of our unreflective common-sense view, but also a better understanding of the proper methods and limits of metaphysics. "Ordinary Objects is well worth reading because it sheds new light on how to preserve the credibility of familiar things."--Marianne Djuth, The Review of Metaphysics "In Ordinary Objects , Amie Thomasson mounts a spirited and vigorous defense of the reality of ordinary objects."--Terry Horgan, Times Literary Supplement "Ordinary Objects is a fine book.... [Thomasson] writes insightfully and persuasively, and she has a realistic view of what metaphysical arguments can and cannot demonstrate... she approaches metaphysical theorizing more systematically than many other recent writers, drawing attention to the ways in which questionable assumptions in one area of philosophy are undergirding seemingly powerful arguments in another. Everyone working in metaphysics should make time for this volume."--R. W. Fischer, Metaphilosophy "In Ordinary Objects , Thomasson pursues an integrated conception of ontology and metaontology. In ontology, she defends the existence of shoes, ships, and other ordinary objects. In metaontology, she defends a deflationary view of ontological inquiry, designed to suck the air out of arguments against ordinary objects. The result is an elegant and insightful defense of a common sense worldview."--Jonathan Schaffer, Philosophical Books "Amie Thomasson has written a lovely book which is certain to irritate many professional metaphysicians. But it is not just irritating: it is challenging...This book would be good supplementary text for upper-level metaphysics classes or seminars in which the sorts of arguments to which Thomasson replies are also read."--Alan Sidelle, The Philosophical Quarterly


The Aim of Belief by Timothy Chan,Timothy Hoo Wai Chan

The Aim of Belief
  • Title : The Aim of Belief
  • Author : Timothy Chan,Timothy Hoo Wai Chan
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 019967213X
  • Pages : 233
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

The Aim of Belief is the first book devoted to the question: 'what is belief?' Eleven newly commissioned essays by leading authors reflect the state of the art and further advance the current debate. The book will be key reading for researchers working on philosophy of mind and action, epistemology, and meta-ethics.


Choosing Normative Concepts by Matti Eklund

Choosing Normative Concepts
  • Title : Choosing Normative Concepts
  • Author : Matti Eklund
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0198717822
  • Pages : 224
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Theorists working on metaethics and the nature of normativity typically study goodness, rightness, what ought to be done, and so on. In their investigations they employ and consider our actual normative concepts. But the actual concepts of goodness, rightness, and what ought to be done are only some of the possible normative concepts there are. There are other possible concepts, ascribing different properties. Matti Eklund explores the consequences of this thought, for example for the debate over normative realism, and for the debate over what it is for concepts and properties to be normative. Conceptual engineering - the project of considering how our concepts can be replaced by better ones - has become a central topic in philosophy. Eklund applies this methodology to central normative concepts and discusses the special complications that arise in this case. For example, since talk of improvement is itself normative, how should we, in the context, understand talk of a concept being better?