Revue De Gascogne

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Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France: Volume 2: The Religion of the People and the Politics of Religion

Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France: Volume 2: The Religion of the People and the Politics of Religion Pdf/ePub eBook Author:
Editor: Clarendon Press
ISBN: 0191520632
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Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France: Volume 2: The Religion of the People and the Politics of Religion by Summary

This second volume begins with a Section on the religion of the people. The clergy offered the liturgical services, sermons, evangelistic missions, and the offices sanctifying birth, marriage, and death; distinctions are made between what they intended and how their ministrations were popularly interpreted and incorporated into the social order. Statistical soundings concerning the extent of religious practice and the degree of conviction involved are evaluated. Further chapters deal with processions, pilgrimages, and popular practices and superstitions, with hermits and confraternities, with the impact of reading the Bible and other edifying literature in an age of increasing literacy. Finally comes a view of the twilight world of magic and sorcery. Throughout this Section the comments of theologians and thinkers of the Enlightenment are recorded, whether in coincidence or contradiction. The next section deals with the efficacy of the confessional and the role of the casuistry of the Church in attempting to mould sexual mores, business practices, and in the world of the theatre. In the next two Sections, the role of religious issues in political affairs is detailed. An overview of the Jansenist quarrel and of the activities of the Jesuits brings in the story of the struggle between Crown and Parlement, while an extended portrayal of the life of the Protestant and Jewish communities leads to the history of the debate on toleration, involving the Gallican Church in political interventions and controversy. Throughout the two volumes the rising forces of anticlericalism and the tensions within the ecclesiastical establishment have been recorded, and these themes come to their climax in a final section on the role played by churchmen in the coming of the Revolution.

Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France: Volume 1: The Clerical Establishment and its Social Ramifications

Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France: Volume 1: The Clerical Establishment and its Social Ramifications Pdf/ePub eBook Author: John McManners
Editor: Clarendon Press
ISBN: 0191520519
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Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France: Volume 1: The Clerical Establishment and its Social Ramifications by John McManners Summary

This, the first volume, begins with a Section on Church and State, the theology and political theory justifying their alliance, the wealth of the Clergy and their Assemblies voting taxation, their role in the official life of the nation, from the Court at Versailles to army barracks, warships, and prisons. Then comes a presentation of the complex structure of dioceses and parishes, and the vast variety of monastic institutions (where the enjoyment of misapplied wealth contrasted with the austere dedication which ensured the education of the children and the care of the sick throughout the land). There is an evocation of the life-style of the clergy from the palaces of the aristocratic bishops and the cathedral closes of comfortable canons to the humblest tumbledown nunnery, with a gallery of portraits analysing clerical motives and vocations. A multitude of lay folk come onto the scene, aristocrats battening on monastic revenues, lawyers threading the labyrinth of benefice law, estate managers, musicians, vergers and officials of every kind; many families' whole way of existence was postulated on the assumption of the availability of ecclesiastical offices for their children—the differential privileges of the classes in the hierarchy of society being reflected in an institution devoted to spiritual and unworldly ends.

Body and Tradition in Nineteenth-Century France

Body and Tradition in Nineteenth-Century France Pdf/ePub eBook Author: William G. Pooley
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019258670X
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Body and Tradition in Nineteenth-Century France by William G. Pooley Summary

The moorlands of Gascony are often considered one of the most dramatic examples of top-down rural modernization in nineteenth-century Europe. From an area of open moors, they were transformed in one generation into the largest man-made forest in Europe. Body and Tradition in Nineteenth-Century France explores how these changes were experienced and negotiated by the people who lived there, drawing on the immense ethnographic archive of Félix Arnaudin (1844-1921). The study places the songs, stories, and everyday speech that Arnaudin collected, as well as the photographs he took, in the everyday lives of agricultural workers and artisans. It argues that the changes are were understood as a gradual revolution in bodily experiences, as men and women forged new working habits, new sexual relations, and new ways of conceiving of their own bodies. Rather than merely presenting a story of top-down reform, this is an account of the flexibility and creativity of the cultural traditions of the working population. William G. Pooley tells the story of the folklorist Arnaudin and the men and women whose cultural traditions he recorded, then uncovers the work carried out by Arnaudin to explore everyday speech about the body, stories of werewolves and shapeshifters, tales of animal cunning and exploitation, and songs about love and courtship. The volume focuses on the lives of a handful of the most talented storytellers and singers Arnaudin encountered, showing how their cultural choices reflect wider patterns of behaviour in the region, and across rural Europe.

Religion, Revolution, and Regional Culture in Eighteenth-Century France

Religion, Revolution, and Regional Culture in Eighteenth-Century France Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Timothy Tackett
Editor: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400854377
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Religion, Revolution, and Regional Culture in Eighteenth-Century France by Timothy Tackett Summary

The imposition of a loyalty oath on French clergymen in the winter of 1790 was a turning point in the Revolutionary decade after 1789. What is more, there is a remarkable similarity between the geography of this oath--the regional percentages of those who accepted or rejected it--and the geographic patterns of religious practice and political behavior persisting into the twentieth century. Timothy Tackett investigates the origins and nature of this fascinating phenomenon. Originally published in 1986. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Oceanography and Marine Environment in the Basque Country

Oceanography and Marine Environment in the Basque Country Pdf/ePub eBook Author: A. Borja,M. Collins
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080537955
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Oceanography and Marine Environment in the Basque Country by A. Borja,M. Collins Summary

Against a background of extensive multi-disciplinary oceanographic investigations over a number of years, together with the long-term establishment of a Society and Institute, extensive information is available from studies undertaken in the estuarine and coastal waters of the Basque Country. The present authors gained access to unpublished literature and reports which, together with a synthesis of internationally-refereed papers, provide a series of scientific overviews of particular subject areas. Teams of researchers (from Basque Institutes and Universities) combine to present the present 'state of knowledge', within a global context, of processes ranging from sub-seabed to air-sea interaction - incorporating data on the associated biology (including fisheries) and pollutant sources and levels. The latter are compared with regional, national and European legislation. The volume is divided into various sections: Introduction; Geography and Oceanography; Chemical Oceanography and Water Quality; Sediment Characteristics, Quality and Chemistry; Biomonitoring; Communities and Ecology; and Overall Assessment. The topics covered include: an historical review of marine research; the impact of human activities, during past centuries; geology, geomorphology and sediments; climate and meteorology; marine dynamics; hydrography; water mass characteristics; contaminants in the waters; microbiological quality; sedimentological characteristics; contaminants in sediments; biomonitoring of heavy metals and organic components, at tissue organism level and using cellular and molecular biomarkers; bacterioplankton and phytoplankton communities; zooplankton communities; benthic communities; seabirds; biodiversity and conservation; recovery of benthic communities; the polluted systems; and assessment of human impacts. On the basis of these syntheses, future challenges for marine research in the Basque Country are identified, in terms of a 'Research Agenda'. This comprehensive text, relating to estuarine, coastal and oceanographic processes at wide-ranging spatial and temporal scales in the southern Bay of Biscay, will be of interest to researchers, engineers and legislators - on a regional basis and within a world-wide perspective.

News from the Raven

News from the Raven Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Darci Hill
Editor: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443861197
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News from the Raven by Darci Hill Summary

This volume, edited from the proceedings of a unique conference held at Sam Houston State University, offers the reader an independent Texas-style celebration of Medieval and Renaissance culture and thought. In the opening article, Richard North reveals some ways in which medieval literature pioneered the modern novel. The following essays, drawing from philosophy, literature, music, art, architecture, history, and linguistics, include studies of the portrayal of women in medieval literature and art; discussions surrounding the hero of Paradise Lost; explorations into the thought of Thomas Aquinas; explications of linguistic puzzles in Beowulf; analyses of Shakespeare’s plays; considerations of renaissance architecture and instrumental music; and an investigation into the influence of rhetoric on musical composition.

Medieval Monasticism

Medieval Monasticism Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Giles Constable
Editor: University of Toronto Press
ISBN: 1442637617
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Medieval Monasticism by Giles Constable Summary

Medieval Monasticism is a bibliography meant as a guide to medieval monasticism, giving direction to the most important works in the subject and is prepared by an expert in the field, Dr. Constable. The bibliography has three aims: it meant to aid students who are relatively new to the area of study, to guide more advanced readers in a subject where they have had little formal training, and to assist new libraries in forming a basic collection in the subject presented.

England, France and Aquitaine

England, France and Aquitaine Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Richard Ballard
Editor: Pen and Sword Military
ISBN: 1526768623
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England, France and Aquitaine by Richard Ballard Summary

This is a narrative history of England and France during the Hundred Years War, from the triumphs of Henry V to the defeat of the English and loss of Gascony and Bordeaux - a huge blow to English prestige and economic interest. This is a military history with technical detail, linked to high politics, courtly intrigue, dynastic ambition, economic interest (wine trade and Bordeaux). The story revolves around the death of two Kings, Henry V of England, soon after his military triumphs, and Charles VI of France, in 1422. Both had historic claims to the 'French fiefs'. Henry was succeeded by Richard II, and Charles was succeeded by Charles VII. The contrast could hardly have been greater between Richard, a diffident, scholarly and religious figure, in an age when kings were expected to be aggressive leaders and military commanders; and Charles - an able politician, soldier and, in modern parlance, a 'hard man', who embodied the 15th century concept of kingship. Intermittent but constant warfare continued until English defeat in 1476 and the loss of Gascony and Bordeaux, and the Peace of Picquigny brought to an end a decisive episode in the Hundred Years War, foreshadowing England's future total withdrawal from France.

Unnatural Frenchmen

Unnatural Frenchmen Pdf/ePub eBook Author: E. Claire Cage
Editor: University of Virginia Press
ISBN: 0813937132
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Unnatural Frenchmen by E. Claire Cage Summary

In Enlightenment and revolutionary France, new and pressing arguments emerged in the long debate over clerical celibacy. Appeals for the abolition of celibacy were couched primarily in the language of nature, social utility, and the patrie. The attack only intensified after the legalization of priestly marriage during the Revolution, as marriage and procreation were considered patriotic duties. Some radical revolutionaries who saw celibacy as a crime against nature and the nation aggressively promoted clerical marriage by threatening unmarried priests with deportation, imprisonment, and even death. After the Revolution, political and religious authorities responded to the vexing problem of reconciling the existence of several thousand married French priests with the formal reestablishment of Roman Catholicism and clerical celibacy. Unnatural Frenchmen examines how this extremely divisive issue shaped religious politics, the lived experience of French clerics, and gendered citizenship. Drawing on a wide base of printed and archival material, including thousands of letters that married priests wrote to the pope, historian Claire Cage highlights individual as well as ideological struggles. Unnatural Frenchmen provides important insights into how conflicts over priestly celibacy and marriage have shaped the relationship between sexuality, religion, and politics from the age of Enlightenment to today, while simultaneously revealing the story of priestly marriage to be an inherently personal and deeply human one.

Judeo-Romance Linguistics (RLE Linguistics E: Indo-European Linguistics)

Judeo-Romance Linguistics (RLE Linguistics E: Indo-European Linguistics) Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Paul Wexler
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1317918770
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Judeo-Romance Linguistics (RLE Linguistics E: Indo-European Linguistics) by Paul Wexler Summary

A separate bibliographic treatment of the Judeo-Romance languages should facilitate a deeper appreciation of the contributions that they may make to Romance linguistics in general. Up until now, Judeo-Romance topics have scarcely been canvassed in Romance linguistic bibliographies. It is hoped that this new book serves to popularize the field of Judeo-Romance languages both among students of general Romance and comparative Jewish linguistics.

Routledge Library Editions: Linguistics

Routledge Library Editions: Linguistics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Various
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1136158324
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Routledge Library Editions: Linguistics by Various Summary

Routledge Library Editions: Linguistics brings together as one set, mini-sets, or individual volumes, a series of previously out-of-print classics from a variety of academic imprints. With titles ranging from Applied Linguistics and Language Learning to Experimental Psycholinguistics and Sociolinguistics Today: International Perspectives, this set provides in one place a wealth of important reference sources from a wide range of authors expert in the field.

Ecosystem Sustainability and Global Change

Ecosystem Sustainability and Global Change Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Patrick Prouzet
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119007712
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Ecosystem Sustainability and Global Change by Patrick Prouzet Summary

This volume provides various examples and dimensions, chemical, biological, climatic, or related to extreme (hazards). It describes, by reciprocity, the vulnerability of ecosystems, resources, heritage, human health and, consequently, economic and social sectors. it considers climate scenarios and socio-economic status indicators research, design strategies and patterns of adaptation, development of innovative monitoring systems, analysis of perceptions of major hazards and valuation of ecosystem services.

Henri IV

Henri IV Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jean-Pierre Babelon
Editor: Fayard
ISBN: 2213658161
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Henri IV by Jean-Pierre Babelon Summary

Dans la mémoire des Français, Henri IV est le seul roi à n’avoir connu aucune disgrâce. Sa mort l’a auréolé d’une indestructible popularité et son règne est vite devenu l’auberge espagnole de notre histoire. Le Gascon caustique méprisant la peur, l’homme d’action ennemi des parlottes, le bon vivant, l’homme de la poule au pot, le Vert-Galant sûr de ses conquêtes : autant d’images d’Epinal que Jean-Pierre Babelon réajuste sans parti pris ni complaisance, pour expliquer le phénomène Henri IV. Le 1er août 1589, assiégeant Paris en pleine rébellion, Henri III, victime d’un attentat, murmure à celui qui sera demain Henri IV : « Vous voyez comme vos ennemis et les miens m’ont traité. Il faut que vous preniez garde qu’ils ne vous en fassent autant. » Le dernier des Valois disparu, Henri de Navarre devient roi d’une France déchirée par les guerres de la Ligue, où la monarchie traverse un de ses pires moments. Cinq ans sont nécessaires au premier Bourbon pour ouvrir les portes de la capitale, quatre autres pour apaiser les armes et les consciences. Il ne lui reste que douze ans pour créer, avec l’aide de Sully, un Etat moderne : l’économie, l’agriculture, l’urbanisme, l’université, il n’a de cesse de tout réorganiser et de continuer la tradition monarchique séculaire, comme s’il avait su que peu de temps lui était octroyé pour accomplir sa tâche. Pour Henri IV, ce célibataire mal marié, qui se reconnaissait trois plaisirs, la guerre, la chasse et l’amour, la plus grande joie fut sans doute la naissance du dauphin, le futur Louis XIII. Il avait alors 48 ans. Après avoir rétabli l’unité de son royaume et assuré le « bien-être de ses peuples », il fondait une nouvelle dynastie. Le fils de Jeanne d’Albret pouvait-il rêver d’une plus belle destinée ? Au bout du compte, un caractère et un comportement peu ordinaires, un pragmatisme et un relativisme qui tranchent vigoureusement sur les mentalités de l’époque, et un esprit qui nous est étrangement proche. Jean-Pierre Babelon est né en 1931. Chartiste, ancien conservateur en chef puis inspecteur général des Archives de France, il a été ensuite directeur général du Musée et du Domaine national de Versailles et de Trianon de 1989 à 1996. Membre de l’Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, président d’honneur de la Société Henri-IV, il est l’auteur de nombreux ouvrages sur l’histoire de Paris et sur l’architecture classique.

Fishes in Estuaries

Fishes in Estuaries Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Mike Elliott,Krystal L. Hemingway
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470995211
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Fishes in Estuaries by Mike Elliott,Krystal L. Hemingway Summary

This landmark publication collates information and studies on the use of estuaries, and specific habitats within them, as nursery, feeding and refuge areas, and migration routes of marine and other fish, many of which are of commercial and conservation importance. The editors and authors of the book have carefully compiled a huge wealth of information from the work of 18 organizations across 11 countries, providing a unique collection of data never before brought together within the covers of one book. Chapters within this exceptional publication cover habitat use by fishes, recruitment and production in estuaries, links between fish and other trophic levels, endangered and rare species, estuarine development and restoration, environmental quality of estuaries and the management of estuarine fishes. The book notably contains extensive chapters on field methods and data analysis. Fishes in Estuaries is an essential tool and reference source for fisheries and environmental managers, fish biologists, environmental scientists, aquatic ecologists and conservation biologists. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where biological sciences are studied and taught should have copies of this book on their shelves, as should personnel employed in regulatory and consultant capacities, such as within rivers authorities, environment agencies and fish and wildlife departments. Comprehensive coverage of commercially exploited species. Internationally known and respected contributors. Multi-contributor approach providing very detailed coverage. Estuaries are a vitally important ecosystem.

The Life of Joan of Arc (Complete)

The Life of Joan of Arc (Complete) Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Anatole France
Editor: Library of Alexandria
ISBN: 146560491X
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The Life of Joan of Arc (Complete) by Anatole France Summary

FROM Neufch‰teau to Vaucouleurs the clear waters of the Meuse flow freely between banks covered with rows of poplar trees and low bushes of alder and willow. Now they wind in sudden bends, now in gradual curves, for ever breaking up into narrow streams, and then the threads of greenish waters gather together again, or here and there are suddenly lost to sight underground. In the summer the river is a lazy stream, barely bending in its course the reeds which grow upon its shallow bed; and from the bank one may watch its lapping waters kept back by clumps of rushes scarcely covering a little sand and moss. But in the season of heavy rains, swollen by sudden torrents, deeper and more rapid, as it rushes along, it leaves behind it on the banks a kind of dew, which rises in pools of clear water on a level with the grass of the valley. This valley, two or three miles broad, stretches unbroken between low hills, softly undulating, crowned with oaks, maples, and birches. Although strewn with wild-flowers in the spring, it looks severe, grave, and sometimes even sad. The green grass imparts to it a monotony like that of stagnant water. Even on fine days one is conscious of a hard, cold climate. The sky seems more genial than the earth. It beams upon it with a tearful smile; it constitutes all the movement, the grace, the exquisite charm of this delicate tranquil landscape. Then when winter comes the sky merges with the earth in a kind of chaos. Fogs come down thick and clinging. The white light mists, which in summer veil the bottom of the valley, give place to thick clouds and dark moving mountains, but slowly scattered by a red, cold sun. Wanderers ranging the uplands in the early morning might dream with the mystics in their ecstasy that they are walking on clouds. Thus, after having passed on the left the wooded plateau, from the height of which the ch‰teau of BourlŽmont dominates the valley of the Saonelle, and on the right Coussey with its old church, the winding river flows between le Bois Chesnu on the west and the hill of Julien on the east. Then on it goes, passing the adjacent villages of Domremy and Greux on the west bank and separating Greux from Maxey-sur-Meuse. Among other hamlets nestling in the hollows of the hills or rising on the high ground, it passes Burey-la-C™te, Maxey-sur-Vaise, and Burey-en-Vaux, and flows on to water the beautiful meadows of Vaucouleurs. In this little village of Domremy, situated at least seven and a half miles further down the river than Neufch‰teau and twelve and a half above Vaucouleurs, there was born, about the year 1410 or 1412, a girl who was destined to live a remarkable life. She was born poor. Her father, Jacques or Jacquot d'Arc, a native of the village of Ceffonds in Champagne, was a small farmer and himself drove his horses at the plough. His neighbours, men and women alike, held him to be a good Christian and an industrious workman. His wife came from Vouthon, a village nearly four miles northwest of Domremy, beyond the woods of Greux. Her name being Isabelle or Zabillet, she received at some time, exactly when is uncertain, the surname of RomŽe. That name was given to those who had been to Rome or on some other important pilgrimage; and it is possible that Isabelle may have acquired her name of RomŽe by assuming the pilgrim's shell and staff. One of her brothers was a parish priest, another a tiler; she had a nephew who was a carpenter. She had already borne her husband three children: Jacques or Jacquemin, Catherine, and Jean.

History and Polemics in the French Reformation

History and Polemics in the French Reformation Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Barbara Sher Tinsley
Editor: Susquehanna University Press
ISBN: 9780945636298
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History and Polemics in the French Reformation by Barbara Sher Tinsley Summary

This work is a story of the Protestant Reformation seen from the viewpoint of a Catholic politician and writer of polemical histories. Raemond was a member of the Bordeaux Parlement (he bought his friend Montaigne's seat) and served as a magistrate in that body until his death in 1601. His histories, frequently cited by European scholars, offer a wealth of sociological detail uncommon to historical works of his era. His books on the mythical female Pope Joan, on the Antichrist, and on the rise and development of Protestantism contain much of interest to modern historians of popular culture or mentalites, especially where radical sectarians are concerned, and for information relating to the earliest beginnings of Calvinism on French soil, about which little has been written. For such subjects Raemond's history remains a valuable primary source. Raemond's significance in European historiography, a study that is attracting renewed attention among scholars, is explored by comparing his views with those of other historians and public figures of his century, both Protestant and Catholic. The first three chapters deal with Raemond's life and literary associations; the fourth with his expose of "Pope Joan." Next follows a consideration of his book on the Antichrist, which, together with the chapter on Joan, offers a survey of many centuries of information and misinformation concerning church history, especially the nature of papal primacy, apostolic purity, and the apocalyptic fears of a variety of writers and theologians. These included Luther, Calvin, Melanchthon, and John Bale, who thought that the pope or the Turk was the Beast of the Book of Daniel. Raemond emerges as a gifted, if exotic, writer peculiarly attuned to the (Catholic) majority opinion of his times, but still capable of some penetrating analyses of the motives and tactics of the Protestant party, its founders, and its defenders. The representativeness of his views and his popularity with his readers make him particularly significant for students of the Reformation and Counter (or Catholic) Reformation. In the not distant past scholars tended to dismiss polemical history as unreliable and hence uninformative. Modern readers who study religious history in the present age of increasing ecumenicism and fluctuating social values may have more patience and tolerance for polemical idealists like Raemond and his Protestant critics. The latter were often as polemical and just as fearful of adjusting to a world in which truth was hotly contended and losers in the contest risked not merely their reputations and livelihoods, but their very lives. The last chapter treats of Raemond's Nachleben, or literary afterlife, and illustrates the dynamics of historical criticism in a period marked - even crazed - by misplaced religious zeal and a near absence of tolerance and historical objectivity.

The Jacobin Clubs in the French Revolution, 1793-1795

The Jacobin Clubs in the French Revolution, 1793-1795 Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Michael Kennedy
Editor: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 178920576X
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The Jacobin Clubs in the French Revolution, 1793-1795 by Michael Kennedy Summary

A pendant to two well-received books by the same author on the departmental clubs during the early years of the Revolution, this book is the product of thirty years of scholarly study, including archival research in Paris and in more than seventy departments in France. It focuses on the twenty-eight months from May 1793 to August 1795, a period spanning the Federalist Revolt, the Terror, and the Thermidorian Reaction. The Federalist Revolt, in which many clubs were involved, had momentous consequences for all of them and was, in the local setting, the principal cause of the Reign of Terror, a period in which more than 5,300 communes had clubs that reached the zenith of their power and influence, engaging in a myriad of political, administrative, judicial, religious, economic, social, and war-related activities. The book ends with their decline and final dissolution by a decree of the Convention in Paris.

Jesuit Civil Wars

Jesuit Civil Wars Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jean-Pascal Gay
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1317111133
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Jesuit Civil Wars by Jean-Pascal Gay Summary

Founded in 1540, the Society of Jesus quickly established itself as one of the most dynamic, influential but divisive orders within early-modern Catholicism. Yet whilst the order's role in combating Protestantism, reforming the Catholic Church and advising rulers during its first century has been well documented, much less is understood about its later years. Covering the generalate of Tirso González (1687-1705), this book offers a window onto Jesuit politics and theology during the late seventeenth century. González's generalate was dominated by two crises - one political, the other theological - both of which were to have important ramifications for the Jesuits and the wider Catholic world. The first of these was the confrontation between Louis XIV and the Papacy over the question of control of the church in France. González strongly and publicly supported Pope Innocent XI's primacy over the French clergy, despite widespread opposition from many French Jesuits who took a more 'Gallican' position. The second crisis revolved around González's opposition to the theory of 'Probabilism', to which the bulk of Jesuits subscribed. His publication of a book opposing a theological position that was deeply ingrained within the order, provided another fracture line that was to generate much heat. Whilst both crises were essentially matters for the Jesuits, this study demonstrates how they developed and played themselves out on a wide, international and increasingly public stage, showing how contending identities were forged from apparently narrow but intense and durable conflicts. As such, the book not only illuminates the role and theology of González, but also the tensions within late seventeenth-century Catholicism. It contends that, by the end of the century, Catholic confessional culture appears unable to resolve its contradictory relationship to the individual, which it empowers and dismisses at the same time.

Governing Passions

Governing Passions Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Mark Greengrass
Editor: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191526851
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Governing Passions by Mark Greengrass Summary

The French kingdom dissolved into civil wars, known as the 'wars of religion', for a generation from 1562 to 1598. This book examines the reactions of France's governing groups to that experience. Their major political endeavour was securing peace. They attempted to achieve it through a religious pluralism not envisaged in any other state on this scale in this period. Its achievement would only be fulfilled, however, alongside a reform of the kingdom's institutions and society. Peace and reform went hand in hand - a moral agenda for restoration. France's notables drew on reservoirs of classical and Christian moral philosophy and wisdom to find practical answers to the difficult problems of governance that confronted them. The resulting public introspection and vocal debates are difficult to match anywhere else in Europe at this time. They were an essential part of the profound sense of crisis that France's governing elites experienced during the later sixteenth century. Drawing extensively on manuscript and printed sources not hitherto examined, this book analyses for the first time the debates at the Estates General of Blois (1576-7) and the Assembly of Notables at Saint-Germain-en-Laye of 1583-4. It shows the French polity in a fresh light, presenting major issues of political thought in their public and practical context. And it re-examines the crucial and little-understood reign of Henri III, the last Valois king, suggesting how Bourbon France could have emerged very differently from the civil wars of the late sixteenth century.

Montaigne

Montaigne Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Philippe Desan
Editor: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400883393
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Montaigne by Philippe Desan Summary

A definitive biography of the great French essayist and thinker One of the most important writers and thinkers of the Renaissance, Michel de Montaigne (1533–92) helped invent a literary genre that seemed more modern than anything that had come before. But did he do it, as he suggests in his Essays, by retreating to his chateau, turning his back on the world, and stoically detaching himself from his violent times? In this definitive biography, Philippe Desan, one of the world's leading authorities on Montaigne, overturns this longstanding myth by showing that Montaigne was constantly concerned with realizing his political ambitions—and that the literary and philosophical character of the Essays largely depends on them. The most comprehensive and authoritative biography of Montaigne yet written, this sweeping narrative offers a fascinating new picture of his life and work. As Desan shows, Montaigne always considered himself a political figure and he conceived of each edition of the Essays as an indispensable prerequisite to the next stage of his public career. He lived through eight civil wars, successfully lobbied to be raised to the nobility, and served as mayor of Bordeaux, special ambassador, and negotiator between Henry III and Henry of Navarre. It was only toward the very end of Montaigne’s life, after his political failure, that he took refuge in literature. But, even then, it was his political experience that enabled him to find the right tone for his genre. In this essential biography, we discover a new Montaigne—caught up in the events of his time, making no separation between private and public life, and guided by strategy first in his words and silences. Neither candid nor transparent, but also not yielding to the cynicism of his age, this Montaigne lends a new depth to the Montaigne of literary legend.

The Style of Paris

The Style of Paris Pdf/ePub eBook Author: George Huppert
Editor: Indiana University Press
ISBN: 0253028132
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The Style of Paris by George Huppert Summary

This portrait of the forerunners of the famed philosophes is an “impressive and challenging reevaluation of the 16th-century origins of the Enlightenment” (Sixteenth Century Journal). In this book, George Huppert introduces a group of talented young men, some of them teenagers, who were the talk of the town in Renaissance Paris. They called themselves philosophes, they wrote poetry, they studied Greek and mathematics—and they entertained subversive notions concerning religion and politics. Classically trained, they wrote, nevertheless, in French, so as to reach the widest possible audience. These young radicals fostered a succession of disciples who expressed confidence in the eventual enlightenment of humankind—and whose ideas would bear fruit two centuries later.

Biology and Conservation of the European Sturgeon Acipenser sturio L. 1758

Biology and Conservation of the European Sturgeon Acipenser sturio L. 1758 Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Patrick WILLIOT,Eric Rochard,Nathalie Desse-Berset,Frank Kirschbaum,Jörn Gessner
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642206115
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Biology and Conservation of the European Sturgeon Acipenser sturio L. 1758 by Patrick WILLIOT,Eric Rochard,Nathalie Desse-Berset,Frank Kirschbaum,Jörn Gessner Summary

The book aims at synthesizing our current knowledge of Acipenser sturio and its management. This species, one of the most widespread sturgeon species all over Western Europe ranging from the Black Sea to the Baltic, is now on the verge of extinction. Major aspects of its biology and management, including mismanagement, are provided in a historic perspective. Similarly, the changes in the restoration programs (in situ and ex situ) initiated in France and Germany are presented. As the species occurred in sympatry with Acipenser oxyrinchus in Germany and Poland and very recently in France as well, a brief outlook on restoration-management programs of A. oxyrinchus are also provided for both North America and Northern European countries, namely Germany and Poland. As conservation-restoration actions go beyond scientific issues, non-governmental stakeholders and marine professional fishermen’s organizations have also been asked to contribute, and the key role of a French-German cooperation plan is underlined. A part of the book is devoted to perspectives. Illustrations of the European sturgeon, mainly in photographs, but also in stamps and paintings, are presented.

The Jacobins

The Jacobins Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Karl Renner
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1351480545
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The Jacobins by Karl Renner Summary

The Jacobins were the most famous of the political clubs that fomented the French Revolution. Initially moderate, they are remembered mainly for instituting the Reign of Terror. Crane Brinton's The Jacobins was written in the 1930s, itself a decade of the violent centralization of unchecked political power. Brinton offers not an account of the actions of major figures, but an anatomy of Jacobinism, its membership, beliefs and political platform, the relations between the central Paris club and the regional groups, and how it evolved from moderation to tyranny. Brinton argues that when one considers the material facts about the Jacobins— their social environment, occupations, and wealth—one finds evidence of their prosperity to justify predicting for them quiet, uneventful, conservative, thoroughly normal lives. But when one studies the records of their proceedings, one finds them violent, cruel, and intolerant. The Jacobins present a paradox. Their political being seems inconsistent with their actual intentions. The Jacobins presented for a brief time the spectacle of men acting without apparent regard for their material interests. As the brilliant new introduction by Howard G. Schneiderman indicates, this contradiction defines the Jacobins, and perhaps most other revolutionary movements.

Theories and Methods

Theories and Methods Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Peter Auer,Jürgen Erich Schmidt
Editor: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 311022027X
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Theories and Methods by Peter Auer,Jürgen Erich Schmidt Summary

The dimensions of time and space fundamentally cause and shape the variability of all human language. To reduce investigation of this insight to manageable proportions, researchers have traditionally concentrated on the “deepest” dialects. But it is increasingly apparent that, although most people still speak with a distinct regional coloring, the new mobility of speakers in recently industrialized and postindustrial societies and the efflorescence of communication technologies cannot be ignored. This has given rise to a reconsideration of the relationship between geographical place and cultural space, and the fundamental link between language and a spatially bounded territory. Language and Space: An International Handbook of Linguistic Variation seeks to take full account of these developments in a comprehensive, theoretically rich way. The introductory volume examines the concept of space and linguistic approaches to it, the structure and dynamics of language spaces, and relevant research methods. A second volume offers the first thorough exploration of the interplay between linguistic investigation and cartography, and subsequent volumes uniformly document the state of research into the spatial dimension of particular language groupings. Key features: comprehensive coverage of the field in terms of theory and methods the unique volume stands alone, since it neither is a handbook of dialectology or of areal linguistics, nor a handbook on language variation alone gathers together a great number of distinguished scholars and experts in the field

The Handbook of Dialectology

The Handbook of Dialectology Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Charles Boberg,John Nerbonne,Dominic Watt
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118827589
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The Handbook of Dialectology by Charles Boberg,John Nerbonne,Dominic Watt Summary

The Handbook of Dialectology provides an authoritative, up-to-date and unusually broad account of the study of dialect, in one volume. Each chapter reviews essential research, and offers a critical discussion of the past, present and future development of the area. The volume is based on state-of-the-art research in dialectology around the world, providing the most current work available with an unusually broad scope of topics Provides a practical guide to the many methodological and statistical issues surrounding the collection and analysis of dialect data Offers summaries of dialect variation in the world’s most widely spoken and commonly studied languages, including several non-European languages that have traditionally received less attention in general discussions of dialectology Reviews the intellectual development of the field, including its main theoretical schools of thought and research traditions, both academic and applied The editors are well known and highly respected, with a deep knowledge of this vast field of inquiry

Cosmos and Image in the Renaissance

Cosmos and Image in the Renaissance Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Kathryn Banks
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1351570919
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Cosmos and Image in the Renaissance by Kathryn Banks Summary

Renaissance images could be real as well as linguistic. Human beings were often believed to be an image of the cosmos, and the sun an image of God. Kathryn Banks explores the implications of this for poetic language and argues that linguistic images were a powerful tool for rethinking cosmic conceptions. She reassesses the role of natural-philosophical poetry in France, focusing upon its most well-known and widely-read exponent, Guillaume de Saluste Du Bartas.Through a sustained analysis of Maurice Sceve's Delie , Banks also rethinks love lyric's oft-noted use of the beloved as image of the poet. Cosmos and Image makes an original contribution to our understanding of Renaissance thinking about the cosmic, the human, and the divine. It also proposes a mode of reading other Renaissance texts, and reflects at length upon the relation of 'literature' to history, to the history of science, and to political turmoil.

Dictionnaire Étymologique Roman (DÉRom) 2

Dictionnaire Étymologique Roman (DÉRom) 2 Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Éva Buchi,Wolfgang Schweickard
Editor: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110453614
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Dictionnaire Étymologique Roman (DÉRom) 2 by Éva Buchi,Wolfgang Schweickard Summary

This second volume on the Dictionnaire Étymologique Roman (DÉRom) contains forty new lexicographical articles as well as an extensive theoretical section which discusses various questions pertaining to the methods, problems and implications of comparative reconstruction in Romance linguistics (phonology, semantics, grammar, geolinguistics and cartography).

The Black Prince's Expedition

The Black Prince's Expedition Pdf/ePub eBook Author: H.J. Hewitt
Editor: Pen and Sword
ISBN: 1473819091
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The Black Prince's Expedition by H.J. Hewitt Summary

Edward, the Black Prince, is one of the legendary figures of English history. The first son of Edward III and an outstanding military leader, he is famous for his decisive victory at the Battle of Poitiers, and he is one of the most charismatic characters of the Hundred Years' War. This classic study focuses on the crucial phase of his extraordinary career - his daring campaign against the French in central and southwestern France in 1355-7. H.J. Hewitt's work is one of the key texts on the Prince, and it will be fascinating reading for anyone who is interested in medieval warfare.

The Cathars

The Cathars Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Malcolm Barber
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1351223968
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The Cathars by Malcolm Barber Summary

In the second half of the twelfth century, the Catholic Church became convinced that dualist heresy was taking root within Christian society and that it was particularly strong in southern France. The nature and extent of this heresy and the reaction of the Church to the perceived threat have been the focus of extensive research since the mid-nineteenth century, research which has become especially intense in the last decade. Malcolm Barber's second edition of The Cathars (which first appeared in 2000) brings readers up-to-date with the challenges to previous conclusions of recent scholarship. At the same time, the wider implications of the subject remain relevant, most importantly the fundamental questions raised by the belief in the existence of evil, the ethical problems presented by the use of coercion to suppress forms of dissent believed to threaten the social and religious fabric, and the distortion of the past to underpin present-day policies and arguments.

Rural Society and French Politics

Rural Society and French Politics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Michael Burns
Editor: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400853389
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Rural Society and French Politics by Michael Burns Summary

Michael Burns charts the rural impact of the two political watersheds" of fin-de-siecle France--Boulangism and the Dreyfus Affair. Broadening our understanding of the early Third Republic, he investigates its intricate village life and shows how the deindustrialization of the countryside both upset and solidified rural cultures. Originally published in 1984. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Furta Sacra

Furta Sacra Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Patrick J. Geary
Editor: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400820207
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Furta Sacra by Patrick J. Geary Summary

To obtain sacred relics, medieval monks plundered tombs, avaricious merchants raided churches, and relic-mongers scoured the Roman catacombs. In a revised edition of Furta Sacra, Patrick Geary considers the social and cultural context for these acts, asking how the relics were perceived and why the thefts met with the approval of medieval Christians.

Sacred Journeys in the Counter-Reformation

Sacred Journeys in the Counter-Reformation Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Elizabeth C. Tingle
Editor: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 1501514385
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Sacred Journeys in the Counter-Reformation by Elizabeth C. Tingle Summary

Sacred Journeys in the Counter-Reformation examines long-distance pilgrimages to ancient, international shrines in northwestern Europe in the two centuries after Luther. In this region in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, saints’ cults and pilgrimage were frequently contested, more so than in the Mediterranean world. France, the Low Countries and the British Isles were places of disputation and hostility between Protestant and Catholic; sacred landscapes and journeys came under attack and in some regions, were outlawed by the state. Taking as case studies hugely popular medieval shrines such as Compostela, the Mont Saint-Michel and Lough Derg, the impact of Protestant criticism and Catholic revival on shrines, pilgrims’ motives and experiences is examined through life writings, devotional works and institutional records. The central focus is that of agency in religious change: what drove spiritual reform and what were its consequences for the ‘ordinary’ Catholic? This is explored through concepts of the religious self, holy materiality, and sacred space.

The Discovery of France: A Historical Geography

The Discovery of France: A Historical Geography Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Graham Robb
Editor: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 9780393068825
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The Discovery of France: A Historical Geography by Graham Robb Summary

"A witty, engaging narrative style…[Robb's] approach is particularly engrossing." —New York Times Book Review A narrative of exploration—full of strange landscapes and even stranger inhabitants—that explains the enduring fascination of France. While Gustave Eiffel was changing the skyline of Paris, large parts of France were still terra incognita. Even in the age of railways and newspapers, France was a land of ancient tribal divisions, prehistoric communication networks, and pre-Christian beliefs. French itself was a minority language. Graham Robb describes that unknown world in arresting narrative detail. He recounts the epic journeys of mapmakers, scientists, soldiers, administrators, and intrepid tourists, of itinerant workers, pilgrims, and herdsmen with their millions of migratory domestic animals. We learn how France was explored, charted, and colonized, and how the imperial influence of Paris was gradually extended throughout a kingdom of isolated towns and villages. The Discovery of France explains how the modern nation came to be and how poorly understood that nation still is today. Above all, it shows how much of France—past and present—remains to be discovered. A New York Times Notable Book, Publishers Weekly Best Book, Slate Best Book, and Booklist Editor's Choice.

Royal Taxation in Fourteenth-Century France

Royal Taxation in Fourteenth-Century France Pdf/ePub eBook Author: John Bell Henneman
Editor: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400869439
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Royal Taxation in Fourteenth-Century France by John Bell Henneman Summary

The capture of the French king John II at Poitiers in 1356 marked the end of royal taxation as a temporary, wartime expedient and its beginning as an annual assessment. John Henneman's detailed treatment of war financing in the period immediately preceding, from 1322 to 1356, is the first volume in a proposed study of royal finances in France during the fourteenth century. Mr. Henneman has chosen a chronological approach to his subject in order to show how the evolving theory and practice of taxation were affected by these turbulent years of war and negotiation, political faction and dynastic feuds, social and economic change. Mr. Henneman discusses the king's requirements for money over and above his normal revenues, the methods he used to raise the funds, the responses of his subjects, and the changes these procedures made in the development of French institutions. His study is based largely on unpublished sources, especially the manuscripts found in French provincial archives. As the royal financial records in Paris have been dispersed or destroyed, these manuscripts arc of particular importance. Originally published in 1971. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

La Papauté d'Avignon et l'Eglise de France

La Papauté d'Avignon et l'Eglise de France Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Louis Caillet
Editor: Presses universitaires de Rouen et du Havre
ISBN: 9782877758093
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La Papauté d'Avignon et l'Eglise de France by Louis Caillet Summary

L’ouvrage de Louis Caillet constitue une contribution très importante à l’histoire des institutions ecclésiastiques au XIVe siècle. À partir du dépouillement méthodique des registres du pape Jean XXII, l’auteur montre la constance de la politique du pape qui entend avoir droit de regard, dans l’Église de France, sur toutes les fonctions, grandes et petites, sur tous les bénéfices, majeurs et mineurs, même au prix de difficultés avec aussi puissants que lui comme le roi de France.

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