Terror Security And Money

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Terror, Security, and Money

Terror, Security, and Money Pdf/ePub eBook Author: ,
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199878226
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Terror, Security, and Money by , Summary

In seeking to evaluate the efficacy of post-9/11 homeland security expenses--which have risen by more than a trillion dollars, not including war costs--the common query has been, "Are we safer?" This, however, is the wrong question. Of course we are "safer"--the posting of a single security guard at one building's entrance enhances safety. The correct question is, "Are any gains in security worth the funds expended?" In this engaging, readable book, John Mueller and Mark Stewart apply risk and cost-benefit evaluation techniques to answer this very question. This analytical approach has been used throughout the world for decades by regulators, academics, and businesses--but, as a recent National Academy of Science study suggests, it has never been capably applied by the people administering homeland security funds. Given the limited risk terrorism presents, expenses meant to lower it have for the most part simply not been worth it. For example, to be considered cost-effective, increased American homeland security expenditures would have had each year to have foiled up to 1,667 attacks roughly like the one intended on Times Square in 2010--more than four a day. Cataloging the mistakes that the US has made--and continues to make--in managing homeland security programs, Terror, Security, and Money has the potential to redirect our efforts toward a more productive and far more cost-effective course.


Overblown Pdf/ePub eBook Author: John Mueller
Editor: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1416574654
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Overblown by John Mueller Summary

Why have there been no terrorist attacks in the United States since 9/11? It is ridiculously easy for a single person with a bomb-filled backpack, or a single explosives-laden automobile, to launch an attack. So why hasn't it happened? The answer is surely not the Department of Homeland Security, which cannot stop terrorists from entering the country, legally or otherwise. It is surely not the Iraq war, which has stoked the hatred of Muslim extremists around the world and wasted many thousands of lives. Terrorist attacks have been regular events for many years -- usually killing handfuls of people, occasionally more than that. Is it possible that there is a simple explanation for the peaceful American homefront? Is it possible that there are no al-Qaeda terrorists here? Is it possible that the war on terror has been a radical overreaction to a rare event? Consider: 80,000 Arab and Muslim immigrants have been subjected to fingerprinting and registration, and more than 5,000 foreign nationals have been imprisoned -- yet there has not been a single conviction for a terrorist crime in America. A handful of plots -- some deadly, some intercepted -- have plagued Europe and elsewhere, and even so, the death toll has been modest. We have gone to war in two countries and killed tens of thousands of people. We have launched a massive domestic wiretapping program and created vast databases of information once considered private. Politicians and pundits have berated us about national security and patriotic duty, while encroaching our freedoms and sending thousands of young men off to die. It is time to consider the hypothesis that dare not speak its name: we have wildly overreacted. Terrorism has been used by murderous groups for many decades, yet even including 9/11, the odds of an American being killed by international terrorism are microscopic. In general, international terrorism doesn't do much damage when considered in almost any reasonable context. The capacity of al-Qaeda or of any similar group to do damage in the United States pales in comparison to the capacity other dedicated enemies, particularly international Communism, have possessed in the past. Lashing out at the terrorist threat is frequently an exercise in self-flagellation because it is usually more expensive than the terrorist attack itself and because it gives the terrorists exactly what they are looking for. Much, probably most, of the money and effort expended on counterterrorism since 2001 (and before, for that matter) has been wasted. The terrorism industry and its allies in the White House and Congress have preyed on our fears and caused enormous damage. It is time to rethink the entire enterprise and spend much smaller amounts on only those things that do matter: intelligence, law enforcement, and disruption of radical groups overseas. Above all, it is time to stop playing into the terrorists' hands, by fear-mongering and helping spread terror itself.

Chasing Ghosts

Chasing Ghosts Pdf/ePub eBook Author: John Mueller,Mark Stewart
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190237333
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Chasing Ghosts by John Mueller,Mark Stewart Summary

Since 2001, the United States has created or reorganized more than two counterterrorism organizations for every apprehension it has made of Islamists apparently planning to commit terrorism within the country. Central to this massive enterprise is what the FBI frequently calls "ghost-chasing"-the efforts by police and intelligence agencies to follow up on over ten million tips. Less than one alarm in 10,000 fails to be false-the rest all point to ghosts. And the vast majority of the leads deemed to be productive have led to terrorist enterprises that are either trivial or at most aspirational. As John Mueller and Mark G. Stewart suggest in Chasing Ghosts, it is often an exercise in dueling delusions: an extremist has delusions about changing the world by blowing something up, and the authorities have delusions that he might actually be able to overcome his patent inadequacies to do so. Chasing Ghosts systematically examines this expensive, exhausting, bewildering, chaotic, and paranoia-inducing process. It evaluates the counterterrorism efforts of the FBI, the National Security Agency, the Department of Homeland Security, and local policing agencies. In addition, it draws from a rich set of case studies to appraise the capacities of the terrorist "adversary" and to scrutinize "the myth of the mastermind." Mueller and Stewart also look closely at public opinion, a key driving force in counterterrorism efforts. The chance that an American will be killed by a terrorist within the country is about one in four million per year under present conditions. However, poll data suggest that, although over a trillion dollars has been spent on domestic counterterrorism since 2001, Americans say they do not feel safer. No defense of civil liberties is likely to be effective as long as people and officials continue to believe that the threat from terrorism is massive, even existential. The book does not argue that there is nothing for the ghost-chasers to find-the terrorist "adversary" is real and does exist. The question that is central to the exercise-but one the ghost-chasers never really probe-is an important and rather straight-forward one: is the chase worth the effort? Or is it excessive given the danger that terrorism actually presents? As Chasing Ghosts shows in vivid detail, standard evaluative procedures suggest that the costs often far outweigh the benefits.

Are We Safe Enough?

Are We Safe Enough? Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Mark G. Stewart,John Mueller
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128114762
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Are We Safe Enough? by Mark G. Stewart,John Mueller Summary

Are We Safe Enough? Measuring and Assessing Aviation Security explains how standard risk analytic and cost-benefit analysis can be applied to aviation security in systematic and easy-to-understand steps. The book evaluates and puts into sensible context the risks associated with air travel, the risk appetite of airlines and regulators and the notion of acceptable risk. It does so by describing the effectiveness, risk reduction and cost of each layer of aviation security, from policing and intelligence to checkpoint passenger screening to arming pilots on the flight deck. Quantifies the risks, costs and benefits of various aviation security methods, including policing, intelligence, PreCheck, checkpoint passenger screening, behavioral detection, air marshals and armed pilots Focuses on security measures that reduce costs without reducing security, including PreCheck, Federal Flight Deck Officer program and Installed Physical Secondary Barriers Features risk-reduction insights with global applications that are fully transparent, and fully explored through sensitivity analysis

Terrorism, Inc.: The Financing of Terrorism, Insurgency, and Irregular Warfare

Terrorism, Inc.: The Financing of Terrorism, Insurgency, and Irregular Warfare Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Colin P. Clarke Ph.D.
Editor: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1440831041
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Terrorism, Inc.: The Financing of Terrorism, Insurgency, and Irregular Warfare by Colin P. Clarke Ph.D. Summary

This in-depth, historical analysis of terrorism investigates the major funding streams of terrorists, insurgents, guerrillas, warlords, militias, and criminal organizations throughout the world as well as the efforts of the international community to thwart their efforts. • Examines the financing of major terrorist organizations such as ISIS, Al Qaeda, Hamas, Hezbollah, the Taliban, and other significant groups • Features maps of key regions and graphs comparing funding streams of various groups • Includes information derived from interviews with expert threat finance practitioners, academics, scholars, and policy professionals • Provides a chronology of critical events

Turkey and the War on Terror

Turkey and the War on Terror Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Andrew Mango
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1134269951
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Turkey and the War on Terror by Andrew Mango Summary

Since the 1970s, Turkey has suffered 35,000 deaths through terrorism, yet the PKK terror group was only recognized as such by the European Union in 2002. The realization that terrorism poses a world-wide threat is now forcing a keen reassessment of the struggle which Turkey has had to wage with terror for over thirty years while the world looked on. Terror is clearly now a key part of the international agenda and this authoritative account details and establishes the Turkish experience. This chronological account of terrorist attacks inside Turkey and against Turkish targets outside the country, places them in the global setting. This book will be of great interest to all students and scholars of international relations, terrorism and security studies.

Learning From the Octopus

Learning From the Octopus Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Rafe Sagarin
Editor: Basic Books
ISBN: 0465029817
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Learning From the Octopus by Rafe Sagarin Summary

Despite the billions of dollars we've poured into foreign wars, homeland security, and disaster response, we are fundamentally no better prepared for the next terrorist attack or unprecedented flood than we were in 2001. Our response to catastrophe remains unchanged: add another step to airport security, another meter to the levee wall. This approach has proved totally ineffective: reacting to past threats and trying to predict future risks will only waste resources in our increasingly unpredictable world.In Learning from the Octopus, ecologist and security expert Rafe Sagarin rethinks the seemingly intractable problem of security by drawing inspiration from a surprising source: nature. Biological organisms have been living -- and thriving -- on a risk-filled planet for billions of years. Remarkably, they have done it without planning, predicting, or trying to perfect their responses to complex threats. Rather, they simply adapt to solve the challenges they continually face.Military leaders, public health officials, and business professionals would all like to be more adaptable, but few have figured out how. Sagarinargues that we can learn from observing how nature is organized, how organisms learn, how they create partnerships, and how life continually diversifies on this unpredictable planet.As soon as we dip our toes into a cold Pacific tidepool and watch what we thought was a rock turn into an octopus, jetting away in a cloud of ink, we can begin to see the how human adaptability can mimic natural adaptation. The same mechanisms that enabled the octopus's escape also allow our immune system to ward off new infectious diseases, helped soldiers in Iraq to recognize the threat of IEDs, and aided Google in developing faster ways to detect flu outbreaks. While we will never be able to predict the next earthquake, terrorist attack, or market fluctuation, nature can guide us in developing security systems that are not purely reactive but proactive, holistic, and adaptable. From the tidepools of Monterey to the mountains of Kazakhstan, Sagarin takes us on an eye-opening tour of the security challenges we face, and shows us how we might learn to respond more effectively to the unknown threats lurking in our future.

Foundations of the Islamic State

Foundations of the Islamic State Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Patrick B. Johnston,Jacob N. Shapiro,Howard J. Shatz,Benjamin Bahney,Danielle F. Jung,Patrick K. Ryan,Jonathan Wallace
Editor: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 0833091794
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Foundations of the Islamic State by Patrick B. Johnston,Jacob N. Shapiro,Howard J. Shatz,Benjamin Bahney,Danielle F. Jung,Patrick K. Ryan,Jonathan Wallace Summary

Drawing from 140 recently declassified documents, this report comprehensively examines the organization, territorial designs, management, personnel policies, and finances of the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI) and al-Qa‘ida in Iraq. Analysis of the Islamic State predecessor groups is more than a historical recounting. It provides significant understanding of how ISI evolved into the present-day Islamic State and how to combat the group.

Preparing for the Psychological Consequences of Terrorism

Preparing for the Psychological Consequences of Terrorism Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health,Committee on Responding to the Psychological Consequences of Terrorism
Editor: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309167925
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Preparing for the Psychological Consequences of Terrorism by Institute of Medicine,Board on Neuroscience and Behavioral Health,Committee on Responding to the Psychological Consequences of Terrorism Summary

The Oklahoma City bombing, intentional crashing of airliners on September 11, 2001, and anthrax attacks in the fall of 2001 have made Americans acutely aware of the impacts of terrorism. These events and continued threats of terrorism have raised questions about the impact on the psychological health of the nation and how well the public health infrastructure is able to meet the psychological needs that will likely result. Preparing for the Psychological Consequences of Terrorism highlights some of the critical issues in responding to the psychological needs that result from terrorism and provides possible options for intervention. The committee offers an example for a public health strategy that may serve as a base from which plans to prevent and respond to the psychological consequences of a variety of terrorism events can be formulated. The report includes recommendations for the training and education of service providers, ensuring appropriate guidelines for the protection of service providers, and developing public health surveillance for preevent, event, and postevent factors related to psychological consequences.

The Test of Terrorism

The Test of Terrorism Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Alastair Finlan
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 131765336X
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The Test of Terrorism by Alastair Finlan Summary

This book offers a timely and critical reflection on how states have responded to the test of terrorism in the long shadow of 9/11. Terrorism has become the hallmark of international relations in the early twenty-first century. This book provides a policy-focused analysis of how certain states have responded to its test by employing a range of viewpoints that encompass state level responses down to a close interrogation of the nebulous non-state actors who have orchestrated spectacular political violence in contemporary times. It engages with the challenges of terrorism from a variety of perspectives that include philosophical discourses, the perils of counterterrorism encapsulated in the death of Jean Charles de Menezes, learning in counterinsurgency, the effectiveness of counterterrorism spending, Al Qaeda’s modus operandi and the threat posed by Boko Haram to Nigeria. This eclectic collection of chapters is an important contribution to the wide-ranging and contested debate about terrorism that has dominated the political discourse in the West since 2001. This book was published as a special issue of Defense and Security Analysis.

State Failure and State Weakness in a Time of Terror

State Failure and State Weakness in a Time of Terror Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Robert I. Rotberg
Editor: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 9780815775720
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State Failure and State Weakness in a Time of Terror by Robert I. Rotberg Summary

The threat of terror, which flares in Africa and Indonesia, has given the problem of failed states an unprecedented immediacy and importance. In the past, failure had a primarily humanitarian dimension, with fewer implications for peace and security. Now nation-states that fail, or may do so, pose dangers to themselves, to their neighbors, and to people around the globe: preventing their failure, and reviving those that do fail, has become a strategic as well as a moral imperative. State Failure and State Weakness in a Time of Terror develops an innovative theory of state failure that classifies and categorizes states along a continuum from weak to failed to collapsed. By understanding the mechanisms and identifying the tell-tale indicators of state failure, it is possible to develop strategies to arrest the fatal slide from weakness to collapse. This state failure paradigm is illustrated through detailed case studies of states that have failed and collapsed (the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sierra Leone, the Sudan, Somalia), states that are dangerously weak (Colombia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan), and states that are weak but safe (Fiji, Haiti, Lebanon).

Debating Terrorism and Counterterrorism

Debating Terrorism and Counterterrorism Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Stuart Gottlieb
Editor: CQ Press
ISBN: 1544350287
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Debating Terrorism and Counterterrorism by Stuart Gottlieb Summary

Featuring paired pro/con pieces written specifically for this volume, Debating Terrorism and Counterterrorism : Conflicting Perspectives on Causes, Contexts, and Responses encourages students to grapple with the central debates surrounding the field of terrorism. With topics ranging from the root causes of terrorism, the role of religion in terrorism, whether suicide terrorism is ever justified, whether the spread of democracy can help defeat terrorism, and what trade-offs should exist between security and civil liberties, Gottlieb's outstanding cast of contributors returns, compelling students to wrestle with the conflicting perspectives that define the field. Stuart Gottlieb frames the paired essays with incisive headnotes, providing historical context and preparing students to read each argument critically. Each selection has been updated to account for recent world events, policy changes, and new scholarship. New to the reader, and by reviewer request, is a chapter, "Can Global Institutions Make a Difference in Fighting Terrorism?"

Terror in the Balance

Terror in the Balance Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Eric A. Posner,Adrian Vermeule
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198042372
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Terror in the Balance by Eric A. Posner,Adrian Vermeule Summary

In Terror in the Balance, Posner and Vermeule take on civil libertarians of both the left and the right, arguing that the government should be given wide latitude to adjust policy and liberties in the times of emergency. They emphasize the virtues of unilateral executive actions and argue for making extensive powers available to the executive as warranted. The judiciary should neither second-guess security policy nor interfere on constitutional grounds. In order to protect citizens, government can and should use any legal instrument that is warranted under ordinary cost-benefit analysis. The value gained from the increase in security will exceed the losses from the decrease in liberty. At a time when the 'struggle against violent extremism' dominates the United States' agenda, this important and controversial work will spark discussion in the classroom and intellectual press alike.

Does Terrorism Work?

Does Terrorism Work? Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Richard English
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191067954
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Does Terrorism Work? by Richard English Summary

Terrorism is one of the most significant security threats that we face in the twenty-first century. Not surprisingly, there is now a plethora of books on the subject, offering definitions of what terrorism is and proffering advice on what causes it and how states should react to it. But one of the most important questions about terrorism has, until now, been left remarkably under-scrutinized: does it work? Richard English now brings thirty years of professional expertise studying terrorism to the task of answering this complex - and controversial - question. Focussing principally on four of the most significant terrorist organizations of the last fifty years (al-Qaida, the Provisional IRA, Hamas, and ETA), and using a wealth of interview material with former terrorists as well as those involved in counter-terrorism, he argues that we need a far more honest understanding of the degree to which terrorism actually works - as well as a more nuanced insight into the precise ways in which it does so. Only then can we begin to grapple more effectively with what has become one of the most challenging and eye-catching issues of our time.

Routledge Handbook of Law and Terrorism

Routledge Handbook of Law and Terrorism Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Genevieve Lennon,Clive Walker
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 113445516X
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Routledge Handbook of Law and Terrorism by Genevieve Lennon,Clive Walker Summary

In the years since 9/11, counter-terrorism law and policy has proliferated across the world. This handbook comprehensively surveys how the law has been deployed in all aspects of counter-terrorism. It provides an authoritative and critical analysis of counter-terrorism laws in domestic jurisdictions, taking a comparative approach to a range of jurisdictions, especially the UK, the US, Australia, Canada, and Europe. The contributions to the book are written by experts in the field of terrorism law and policy, allowing for discussion of a wide range of regulatory responses and strategies of governance. The book is divided into four parts, reflective of established counter-terrorism strategic approaches, and covers key themes such as: Policing and special powers, including surveillance Criminal offences and court processes Prevention of radicalisation and manifestations of extremism Protective/preparative security The penology of terrorism In addressing counter-terrorism laws across a broad range of topics and jurisdictions, the handbook will be of great interest and use to researchers, students and practitioners in criminal law, counter-terrorism, and security studies.

Online Terrorist Propaganda, Recruitment, and Radicalization

Online Terrorist Propaganda, Recruitment, and Radicalization Pdf/ePub eBook Author: John R. Vacca
Editor: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351691368
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Online Terrorist Propaganda, Recruitment, and Radicalization by John R. Vacca Summary

Online Terrorist Propaganda, Recruitment, and Radicalization is most complete treatment of the rapidly growing phenomenon of how terrorists’ online presence is utilized for terrorism funding, communication, and recruitment purposes. The book offers an in-depth coverage of the history and development of online "footprints" to target new converts, broaden their messaging, and increase their influence. Chapters present the emergence of various groups; the advancement of terrorist groups’ online presences; their utilization of video, chat room, and social media; and the current capability for propaganda, training, and recruitment. With contributions from leading experts in the field—including practitioners and terrorism researchers—the coverage moves from general factors to specific groups practices as relate to Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), and numerous other groups. Chapters also examine the lone wolf phenomenon as a part of the disturbing trend of self-radicalization. A functional, real-world approach is used regarding the classification of the means and methods by which an online presence is often utilized to promote and support acts of terrorism. Online Terrorist Propaganda, Recruitment, and Radicalization examines practical solutions in identifying the threat posed by terrorist propaganda and U.S. government efforts to counter it, with a particular focus on ISIS, the Dark Web, national and international measures to identify, thwart, and prosecute terrorist activities online. As such, it will be an invaluable resources for intelligence professionals, terrorism and counterterrorism professionals, those researching terrorism funding, and policy makers looking to restrict the spread of terrorism propaganda online.

Terrorism, Security and Development in South Asia

Terrorism, Security and Development in South Asia Pdf/ePub eBook Author: M. Raymond Izarali,Dalbir Ahlawat
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1000376621
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Terrorism, Security and Development in South Asia by M. Raymond Izarali,Dalbir Ahlawat Summary

This book provides a rich analysis of the actors and organizations to reflect on the antecedents and trajectories of terrorism and insurgency in South Asia, and the different countermeasures adopted by the countries to deal with the security and developmental challenges. South Asia is a complex geography that has been both a victim and a playing field for indigenous insurgencies, and domestic and transnational terrorist movements. The contributors to this volume explore how this situation has posed serious challenges to the sovereignty of the states, to national and human security, and to the socioeconomic fabric of the communities, and to the ethnic and religious cohesion. The book provides detailed studies of country cases on terrorism, security, and insurgencies, and it underlines the national, regional, and global implications of the threats that emanate from this region. Presenting an opportunity to diversify away from a Western-centric focus on terrorism and security, this book will be valuable to researchers in political science, criminology, defense and security studies, and to policy makers and think tanks.

Counter-Terrorism, Human Rights and the Rule of Law

Counter-Terrorism, Human Rights and the Rule of Law Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Aniceto Masferrer,Clive Walker
Editor: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 178195447X
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Counter-Terrorism, Human Rights and the Rule of Law by Aniceto Masferrer,Clive Walker Summary

ŠA deep and thoughtful exploration of counter-terrorism written by leading commentators from around the globe. This book poses critical questions about the definition of terrorism, the role of human rights and the push by many governments for more secu

European Peace and Security Policy

European Peace and Security Policy Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Michael Brzoska
Editor: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1474243126
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European Peace and Security Policy by Michael Brzoska Summary

After the attacks of 9/11 terrorism and other forms of transnational risks of violence dominated official security policy. Researchers at the Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy at the University of Hamburg investigated the consequences of this change for security governance in a multi-annual research program. Case studies show that transnational security policies changed, but that national governments remained dominant. In other words, the transnationalisation of threat perceptions only led to a limited internationalisaton of security policies. The volume presents results of the research program. It combines conceptual work on security governance with empirical research, for instance on counterterrorism, changing perceptions of security in international organizations, such as the European Union and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.

Counter-terrorism, Constitutionalism and Miscarriages of Justice

Counter-terrorism, Constitutionalism and Miscarriages of Justice Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Genevieve Lennon,Colin King,Carole McCartney
Editor: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1509915745
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Counter-terrorism, Constitutionalism and Miscarriages of Justice by Genevieve Lennon,Colin King,Carole McCartney Summary

The purpose of this book is to honour the influential and wide-ranging work of Professor Clive Walker. It explores Professor Walker's influence from three perspectives. Firstly, it provides a historical reflection upon the development of the law and policy in relation to counter-terrorism and miscarriages of justice since the 1970s. This historical perspective, which is often overlooked, is particularly timely 17 years after 9/11 as trends become clearer and historical perspective even more valuable. So too with miscarriages of justice: while there was considerable public and political scrutiny following high-profile miscarriages such as the Birmingham Six, Guildford Four, and others, in the early 1990s, today there is much less scrutiny, despite significant concern relating to issues such as legal aid and access to justice increasing the potential (if not likelihood) for miscarriages to occur. By including a critical historical perspective, this book enables us to learn lessons from the past and to minimise contemporary risks of miscarriages of justice. Secondly, this book provides a critical analysis of the law and policy as it stands today, and its future trajectory. Applying Walker's theoretical and analytical contributions to the field, the authors focus on pressing contemporary concerns, identifying lacunae where relevant, as well as the possible, probable and preferable future trends. Finally, the book celebrates and recognises the significant contributions by Walker, with each chapter built around one or more of Walker's key works.