Six Graves

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Six Graves to Munich

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Editor: Penguin
ISBN: 1101404434
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Six Graves to Munich by Summary

An explosive, non-stop thriller following one man’s trail of violence across post-war Europe from the bestselling author of The Godfather. Michael Rogan was an intelligence officer behind enemy lines in World War II. But he made the mistake of falling in love, which gave him something to lose—or to be taken from him. Captured by the Nazis, Michael was treated as an experiment. A piece of meat. A subject upon which his captors committed atrocity upon atrocity. But not before they did the same to his wife—and unborn son. He's lived with the horror of that experience for ten years. Now, Michael Rogan has returned to Europe to find the men who tortured him. And he's going to make sure that they never have to live with the horror as he did...They will die with it. First published under a pseudonym in 1967, Six Graves to Munich was Mario Puzo’s literary predecessor to his legendary novel, The Godfather. In this unsung classic, Puzo’s trademark unflinchingly stark writing style, vivid descriptive skill, and relentless pace are exemplified in the genre of the spy novel. In his hands, the classic tale of revenge becomes a haunting study of humanity at its most visceral, offering a glimpse into a damaged soul whose only remaining purpose for living is to kill.

Anglo-Saxon Graves and Grave Goods of the 6th and 7th Centuries AD

Anglo-Saxon Graves and Grave Goods of the 6th and 7th Centuries AD Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Alex Bayliss
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1351576461
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Anglo-Saxon Graves and Grave Goods of the 6th and 7th Centuries AD by Alex Bayliss Summary

The Early Anglo-Saxon Period is characterized archaeologically by the regular deposition of artefacts in human graves in England. The scope for dating these objects and graves has long been studied, but it has typically proved easier to identify and enumerate the chronological problems of the material than to solve them. Prior to the work of the project reported on here, therefore, there was no comprehensive chronological framework for Early Anglo-Saxon Archaeology, and the level of detail and precision in dates that could be suggested was low. The evidence has now been studied afresh using a co-ordinated suite of dating techniques, both traditional and new: a review and revision of artefact-typology; seriation of grave-assemblages using correspondence analysis; high-precision radiocarbon dating of selected bone samples; and Bayesian modelling using the results of all of these. These were focussed primarily on the later part of the Early Anglo-Saxon Period, starting in the 6th century. This research has produced a new chronological framework, consisting of sequences of phases that are separate for male and female burials but nevertheless mutually consistent and coordinated. These will allow archaeologists to assign grave-assemblages and a wide range of individual artefact-types to defined phases that are associated with calendrical date-ranges whose limits are expressed to a specific degree of probability. Important unresolved issues include a precise adjustment for dietary effects on radiocarbon dates from human skeletal material. Nonetheless the results of this project suggest the cessation of regular burial with grave goods in Anglo-Saxon England two decades or even more before the end of the seventh century. That creates a limited but important discrepancy with the current numismatic chronology of early English sceattas. The wider implications of the results for key topics in Anglo-Saxon archaeology and social, economic and religious history are discussed to conclude the report.

Death embodied

Death embodied Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Zoë L. Devlin,Emma-Jayne Graham
Editor: Oxbow Books
ISBN: 1782979468
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Death embodied by Zoë L. Devlin,Emma-Jayne Graham Summary

In April 1485, a marble sarcophagus was found on the outskirts of Rome. It contained the remains of a young Roman woman so well-preserved that she appeared to have only just died and the sarcophagus was placed on public view, attracting great crowds. Such a find reminds us of the power of the dead body to evoke in the minds of living people, be they contemporary (survivors or mourners) or distanced from the remains by time, a range of emotions and physical responses, ranging from fascination to fear, and from curiosity to disgust. Archaeological interpretations of burial remains can often suggest that the skeletons which we uncover, and therefore usually associate with past funerary practices, were what was actually deposited in graves, rather than articulated corpses. The choices made by past communities or individuals about how to cope with a dead body in all of its dynamic and constituent forms, and whether there was reason to treat it in a manner that singled it out (positively or negatively) as different from other human corpses, provide the stimulus for this volume. The nine papers provide a series of theoretically informed, but not constrained, case studies which focus predominantly on the corporeal body in death. The aims are to take account of the active presence of dynamic material bodies at the heart of funerary events and to explore the questions that might be asked about their treatment; to explore ways of putting fleshed bodies back into our discussions of burials and mortuary treatment, as well as interpreting the meaning of these activities in relation to the bodies of both deceased and survivors; and to combine the insights that body-centered analysis can produce to contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the role of the body, living and dead, in past cultures.

The Remnant Cities

The Remnant Cities Pdf/ePub eBook Author: S.J. Knightley
Editor: Xlibris Corporation
ISBN: 1499043457
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The Remnant Cities by S.J. Knightley Summary

The new world is in ruins. Two capital cities of the United Nations are destroyed, and the dark king has taken power. Seventeen-year-old Odette McClellan has always lived with secrets, but when her life is put in the hands of the Rebellion, she finds herself in the middle of a fight she never asked for. While finding herself and discovering the truth behind the lies, she becomes tangled in a dangerous love from the past and a war that is her future. Only the truth can save her, and only she can save them.

The Roman Cemetery at Lankhills

The Roman Cemetery at Lankhills Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Giles Clarke
Editor: Archaeopress Publishing Ltd
ISBN: 1803270098
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The Roman Cemetery at Lankhills by Giles Clarke Summary

This book considers the cemetery uncovered outside the north gate of Venta Belgarum, Roman Winchester, and analyses in detail both the graves and their contents. There are detailed studies and important re-assessments of many categories of object, but it is the information about late Roman burial, religion, and society which is of special interest.

The First Farmers of Central Europe

The First Farmers of Central Europe Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Penny Bickle,Alasdair Whittle
Editor: Oxbow Books
ISBN: 1842179128
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The First Farmers of Central Europe by Penny Bickle,Alasdair Whittle Summary

From about 5500 cal BC to soon after 5000 cal BC, the lifeways of the first farmers of central Europe, the LBK culture (Linearbandkeramik), are seen in distinctive practices of longhouse use, settlement forms, landscape choice, subsistence, material culture and mortuary rites. Within the five or more centuries of LBK existence a dynamic sequence of changes can be seen in, for instance, the expansion and increasing density of settlement, progressive regionalisation in pottery decoration, and at the end some signs of stress or even localised crisis. Although showing many features in common across its very broad distribution, however, the LBK phenomenon was not everywhere the same, and there is a complicated mixture of uniformity and diversity. This major study takes a strikingly large regional sample, from northern Hungary westwards along the Danube to Alsace in the upper Rhine valley, and addresses the question of the extent of diversity in the lifeways of developed and late LBK communities, through a wide-ranging study of diet, lifetime mobility, health and physical condition, the presentation of the bodies of the deceased in mortuary ritual. It uses an innovative combination of isotopic (principally carbon, nitrogen and strontium, with some oxygen), osteological and archaeological analysis to address difference and change across the LBK, and to reflect on cultural change in general.

The Early Iron Age

The Early Iron Age Pdf/ePub eBook Author: John K. Papadopoulos,Evelyn Lord Smithson
Editor: American School of Classical Studies at Athens
ISBN: 1621390071
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The Early Iron Age by John K. Papadopoulos,Evelyn Lord Smithson Summary

This volume, the first of two dealing with the Early Iron Age deposits from the Athenian Agora, publishes the tombs from the end of the Bronze Age through the transition from the Middle Geometric to Late Geometric period. An introduction deals with the layout of the four cemeteries of the period, the topographical ramifications, periodization, and a synthesis of Athens in the Early Iron Age. Individual chapters offer a complete catalogue of the tombs and their contents, a full analysis of the burial customs and funerary rites, and analyses of the pottery and other small finds. Maria A. Liston presents the human skeletal material, Deborah Ruscillo presents the faunal remains, and Sara Strack contributes to the pottery typology and catalogue. In an appendix, Eirini Dimitriadou provides an overview of the locations of burial activity in the wider city.

Changing Lands in Changing Memories. Migration and Identity during the Lombard Invasion (Premio Ottone d'Assia 2002)

Changing Lands in Changing Memories. Migration and Identity during the Lombard Invasion (Premio Ottone d'Assia 2002) Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Irene Barbiera
Editor: All’Insegna del Giglio
ISBN: 8878143014
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Changing Lands in Changing Memories. Migration and Identity during the Lombard Invasion (Premio Ottone d'Assia 2002) by Irene Barbiera Summary

I cimiteri longobardi utilizzati come fonti preziose di informazione sul passato, e in particolare sull’uso simbolico della cultura materiale. Alla luce delle più recenti teorie sull’archeologia funeraria e dell’etnicità, l’autrice indaga nel dettaglio alcuni contesti funerari di ambito longobardo in Ungheria (Hagiko, Szentendte, Tamasi) e nel Friuli (Cividale, Liariis, Romans d’Isonzo), dove i Longobardi migrarono nel 568. I risultati dell’indagine permettono di avanzare interessanti ipotesi sull’evoluzione delle pratiche funerarie e sul loro significato ideologico e sociale.

Dariali: The 'Caspian Gates' in the Caucasus from Antiquity to the Age of the Huns and the Middle Ages

Dariali: The 'Caspian Gates' in the Caucasus from Antiquity to the Age of the Huns and the Middle Ages Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Eberhard Sauer
Editor: Oxbow Books
ISBN: 1789251958
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Dariali: The 'Caspian Gates' in the Caucasus from Antiquity to the Age of the Huns and the Middle Ages by Eberhard Sauer Summary

The Huns, invading through Dariali Gorge on the modern-day border between Russia and Georgia in AD 395 and 515, spread terror across the late antique world. Was this the prelude to the apocalypse? Prophecies foresaw a future Hunnic onslaught, via the same mountain pass, bringing about the end of the world. Humanity’s fate depended on a gated barrier deep in Europe’s highest and most forbidding mountain chain. Centuries before the emergence of such apocalyptic beliefs, the gorge had reached world fame. It was the target of a planned military expedition by the Emperor Nero. Chained to the dramatic sheer cliffs, framing the narrow passage, the mythical fire-thief Prometheus suffered severe punishment, his liver devoured by an eagle. It was known under multiple names, most commonly the Caspian or Alan Gates. Featuring in the works of literary giants, no other mountain pass in the ancient and medieval world matches Dariali’s fame. Yet little was known about the materiality of this mythical place. A team of archaeologists has now shed much new light on the major gorge-blocking fort and a barrier wall on a steep rocky ridge further north. The walls still standing today were built around the time of the first major Hunnic invasion in the late fourth century – when the Caucasus defences feature increasingly prominently in negotiations between the Great Powers of Persia and Rome. In its endeavour to strongly fortify the strategic mountain pass through the Central Caucasus, the workforce erased most traces of earlier occupation. The Persian-built bastion saw heavy occupation for 600 years. Its multi-faith medieval garrison controlled Trans-Caucasian traffic. Everyday objects and human remains reveal harsh living conditions and close connections to the Muslim South, as well as the steppe world of the north. The Caspian Gates explains how a highly strategic rock has played a pivotal role in world history from Classical Antiquity into the twentieth century.

Regional Approaches to Mortuary Analysis

Regional Approaches to Mortuary Analysis Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Lane Anderson Beck
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1489913106
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Regional Approaches to Mortuary Analysis by Lane Anderson Beck Summary

In this volume, archaeologists offer a new direction for burial research by expanding the models for mortuary analysis from a site-specific to a regional level. Contributors explore how regional mortuary approaches allow the introduction of new questions about peer polity interactions and regional alliances-extending traditional settlement system and exchange analyses. This volume features case studies examining mortuary sites as components of the archaeological landscape.

The Roman and Byzantine Graves and Human Remains

The Roman and Byzantine Graves and Human Remains Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Joseph L. Rife
Editor: American School of Classical Studies at Athens
ISBN: 162139008X
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The Roman and Byzantine Graves and Human Remains by Joseph L. Rife Summary

This study describes and interprets the graves and human remains of Roman and Byzantine date recovered by excavation between 1954 and 1976 in several locales around the Isthmian Sanctuary and the succeeding fortifications. This material provides important evidence for both death and life in the Greek countryside during the Late Roman to Early Byzantine periods. Examination of burial within the local settlement, comparative study of mortuary behavior, and analysis of skeletal morphology, ancient demography, oral health and paleopathology all contribute to a picture of the rural Corinthians over this transitional era as interactive, resilient and modestly innovative.

Modelling Identities

Modelling Identities Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Catalin Nicolae Popa
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3319632671
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Modelling Identities by Catalin Nicolae Popa Summary

This volume investigates the construction of group identity in Late La Tène South-East Europe using an innovative statistical modelling method. Death and burial theory underlies the potential of mortuary practices for identity research. The sample used for this volumes's research consists of 370 graves, organized in a specially crated database that records funerary ritual; and grave-good information. In the case of grave-goods, this involved found hierarchically organized categorical variables, which serve to describe each item by combining functional and typological features. The volume also aims to show the compatibility of archaeological theory and statistical modelling. The discussions from archaeological theory rarely find methodological implementations through statistical methods. In this volume, theoretical issues form an integrative part of data preparation, method development and result interpretation.

Butrint 5: Life and Death at a Mediterranean Port

Butrint 5: Life and Death at a Mediterranean Port Pdf/ePub eBook Author: William Bowden
Editor: Oxbow Books
ISBN: 1785709003
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Butrint 5: Life and Death at a Mediterranean Port by William Bowden Summary

This is the second volume arising from the 1994–2003 excavations of the Triconch Palace at Butrint (Albania), which charted the history of a major Mediterranean waterfront site from the 2nd to the 15th centuries AD. The sequence (Butrint 3: Excavations at the Triconch Palace: Oxbow 2011) included the development of a palatial late Roman house, followed by intensive activity between the 5th and 7th centuries involving domestic occupation, metal-working, fishing and burial. The site saw renewed activity from the 10th century, coinciding with the revival of the town of Butrint, and for the following 300 years continued in intermittent use associated with its channel-side location. This volume reports on the finds from the site (excluding the pottery), which demonstrate the ways in which the lives, diet and material culture of a Mediterranean population changed across the arc of the late Roman and Medieval periods. It includes discussion of the environmental evidence, the human and faunal remains, metal-working evidence, and the major assemblages of glass, coins and small finds, giving an insight into the health, subsistence base and material culture of the population of a Mediterranean site across more than 1000 years. The findings raise important questions regarding the ways in which changes in the circumstances of the town affected the population between Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. They illustrate in particular how an urban Roman center became more rural during the 6th century with a population that faced major challenges in their health and living conditions.

Gender and Chinese Archaeology

Gender and Chinese Archaeology Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Katheryn M. Linduff,Yan Sun
Editor: Rowman Altamira
ISBN: 0759115494
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Gender and Chinese Archaeology by Katheryn M. Linduff,Yan Sun Summary

The roles of women in Chinese archaeology, with only a few exceptions, have at worst been overlooked, and at best consigned to conventional Marxist theory that prescribes formulaic frameworks for understanding gender—until now. Renowned archaeologist Katheryn M. Linduff and fellow researcher Yan Sun have brought together a fascinating collection that reexamines gender in ancient Chinese cultures. Acknowledging and negotiating the complications that challenge their efforts, the authors analyze and begin to reconstruct the roles of women in various regions of China from the late Neolithic to the early Empire period. Topics range from mortuary ritual, social status and structures of power, economic influences on cultural practice, textile production, and art in these early Chinese societies. This book is a must for students, professors, and practitioners of archaeology that seek a more complete examination of the archaeological record, for scholars in the fields of Asian Studies, Art History, and Chinese History more generally, as well as for those interested in the roles of women in ancient Chinese society.

Local, regional and ethnic identities in early medieval cemeteries in Bavaria (Premio Ottone d'Assia e Riccardo Francovich 2008)

Local, regional and ethnic identities in early medieval cemeteries in Bavaria (Premio Ottone d'Assia e Riccardo Francovich 2008) Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Susanne Hakenbeck
Editor: All’Insegna del Giglio
ISBN: 8878144320
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Local, regional and ethnic identities in early medieval cemeteries in Bavaria (Premio Ottone d'Assia e Riccardo Francovich 2008) by Susanne Hakenbeck Summary

Tema conduttore dell’opera è lo studio dell’etnicità altomedievale condotto attraverso l’analisi di un gruppo di cimiteri nella pianura alluvionale di Monaco di Baviera e l’esame dello sviluppo della pratica funeraria in un periodo che va dal V al VII secolo d.C. Iniziate come un atto ibrido di pratiche tardo-romane e barbariche, quando nel secolo successivo, le comunità politiche tribali si consolidarono, le modalità di sepoltura presero le distanze dalle loro origini romane divenendo apertamente barbare. Lo studio delle sepolture diviene per l’A. motivo per una più ampia riflessione sul concetto di identità e sui rapporti fra cultura materiale ed etnia. Contiene il riassunto del volume in italiano.

Architecture, Death and Nationhood

Architecture, Death and Nationhood Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Hannah Malone
Editor: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317089898
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Architecture, Death and Nationhood by Hannah Malone Summary

In the nineteenth century, new cemeteries were built in many Italian cities that were unique in scale and grandeur, and which became destinations on the Grand Tour. From the Middle Ages, the dead had been buried in churches and urban graveyards but, in the 1740s, a radical reform across Europe prohibited burial inside cities and led to the creation of suburban burial grounds. Italy’s nineteenth-century cemeteries were distinctive as monumental or architectural structures, rather than landscaped gardens. They represented a new building type that emerged in response to momentous changes in Italian politics, tied to the fight for independence and the creation of the nation-state. As the first survey of Italy’s monumental cemeteries, the book explores the relationship between architecture and politics, or how architecture is formed by political forces. As cities of the dead, cemeteries mirrored the spaces of the living. Against the backdrop of Italy’s unification, they conveyed the power of the new nation, efforts to construct an Italian identity, and conflicts between Church and state. Monumental cemeteries helped to foster the narratives and mentalities that shaped Italy as a new nation.

Andersonville Raiders

Andersonville Raiders Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Gary Morgan
Editor: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 0811768910
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Andersonville Raiders by Gary Morgan Summary

It was the most witnessed execution in US history. On the evening of July 11, 1864, six men were marched into Andersonville Prison, surrounded by a cordon of guards, the prison commandant, and a Roman Catholic priest. The six men were handed over to a small execution squad, and while more than 26,000 Union prisoners looked on, the six were executed by hanging. The six, part of a larger group known as the Raiders, were killed, not by their Rebel enemies but by their fellow prisoners, for the crimes of robbing and assaulting their own comrades. Who were these six men? Were they really guilty of the crimes they were accused of? Were they really, as some prisoners alleged, murderers? What role did their Confederate captors play in their trial and execution? What brought about their downfall? Relying on military records, diaries, memoirs written within five years of the prison closing, and the recently discovered trial transcript, author Gary Morgan has discovered a version of events that is markedly different from the version told in later day “memoirs” and repeated in the history books. Here, for the first time in a century and a half, is the real story of the Andersonville Raiders.

The Oxford Handbook of Early Southeast Asia

The Oxford Handbook of Early Southeast Asia Pdf/ePub eBook Author: C.F.W. Higham,Nam C. Kim
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0197564275
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The Oxford Handbook of Early Southeast Asia by C.F.W. Higham,Nam C. Kim Summary

Southeast Asia ranks among the most significant regions in the world for tracing the prehistory of human endeavor over a period in excess of two million years. It lies in the direct path of successive migrations from the African homeland that saw settlement by hominin populations such as Homo erectus and Homo floresiensis. The first Anatomically Modern Humans, following a coastal route, reached the region at least 60,000 years ago to establish a hunter gatherer tradition that survives to this day in remote forests. From about 2000 BC, human settlement of Southeast Asia was deeply affected by successive innovations that took place to the north and west, such as rice and millet farming. A millennium later, knowledge of bronze casting penetrated along the same pathways. Copper mines were identified and exploited, and metals were exchanged over hundreds of kilometers. In the Mekong Delta and elsewhere, these developments led to early states of the region, which benefitted from an agricultural revolution involving permanent ploughed rice fields. These developments illuminate how the great early kingdoms of Angkor, Champa, and Funan came to be, a vital stage in understanding the roots of the present nation states of Southeast Asia. Assembling the most current research across a variety of disciplines--from anthropology and archaeology to history, art history, and linguistics--The Oxford Handbook of Early Southeast Asia will present an invaluable resource to experienced researchers and those approaching the topic for the first time.

Blood From a Stone

Blood From a Stone Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Dolores Gordon-Smith
Editor: Severn House Publishers Ltd
ISBN: 1780104154
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Blood From a Stone by Dolores Gordon-Smith Summary

When Mrs Paxton, related to the aristocratic Leigh family of Sussex, is found poisoned in her bedroom one morning, fingers point towards her artist nephew Terence Napier, seen leaving the house earlier that previous evening after a row over her will. Months later and Napier has never been found, but curiously a dead body is discovered in a train compartment, and scattered at the dead man’s feet are the famous Leigh sapphires – a necklace owned by Mrs Paxton, but destined to go back to the Leighs in the event of her death. Scotland Yard once again call upon the services of author Jack Haldean to help solve this most complicated of cases. Soon there are links to a serial thief and murderer, known as the The Vicar, and it seems there is more to this case than a family feud over inheritance.

Cultural Interactions and Social Strategies on the Pontic Shores

Cultural Interactions and Social Strategies on the Pontic Shores Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jane Hjarl Petersen
Editor: Aarhus Universitetsforlag
ISBN: 8779342582
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Cultural Interactions and Social Strategies on the Pontic Shores by Jane Hjarl Petersen Summary

In Antiquity, the Black Sea region was a meeting point for several different population groups with diverse cultural backgrounds. The present monograph takes its point of departure in burial data from four coastal localities in the northern region of the Black Sea. The mortuary practices are decoded and interpreted within a framework mainly based on concepts of cultural interaction rather than cultural polarisation. Thus, the dogma of 'The Greeks and the Others' is challenged, and alternative perceptions of interactions between the people in the Black Sea region form the basis of the study. The burials are primarily analysed with emphasis on social strategies and cultural diversity. Furthermore, the Black Sea region is set into a comparative perspective through an outlook on burial customs and mortuary practices in the colonial milieus of contemporary Southern Italy.

Children, Death and Burial

Children, Death and Burial Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Eileen Murphy,Mélie Le Roy
Editor: Oxbow Books
ISBN: 1785707159
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Children, Death and Burial by Eileen Murphy,Mélie Le Roy Summary

Children, Death and Burials assembles a panorama of studies with a focus on juvenile burials; the 16 papers have a wide geographic and temporal breadth and represent a range of methodological approaches. All have a similar objective in mind, however, namely to understand how children were treated in death by different cultures in the past; to gain insights concerning the roles of children of different ages in their respective societies and to find evidence of the nature of past adult–child relationships and interactions across the life course. The contextualisation and integration of the data collected, both in the field and in the laboratory, enables more nuanced understandings to be gained in relation to the experiences of the young in the past. A broad range of issues are addressed within the volume, including the inclusion/exclusion of children in particular burial environments and the impact of age in relation to the place of children in society. Child burials clearly embody identity and ‘the domestic child’, ‘the vulnerable child’, ‘the high status child’, ‘the cherished child’, ‘the potential child’, ‘the ritual child’ and the ‘political child’, and combinations thereof, are evident throughout the narratives. Investigation of the burial practices afforded to children is pivotal to enlightenment in relation to key facets of past life, including the emotional responses shown towards children during life and in death, as well as an understanding of their place within the social strata and ritual activities of their societies. An important new collection of papers by leading researchers in funerary archaeology, examining the particular treatment of juvenile burials in the past. In particular focuses on the expression of varying status and identity of children in the funerary archaeological record as a key to understanding the place of children in different societies.

Gandharan Buddhism

Gandharan Buddhism Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Kurt Behrendt,Pia Brancaccio
Editor: UBC Press
ISBN: 0774841281
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Gandharan Buddhism by Kurt Behrendt,Pia Brancaccio Summary

The ancient region of Gandhara, with its prominent Buddhist heritage, has long fascinated scholars of art history, archaeology, and textual studies. Discoveries of inscriptions, text fragments, sites, and artworks in the last decade have redefined how we understand the region and its cultural complexity. The essays in this volume reassess Gandharan Buddhism in light of these findings, utilizing a multidisciplinary approach that illuminates the complex historical and cultural dynamics of the region. By integrating archaeology, art history, numismatics, epigraphy, and textual sources, the contributors articulate the nature of Gandharan Buddhism, its practices, and the significance of the relic tradition.

Northern Archaeological Textiles

Northern Archaeological Textiles Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Frances Pritchard,John Peter Wild
Editor: Oxbow Books
ISBN: 1782979816
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Northern Archaeological Textiles by Frances Pritchard,John Peter Wild Summary

This volume presents the papers from the seventh North-European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles (NESAT), held in Edinburgh in 1999. The themes covered demonstrate a variety of scholarship that will encourage anyone working in this important and stimulating area of archaeology. From the golden robes of a Roman burial, to the fashionable Viking in Denmark, through to the early modern period and more technological aspects of textile-research, these twenty-four papers (five of which are in German) provide a wealth of new information on the study of ancient textiles in northern Europe.

The Horse, the Wheel, and Language

The Horse, the Wheel, and Language Pdf/ePub eBook Author: David W. Anthony
Editor: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400831105
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The Horse, the Wheel, and Language by David W. Anthony Summary

Roughly half the world's population speaks languages derived from a shared linguistic source known as Proto-Indo-European. But who were the early speakers of this ancient mother tongue, and how did they manage to spread it around the globe? Until now their identity has remained a tantalizing mystery to linguists, archaeologists, and even Nazis seeking the roots of the Aryan race. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language lifts the veil that has long shrouded these original Indo-European speakers, and reveals how their domestication of horses and use of the wheel spread language and transformed civilization. Linking prehistoric archaeological remains with the development of language, David Anthony identifies the prehistoric peoples of central Eurasia's steppe grasslands as the original speakers of Proto-Indo-European, and shows how their innovative use of the ox wagon, horseback riding, and the warrior's chariot turned the Eurasian steppes into a thriving transcontinental corridor of communication, commerce, and cultural exchange. He explains how they spread their traditions and gave rise to important advances in copper mining, warfare, and patron-client political institutions, thereby ushering in an era of vibrant social change. Anthony also describes his fascinating discovery of how the wear from bits on ancient horse teeth reveals the origins of horseback riding. The Horse, the Wheel, and Language solves a puzzle that has vexed scholars for two centuries--the source of the Indo-European languages and English--and recovers a magnificent and influential civilization from the past.

Animal Husbandry and Hunting in the Central and Western Balkans Through Time

Animal Husbandry and Hunting in the Central and Western Balkans Through Time Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Nemanja Marković,Jelena Bulatović
Editor: Archaeopress Publishing Ltd
ISBN: 1789696941
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Animal Husbandry and Hunting in the Central and Western Balkans Through Time by Nemanja Marković,Jelena Bulatović Summary

This volume presents the results of new research on animal herding and hunting in the central and western Balkans during the prehistoric and historic periods. The investigations cover a wide range of topics related to animal exploitation strategies, ranging from broad syntheses to specific case studies.

Early Athens

Early Athens Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Eirini M. Dimitriadou
Editor: ISD LLC
ISBN: 1938770889
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Early Athens by Eirini M. Dimitriadou Summary

This volume is one of the most important works on ancient Athens in the last fifty years. The focus is on the early city, from the end of the Bronze Age--ca. 1200 BCE--to the Archaic period, when Athens became the largest city of the Classical period, only to be destroyed by the Persians in 480/479 BCE. From a systematic study of all the excavation reports and surveys in central Athens, the author has synthesized a detailed diachronic overview of the city from the Submycenaean period through the Archaic. It is a treasure trove of information for archaeologists who work in this period. Of great value as well are the detailed maps included, which present features of ancient settlements and cemeteries, the repositories of the human physical record. Over eighty additional large-scale, interactive maps are available online to complement the book.

The Archaeology of Early Rome and Latium

The Archaeology of Early Rome and Latium Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Ross R. Holloway
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1317761596
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The Archaeology of Early Rome and Latium by Ross R. Holloway Summary

The archaeology of early Rome has progressed rapidly and dramatically over the last century; most recently with the discovery of the shrine of Aeneas at Lavinium and the reports of the walls of the Romulan city discovered on the city slopes of the Palatine Hill. The Archaeology of Early Rome and Latium presents the most recent discoveries in Rome and its surroundings: princely tombs,inscriptions and patrician houses are included in a complete overview of the subject and the controversies surrounding it. This comprehensively illustrated study fills the need for an accessible English guide to these new discoveries, and in preparation, the author interviewed most of the leading figures in current research on the early periods of Rome.

Death Across Oceans: Archaeology of Coffins and Vaults in Britain, America, and Australia

Death Across Oceans: Archaeology of Coffins and Vaults in Britain, America, and Australia Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Harold Mytum,Laurie Burgess
Editor: Smithsonian Institution
ISBN: 1944466169
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Death Across Oceans: Archaeology of Coffins and Vaults in Britain, America, and Australia by Harold Mytum,Laurie Burgess Summary

Death Across Oceans: Archaeology of Coffins and Vaults in Britain, America, and Australia brings together the leading researchers in historic mortuary practice from Britain, North America, and Australia. It is the first book dedicated to the material culture associated with burial in the historic, English-speaking world. It combines reflections and evaluations from the pioneer scholars who initiated research in this field during the 1980s with studies by young scholars now pushing the research into a new and wider range of issues. This volume will be the seminal work in this field for some time, providing key analyses and essential bibliographic routes into site-specific literature, and setting the research agenda for the future.

Grave Disturbances

Grave Disturbances Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Edeltraud Aspöck,Alison Klevnäs,Nils Müller-Scheeßel
Editor: Oxbow Books
ISBN: 1789254450
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Grave Disturbances by Edeltraud Aspöck,Alison Klevnäs,Nils Müller-Scheeßel Summary

Archaeologists excavating burials often find that they are not the first to disturb the remains of the dead. Graves from many periods frequently show signs that others have been digging and have moved or taken away parts of the original funerary assemblage. Displaced bones and artefacts, traces of pits, and damage to tombs or coffins can all provide clues about post-burial activities. The last two decades have seen a rapid rise in interest in the study of post-depositional practices in graves, which has now developed into a new subfield within mortuary archaeology. This follows a long tradition of neglect, with disturbed graves previously regarded as interesting only to the degree they revealed evidence of the original funerary deposit. This book explores past human interactions with mortuary deposits, delving into the different ways graves and human remains were approached by people in the past and the reasons that led to such encounters. The primary focus of the volume is on cases of unexpected interference with individual graves soon after burial: re-encounters with human remains not anticipated by those who performed the funerary rites and constructed the tombs. However, a first step is always to distinguish these from natural and accidental processes, and methodological approaches are a major theme of discussion. Interactions with the remains of the dead are explored in eleven chapters ranging from the New Kingdom of Egypt to Viking Age Norway and from Bronze Age Slovakia to the ancient Maya. Each discusses cases of re-entries into graves, including desecration, tomb re-use, destruction of grave contents, as well as the removal of artefacts and human remains for reasons from material gain to commemoration, symbolic appropriation, ancestral rites, political chicanery, and retrieval of relics. The introduction presents many of the methodological issues which recur throughout the contributions, as this is a developing area with new approaches being applied to analyze post-depositional processes in graves.

Perceptions of the Prehistoric in Anglo-Saxon England

Perceptions of the Prehistoric in Anglo-Saxon England Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Sarah Semple
Editor: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191505609
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Perceptions of the Prehistoric in Anglo-Saxon England by Sarah Semple Summary

Perceptions of the Prehistoric in Anglo-Saxon England represents an unparalleled exploration of the place of prehistoric monuments in the Anglo-Saxon psyche, and examines how Anglo-Saxon communities perceived and used these monuments during the period AD 400-1100. Sarah Semple employs archaeological, historical, art historical, and literary sources to study the variety of ways in which the early medieval population of England used the prehistoric legacy in the landscape, exploring it from temporal and geographic perspectives. Key to the arguments and ideas presented is the premise that populations used these remains, intentionally and knowingly, in the articulation and manipulation of their identities: local, regional, political, and religious. They recognized them as ancient features, as human creations from a distant past. They used them as landmarks, battle sites, and estate markers, giving them new Old English names. Before, and even during, the conversion to Christianity, communities buried their dead in and around these monuments. After the conversion, several churches were built in and on these monuments, great assemblies and meetings were held at them, and felons executed and buried within their surrounds. This volume covers the early to late Anglo-Saxon world, touching on funerary ritual, domestic and settlement evidence, ecclesiastical sites, place-names, written sources, and administrative and judicial geographies. Through a thematic and chronologically-structured examination of Anglo-Saxon uses and perceptions of the prehistoric, Semple demonstrates that populations were not only concerned with Romanitas (or Roman-ness), but that a similar curiosity and conscious reference to and use of the prehistoric existed within all strata of society.

Souvenirs and New Ideas

Souvenirs and New Ideas Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Diane Fortenberry
Editor: Oxbow Books
ISBN: 1842177982
FileSize: 319kb
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Souvenirs and New Ideas by Diane Fortenberry Summary

Early travellers to Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Turkey and the Levant recorded and remembered their journeys by collecting or creating mementos of places they visited. This natural inclination took many guises, ranging from painting landscapes or, later, taking photographs to acquiring souvenirs, very often antiquities. The collection of antiquities, a controversial and usually illegal practice today, was in the 18th and 19th centuries not necessarily either, and many privately assembled collections now form the basis of major national museums. Souvenirs and New Ideas explores the human desire to retain the memory of a foreign journey, in a series of essays that examine the collections of a variety of travellers, from intrepid female solo voyagers to European royalty. Their acquisitions included souvenirs ranging from Egyptian mummies and ancient artefacts, to paintings and sketches of places visited, to the raw material for books written at leisure, both scholarly and popular. In their desire to share with those at home some of what they had seen, these voyagers contributed to an understanding of societies little known at the time, and the stories of their travels continue to entrance.

An Economic History of Tropical Africa

An Economic History of Tropical Africa Pdf/ePub eBook Author: J.M. Konczacki,Z.A. Konczacki
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1136270841
FileSize: 579kb
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An Economic History of Tropical Africa by J.M. Konczacki,Z.A. Konczacki Summary

These articles cover: early agricultural development; history of agricultural crops; patterns of land use and tenure; introduction and use of metals; economic and technological aspects of the Iron Age; patterns of trade; trade routes and centres; and media of exchange.

History and Ethnography of the Beothuk

History and Ethnography of the Beothuk Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Ingeborg Marshall
Editor: McGill-Queen\'s Press - MQUP
ISBN: 0773565892
FileSize: 397kb
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History and Ethnography of the Beothuk by Ingeborg Marshall Summary

Following their extinction, the Beothuk came to be viewed as a people whose origins, history, and fate were shrouded in mystery. On a quest to sort fact from fiction, Ingeborg Marshall, a leading expert on the Beothuk, has produced an elegant, comprehensive, and scholarly review of the history and culture of the Beothuk that incorporates an unmatched amount of new archival material with up-to-date archaeological data. The book is beautifully and extensively illustrated with maps, portraits, photographs of Beothuk artifacts, burial sites, and camps, and a set of drawings by Shanawdithit. A History and Ethnography of the Beothuk is a compelling story and an indispensable reference tool for anyone interested in the Beothuk or Native peoples of North America.

Middlebrook Guide to the Somme Battlefields

Middlebrook Guide to the Somme Battlefields Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Martin Middlebrook
Editor: Casemate Publishers
ISBN: 1783460490
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Middlebrook Guide to the Somme Battlefields by Martin Middlebrook Summary

While best known as being the scene of the most terrible carnage in the WW1 the French department of the Somme has seen many other battles from Roman times to 1944. William the Conqueror launched his invasion from there; the French and English fought at Crecy in 1346; Henry Vs army marched through on their way to Agincourt in 1415; the Prussians came in 1870.The Great War saw three great battles and approximately half of the 400,000 who died on the Somme were British a terrible harvest, marked by 242 British cemeteries and over 50,000 lie in unmarked graves. These statistics explain in part why the area is visited year-on-year by ever increasing numbers of British and Commonwealth citizens. This evocative book written by the authors of the iconic First Day on the Somme is a thorough guide to the cemeteries, memorials and battlefields of the area, with the emphasis on the fighting of 1916 and 1918, with fascinating descriptions and anecdotes.

Writing to Save a Life

Writing to Save a Life Pdf/ePub eBook Author: John Edgar Wideman
Editor: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1501147307
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Writing to Save a Life by John Edgar Wideman Summary

A major literary figure tells “a searching tale of loss, recovery, and déja vu that is part memoir and what-if speculation, part polemic and exposé” (The Washington Post) about two generations of one family—civil rights martyr Emmett Till and his father, Louis—shortlisted for the National Book Critics Circle Award. Emmett Till took a train from his home in Chicago to visit family in Money, Mississippi; a few weeks later he returned home dead. Murdered because he was a colored boy and had, allegedly, whistled at a white woman. His mother, Mamie Till, chose to display her son’s brutalized face in a glass-topped casket, “so the world can see what they did to my baby.” Emmett Till’s murder and his mother’s refusal to allow his story to be forgotten have become American legends. But one darkly significant twist in the Till legend is rarely mentioned: Louis Till, Emmett’s father, Mamie’s husband, a soldier during World War II, was executed in Italy for committing rape and murder. In 1955, when he and Emmett were each only fourteen years old, Wideman saw a horrific photograph of dead Emmett’s battered face. Decades later, upon discovering that Louis Till had been court-martialed and hanged, he was impelled to investigate the tragically intertwined fates of father and son. Writing to Save a Life is “part exploration and part meditation, a searching account of [Wideman’s] attempt to learn more about the short life of Louis Till” (The New York Times Book Review) and shine light on the truths that have remained in darkness. Wideman, the author of the award-winning Brothers and Keepers, “is a master of quiet meditation…and his book is remarkable for its insight and power” (SFGate). An amalgam of research, memoir, and imagination, Writing to Save a Life is essential and “impressive” (Pittsburgh Post-Gazette) reading—an engaging, enlightening conversation between generations, the living and the dead, fathers and sons.

Pagans and Christians in the Late Roman Empire

Pagans and Christians in the Late Roman Empire Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Marianne Saghy,Edward M. Schoolman
Editor: Central European University Press
ISBN: 9633862558
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Pagans and Christians in the Late Roman Empire by Marianne Saghy,Edward M. Schoolman Summary

Do the terms ?pagan? and ?Christian,? ?transition from paganism to Christianity? still hold as explanatory devices to apply to the political, religious and cultural transformation experienced Empire-wise? Revisiting ?pagans? and ?Christians? in Late Antiquity has been a fertile site of scholarship in recent years: the paradigm shift in the interpretation of the relations between ?pagans? and ?Christians? replaced the old ?conflict model? with a subtler, complex approach and triggered the upsurge of new explanatory models such as multiculturalism, cohabitation, cooperation, identity, or group cohesion. This collection of essays, inscribes itself into the revisionist discussion of pagan-Christian relations over a broad territory and time-span, the Roman Empire from the fourth to the eighth century. A set of papers argues that if ?paganism? had never been fully extirpated or denied by the multiethnic educated elite that managed the Roman Empire, ?Christianity? came to be presented by the same elite as providing a way for a wider group of people to combine true philosophy and right religion. The speed with which this happened is just as remarkable as the long persistence of paganism after the sea-change of the fourth century that made Christianity the official religion of the State. For a long time afterwards, ?pagans? and ?Christians? lived ?in between? polytheistic and monotheist traditions and disputed Classical and non-Classical legacies. ÿ

Writing Against God

Writing Against God Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Joanne Halleran McMullen
Editor: Mercer University Press
ISBN: 9780865544888
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Writing Against God by Joanne Halleran McMullen Summary

Readers approaching Flannery O'Connor's work without knowledge of her Catholicism may find little evidence of it in her fiction. Yet readers who come to O'Connor's work with a prior awareness of her faith (as evidenced, for example, in her essays and correspondence) believe that her Catholicism suffuses every sentence of her fictional canon. Writing against God explores the difficulty of reconciling O'Connor's private and public insistence on the importance of Catholicism in her work with the fiction her readers encounter on the printed page. O'Connor's linguistic choices often move her fiction out of her control, producing a message in conflict with the one she stated she intended. Through a detailed examination of O'Connor's language in her two novels and in short stories that span her career, McMullen exposes a pervasive spiritual environment often in opposition to the Roman Catholic tenets O'Connor professed. Blending a reader-response approach with linguistic analysis, Writing against God offers explanations for the mysteries surrounding and the mysteries within O'Connor's fiction.

Handbook of Forensic Anthropology and Archaeology

Handbook of Forensic Anthropology and Archaeology Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Soren Blau,Douglas H. Ubelaker
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1315528924
FileSize: 1914kb
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Handbook of Forensic Anthropology and Archaeology by Soren Blau,Douglas H. Ubelaker Summary

With contributions from 70 experienced practitioners from around the world, this second edition of the authoritative Handbook of Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology provides a solid foundation in both the practical and ethical components of forensic work. The book weaves together the discipline’s historical development; current field methods for analyzing crime, natural disasters, and human atrocities; an array of laboratory techniques; key case studies involving legal, professional, and ethical issues; and ideas about the future of forensic work--all from a global perspective. This fully revised second edition expands the geographic representation of the first edition by including chapters from practitioners in South Africa and Colombia, and adds exciting new chapters on the International Commission on Missing Persons and on forensic work being done to identify victims of the Battle of Fromelles during World War I. The Handbook of Forensic Anthropology and Archaeology provides an updated perspective of the disciplines of forensic archaeology and anthropology.

Social Change in Aegean Prehistory

Social Change in Aegean Prehistory Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Corien Wiersma,Sofia Voutsaki
Editor: Oxbow Books
ISBN: 178570222X
FileSize: 1939kb
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Social Change in Aegean Prehistory by Corien Wiersma,Sofia Voutsaki Summary

This volume brings together papers that discuss social change. The main focus is on the Early Helladic III to Late Helladic I period in southern Greece, but also touches upon the surrounding islands. This specific timeframe enables us to consider how mainland societies recovered from a ‘crisis’ and how they eventually developed into the differentiated, culturally receptive and competitive social formations of the early Mycenaean period. Material changes are highlighted in the various papers, ranging from pottery and burials to domestic architecture and settlement structures, followed by discussions of how these changes relate to social change. A variety of factors is thereby considered including demographic changes, reciprocal relations and sumptuary behaviour, household organization and kin structure, age and gender divisions, internal tensions, connectivity and mobility. As such, this volume is of interest to both Aegean prehistorians as to scholars interested in social and material change. The volume consists of eight papers, preceded by an introduction and concluded by a response. The introduction gives an overview of the development of the debate on the explanation of social change in Aegean prehistory. The response places the volume in a broader context of the EH III-LH I period and the broader discussion on social change.