The Enlightenment by John Robertson

The Enlightenment
  • Title : The Enlightenment
  • Author : John Robertson
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN Code : 0199591784
  • Pages : 144
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

A foundational moment in the history of modern European thought, the Enlightenment continues to be a reference point for philosophers, scholars and opinion-formers. To many it remains the inspiration of our commitments to the betterment of the human condition. To others, it represents the elevation of one set of European values to the world, many of whose peoples have quite different values. But what is the relationship between the historical Enlightenment and the idea of 'Enlightenment', and can these two understandings be reconciled? In this Very Short Introduction, John Robertson offers a concise historical introduction to the Enlightenment as an intellectual movement of eighteenth-century Europe. Discussing its intellectual achievements, he also explores how its supporters exploited new ways of communicating their ideas to a wider public, creating a new 'public sphere' for critical discussion of the moral, economic and political issues facing their societies. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Voltaire: a Very Short Introduction by Nicholas Cronk

Voltaire: a Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Voltaire: a Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Nicholas Cronk
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0199688354
  • Pages : 144
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Voltaire (1694-1778), best remembered as the author of Candide, is one of the central actors -- arguably the defining personality -- of the European Enlightenment. In this Very Short Introduction, Nicholas Cronk explores Voltaire's remarkable career and demonstrates how his thinking is pivotal to our notion and understanding of the Enlightenment. In a fresh and modern examination of his writings, Cronk examines the nature of Voltaire's literary celebrity, demonstrating the extent to which his work was reactive and practical, and therefore made sense within the broader context of the debates to which he responded. The most famous living author in Europe in the 18th century, Cronk emphasizes Voltaire's skills of "performance" as a writer and his continued relevance today. He concludes by looking not only at Voltaire's impact in literature and philosophy, but also his influence on French political values and modern French politics. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


The Scientific Revolution: A Very Short Introduction by Lawrence Principe

The Scientific Revolution: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : The Scientific Revolution: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Lawrence Principe
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0199567417
  • Pages : 148
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Lawrence M. Principe takes a fresh approach to the story of the scientific revolution, emphasising the historical context of the society and its world view at the time. From astronomy to alchemy and medicine to geology, he tells this fascinating story from the perspective of the historical characters involved.


Critical Theory: a Very Short Introduction by Stephen Eric Bronner

Critical Theory: a Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Critical Theory: a Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Stephen Eric Bronner
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0190692677
  • Pages : 144
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Preface -- Introduction: what is critical theory? -- The frankfurt school -- A matter of method -- Critical theory and modernism -- Alienation and reification -- Enlightened illusions -- The utopian laboratory -- The happy consciousness -- The great refusal -- From resignation to renewal -- Unfinished tasks -- Further reading -- Index


Revolutions: A Very Short Introduction by Jack A. Goldstone

Revolutions: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Revolutions: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Jack A. Goldstone
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0199858500
  • Pages : 148
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

This volume places recent events in Iraq and Afghanistan to Tunisia and Egypt in historical context. It provides a history of revolutions and insurgencies, an introduction to the way social scientists think about the causes and outcomes of revolutions, and an explanation of their significance in historical and political change. Jack A. Goldstone begins with a brief history of revolutions and insurgencies, from the revolutions that brought democracy to Greek city-states and led to thefounding of Rome through the major peasant revolts of the Middle Ages in Europe and China, and the Independence revolts in the Americas. He also touches upon the insurgencies in Latin America (Zapatistas and FARC) and Asia (in Malaysia and the Philippines), whose failure is instructive in understanding why revolts succeed or fail. The book then discusses types of revolutions and their causes; the radical social revolutions in France, Russia, and China; the revolutions for independence in Indiaand Algeria; revolutions against dictators in Mexico, Cuba, and Iran; and the so-called color revolutions in Czechoslovakia, Ukraine, and Georgia. Goldstone considers some of the key revolutionary leaders of history where they came from, what inspired them, and how they changed their societies. A diverse range of popular groups have carried revolutions: peasants, miners, urban craftsmen, professionals, students, and mothers, all treated here. A chapter on insurgency and counter-insurgencycovers Iraq and Afghanistan. Finally, Goldstone grapples with the outcomes of revolutions: whether they are associated with the rise of freedom and democracy, devastating ideological dictatorships, or something inconclusive. He examines the historical legacies of revolutions, in the areas of freedom, economic growth, women's rights, and minority rights. Revolutions have succeeded enough to feed dreams of freedom, but failed often enough to prompt caution.


Rousseau: A Very Short Introduction by Robert Wokler

Rousseau: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Rousseau: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Robert Wokler
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • ISBN Code : 0191604429
  • Pages : 188
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

One of the most profound thinkers of modern history, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-78) was a central figure of the European Enlightenment. He was also its most formidable critic, condemning the political, economic, theological, and sexual trappings of civilization along lines that would excite the enthusiasm of romantic individualists and radical revolutionaries alike. In this study of Rousseau's life and works Robert Wokler shows how his philosophy of history, his theories of music and politics, his fiction, educational and religious writings, and even his botany, were all inspired by visionary ideals of mankind's self-realization in a condition of unfettered freedom. He explains how, in regressing to classical republicanism, ancient mythology, direct communion with God, and solitude, Rousseau anticipated some post-modernist rejections of the Enlightenment as well. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Indian Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction by Sue Hamilton

Indian Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Indian Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Sue Hamilton
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • ISBN Code : 0191540242
  • Pages : 176
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

India has a long, rich, and diverse tradition of philosophical thought, spanning some two and a half millennia and encompassing several major religious traditions. This Very Short Introduction emphasizes the diversity of Indian thought, and is structured around six schools which have achieved classic status. Sue Hamilton explores how the traditions have attempted to understand the nature of reality in terms of an inner or spiritual quest, and introduces distinctively Indian concepts such as karma and rebirth. She also shows how Indian thinkers have understood issues of reality and knowledge — issues which are also an important part of the Western philosophical tradition. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


History: A Very Short Introduction by John Arnold

History: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : History: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : John Arnold
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • ISBN Code : 0191606375
  • Pages : 160
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

There are many stories we can tell about the past, and we are not, perhaps, as free as we might imagine in our choice of which stories to tell, or where those stories end. John Arnold's Very Short Introduction is a stimulating essay about how we study and understand history. The book begins by inviting us to think about various questions provoked by our investigation of history, and explores the ways these questions have been answered in the past. Concepts such as causation, interpretation, and periodization, are introduced by means of concrete examples of how historians work, giving the reader a sense of the excitement of discovering not only the past, but also ourselves. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


The History of Medicine: A Very Short Introduction by William Bynum

The History of Medicine: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : The History of Medicine: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : William Bynum
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 019921543X
  • Pages : 169
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

This Very Short Introduction explores the history of Western medicine, examining the key turning points, discoveries, and controversies in its rich history from classical times to the present.


Eighteenth-Century Britain: A Very Short Introduction by Paul Langford

Eighteenth-Century Britain: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Eighteenth-Century Britain: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Paul Langford
  • Publisher : Oxford Paperbacks
  • ISBN Code : 9780192853998
  • Pages : 116
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Part of The Oxford Illustrated History of Britain, this book spans from the aftermath of the Revolution of 1688 to Pitt the Younger's defeat at attempted parliamentary reform.


Humanism: A Very Short Introduction by Stephen Law

Humanism: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Humanism: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Stephen Law
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN Code : 0199553645
  • Pages : 150
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Summary: Philosopher Stephen Law explains why humanism--though a rejection of religion--nevertheless provides both a moral basis and a meaning for our lives.-publisher description.


The Russian Revolution: A Very Short Introduction by S. A. Smith

The Russian Revolution: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : The Russian Revolution: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : S. A. Smith
  • Publisher : Oxford Paperbacks
  • ISBN Code : 0192853953
  • Pages : 180
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

This Very Short Introduction provides an analytical narrative of the main events and developments in Soviet Russia between 1917 and 1936. It examines the impact of the revolution on society as a whole—on different classes, ethnic groups, the army, men and women, youth. Its central concern is to understand how one structure of domination was replaced by another. The book registers the primacy of politics, but situates political developments firmly in the context of massive economic, social, and cultural change. Since the fall of Communism there has been much reflection on the significance of the Russian Revolution. The book rejects the currently influential, liberal interpretation of the revolution in favour of one that sees it as rooted in the contradictions of a backward society which sought modernization and enlightenment and ended in political tyranny. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


The Renaissance Bazaar by Jerry Brotton

The Renaissance Bazaar
  • Title : The Renaissance Bazaar
  • Author : Jerry Brotton
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
  • ISBN Code : 0192802658
  • Pages : 243
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

More than ever before, the Renaissance stands as one of the defining moments in world history. Between 1400 and 1600, European perceptions of society, culture, politics and even humanity itself emerged in ways that continue to affect not only Europe but the entire world. This wide-rangingexploration of the Renaissance sees the period as a time of unprecedented intellectual excitement and cultural experimentation and interaction on a global scale, alongside a darker side of religion, intolerance, slavery, and massive inequality of wealth and status.It guides the reader through the key issues that defined the period, from its art, architecture, and literature, to advancements in the fields of science, trade, and travel. In its incisive account of the complexities of the political and religious upheavals of the period, the book argues thatEurope's reciprocal relationship with its eastern neighbours offers us a timely perspective on the Renaissance as a moment of global inclusiveness that still has much to teach us today.


Galileo: A Very Short Introduction by Stillman Drake

Galileo: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Galileo: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Stillman Drake
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • ISBN Code : 0191606669
  • Pages : 160
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

In a startling reinterpretation of the evidence, Stillman Drake advances the hypothesis that Galileo's trial and condemnation by the Inquisition was caused not by his defiance of the Church, but by the hostility of contemporary philosophers. Galileo's own beautifully lucid arguments are used to show how his scientific method was utterly divorced from the Aristotelian approach to physics in that it was based on a search not for causes but for laws. Galileo's method was of overwhelming significance for the development of modern physics, and led to a final parting of the ways between science and philosophy. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Kafka: A Very Short Introduction by Ritchie Robertson,Ritchie (St John's College Robertson, University of Oxford)

Kafka: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Kafka: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Ritchie Robertson,Ritchie (St John's College Robertson, University of Oxford)
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0192804553
  • Pages : 136
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Franz Kafka is one of the most intriguing writers of the 20th century. In this text the author provides an up-to-date introduction to Kafka, beginning with an examination of his life and then discussing some of the major themes that emerge in Kafka's work.


Conscience: A Very Short Introduction by Paul Strohm

Conscience: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Conscience: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Paul Strohm
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 019956969X
  • Pages : 133
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Where does our conscience come from, and how reliable is it? Exploring its deep historical roots, Paul Strohm considers what conscience has meant to successive generations. Using examples from popular culture and contemporary politics he demonstrates that conscience is as important today as it ever has been.


Freemasonry: a Very Short Introduction by Andreas Önnerfors

Freemasonry: a Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Freemasonry: a Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Andreas Önnerfors
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0198796277
  • Pages : 152
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Freemasonry is one of the oldest and most widespread voluntary organizations in the world. Over the course of three centuries men (and women) have organized themselves socially and voluntarily under its name. With a strong sense of liberation, moral enlightenment, cosmopolitan openness and forward-looking philanthropy, freemasonry has attracted some of the sharpest minds in history and has created a strong platform for nascent civil societies across the globe. With the secrecy of internally communicated knowledge, the clandestine character of organization, and the enactment of rituals and the elaborate use of symbols, freemasonry has also opened up feelings of distrust, as well as allegations of secretiveness and conspiracy. This Very Short Introduction introduces the inner activities of freemasonry, and the rituals, symbols and practices. Looking at the development of the organizational structure of masonry from the local to the global level, Andreas Onnerfors considers perceptions of freemasonry from the outside world, and navigates through the prevalent fictions and conspiracy theories. He also discusses how freemasonry has from its outset struggled with issues of exclusion based upon gender, race and religion, despite promoting tolerant openness and inclusion. Finally Onnerfors shines a light on the rarely discussed but highly compelling history of female agency in Masonic and Para-Masonic orders. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Exploration by Stewart Angas Weaver

Exploration
  • Title : Exploration
  • Author : Stewart Angas Weaver
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN Code : 0199946957
  • Pages : 133
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

This clear, succinct, and elegant contribution to the 'Very Short Introductions' series surveys the history of global exploration and assesses the motives, for good and ill, of those who undertook it. Stewart Weaver traces the history of exploration from the first explorers (including Polynesian and Micronesian peoples, the ancient Greeks, Marco Polo, and Ibn BattÐta), to the European discover of America, the Enlightenment and exploration (focusing on James Cook), and the race to the north and south poles


Adam Smith by Christopher J. Berry

Adam Smith
  • Title : Adam Smith
  • Author : Christopher J. Berry
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN Code : 0198784457
  • Pages : 152
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

In 1776 Adam Smith (1723-90) wrote The Wealth of Nations, a book so foundational that it has led to him being called the "father of economics." Today he is associated with the promotion of self-interest, a defense of greed and a criticism of any governmental 'interference' in market transactions which, if left to the 'invisible hand', will produce prosperity and liberty. Yet if Smith is actually read these associations are more a caricature than a faithful portrait. In this Very Short Introduction, Christopher Berry offers a balanced and nuanced view of this seminal thinker, embedding his fierce defense of free trade, competition, and assault on special interests in contemporary European history, politics, and philosophy. As Berry explores, Smith was more than an economist. His book The Theory of Moral Sentiment, offered a complex account of ethics in the context of human social behavior. His scope as a professor at the University of Glasgow, a major center of the Scottish Enlightenment, was extensive. Beyond courses in philosophy and jurisprudence he also gave classes covering history, literature, and language. In addition to his two major works he also wrote a pioneering study of the history of astronomy as an illustration of the motivations that drive humans to seek answers to questions. He produced, again derived from his Glasgow classroom, an analysis of the development of grammar and language. As Christopher Berry shows, Adam Smith was no narrow thinker, but rather one who produced not only one of the greatest books in the history of social science, but also a wide-ranging body of work that remains significant today. ABOUT THE SERIES The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


The Habsburg Empire by Martyn Rady

The Habsburg Empire
  • Title : The Habsburg Empire
  • Author : Martyn Rady
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0198792964
  • Pages : 144
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

The Habsburgs are the most famous dynasty in continental Europe. From the thirteenth to the twentieth centuries, they ruled much of Central Europe, and for two centuries were also rulers of Spain. Through the Spanish connection, they acquired lands around the Mediterranean and a chunk of the New World, spreading eastwards to include the Philippines. Reaching from South-East Asia to what is now Ukraine, the Habsburg Empire was truly global. In this Very Short Introduction Martin Rady looks at the history of the Habsburgs, from their tenth-century origins in Switzerland, to the dissolution of the Habsburg Empire in 1918. He introduces the pantheon of Habsburg rulers, which included adventurers, lunatics, and at least one monarch who was so malformed that his true portrait could never be exhibited. He also discusses the lands and kingdoms that made up the Habsburg Empire, and the decisive moments that shaped their history. Dynasty, Europe, global power, and the idea of the multi-national state all converge on the history of the Habsburg Empire. Martin Rady shows how. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Hume: A Very Short Introduction by Alfred Ayer

Hume: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Hume: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Alfred Ayer
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • ISBN Code : 0191606537
  • Pages : 144
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Hume is one of the greatest of all British philosophers, and even in his own lifetime was celebrated as one of the pivotal figures of the Enlightenment. A central theme of his philosophy is the conviction that questions traditionally thought of as completely independent of the scientific realm–questions about the mind, about morality, and about God, for example–are actually best explained using the experimental methods characteristic of the natural sciences. Hume's 'naturalist' approach to a wide variety of philosophical topics resulted in highly original theories about perception, self-identity, causation, morality, politics, and religion, all of which are discussed in this stimulating introduction by A J Ayer, himself one of the twentieth century's most important philosophers. Ayer also gives an account of Hume's fascinating life and character, and includes generous quotations from Hume's lucid and often witty writings. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Age of Enlightenment by Hourly History

Age of Enlightenment
  • Title : Age of Enlightenment
  • Author : Hourly History
  • Publisher : Hourly History
  • ISBN Code : 1540742814
  • Pages : 50
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

From its beginnings as a loosely definable group of philosophical ideas to the culmination of its revolutionary effect on public life in Europe, the Age of Enlightenment is the defining intellectual and cultural movement of the modern world. Using reason as its core value, the Enlightenment believed that progress and the betterment of the human condition was inevitable. Inside you will read about… ✓ The Great Thinkers of the Enlightenment ✓ Engaging With Religion ✓ Morality in the Age of Enlightenment ✓ Society in the Age of Enlightenment ✓ Science and Political Economy ✓ The Enlightenment and the Public ✓ Print Culture and the Press Philosophies of the Enlightenment gave birth to the disciplines of political science, economic theory, sociology and anthropology, the disciplines that still form the basis of how we understand life in the 21st century. A bold attack on the Church, the State and the Monarchy, the Age of Enlightenment was a direct challenge to the status quo that sought freedom for all.


The Industrial Revolution: a Very Short Introduction by Robert C. Allen

The Industrial Revolution: a Very Short Introduction
  • Title : The Industrial Revolution: a Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Robert C. Allen
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0198706782
  • Pages : 144
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

The Industrial Revolution was a pivotal point in British history that occurred between the mid-eighteenth and mid-nineteenth centuries and led to far reaching transformations of society. With the advent of revolutionary manufacturing technology productivity boomed. Machines were used to spin and weave cloth, steam engines were used to provide reliable power, and industry was fed by the construction of the first railways, a great network of arteries feeding the factories. Cities grew as people shifted from agriculture to industry and commerce. Hand in hand with the growth of cities came rising levels of pollution and disease. Many people lost their jobs to the new machinery, whilst working conditions in the factories were grim and pay was low. As the middle classes prospered, social unrest ran through the working classes, and the exploitation of workers led to the growth of trade unions and protest movements. In this Very Short Introduction, Robert C. Allen analyzes the key features of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, and the spread of industrialization to other countries. He considers the factors that combined to enable industrialization at this time, including Britain's position as a global commercial empire, and discusses the changes in technology and business organization, and their impact on different social classes and groups. Introducing the "winners" and the "losers" of the Industrial Revolution, he looks at how the changes were reflected in evolving government policies, and what contribution these made to the economic transformation. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


The Case for The Enlightenment by John Robertson

The Case for The Enlightenment
  • Title : The Case for The Enlightenment
  • Author : John Robertson
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN Code : 9781139448079
  • Pages : N.A
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

The Case for the Enlightenment is a comparative study of the emergence of Enlightenment in Scotland and in Naples. Challenging the tendency to fragment the Enlightenment in eighteenth-century Europe into multiple Enlightenments, the distinguished intellectual historian John Robertson demonstrates the extent to which thinkers in two societies at the opposite ends of Europe shared common intellectual preoccupations. Before 1700, Scotland and Naples faced a bleak future as backward, provincial kingdoms in a Europe of aggressive commercial states. Yet by 1760, Scottish and Neapolitan thinkers were in the van of those advocating the cause of Enlightenment by means of political economy. By studying the social and institutional contexts of intellectual life in the two countries, and the currents of thought promoted within them, The Case for the Enlightenment explains this transformation. John Robertson pays particular attention to the greatest thinkers in each country, David Hume and Giambattista Vico.


Atheism: A Very Short Introduction by Julian Baggini

Atheism: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Atheism: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Julian Baggini
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 9780192804242
  • Pages : 119
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Do you think of atheists as immoral pessimists who live their lives without meaning, purpose, or values? Think again! Atheism: A Very Short Introduction sets out to dispel the myths that surround atheism and show how a life without religious belief can be positive, meaningful, and moral.


The French Revolution: A Very Short Introduction by William Doyle

The French Revolution: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : The French Revolution: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : William Doyle
  • Publisher : Oxford Paperbacks
  • ISBN Code : 0192853961
  • Pages : 135
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

'[William Doyle] writes on the French Revolution with more understanding, balance and clarity than any other historian, living or dead.' -Prof. Tim Blanning, University of Cambridge


The Abrahamic Religions: a Very Short Introduction by Charles L. Cohen

The Abrahamic Religions: a Very Short Introduction
  • Title : The Abrahamic Religions: a Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Charles L. Cohen
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN Code : 0190654341
  • Pages : 152
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

In the book of Genesis, God bestows a new name upon Abram--Abraham, a father of many nations. With this name and his Covenant, Abraham would become the patriarch of three of the world's major religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Connected by their mutual--if differentiated--veneration of the One God proclaimed by Abraham, these traditions share much beyond their origins in the ancient Israel of the Old Testament. This Very Short Introduction explores the intertwined histories of these monotheistic religions, from the emergence of Christianity and Islam to the violence of the Crusades and the cultural exchanges of al-Andalus. Each religion continues to be shaped by this history but has also reacted to the forces of modernity and politics. Movements such as the Reformation and that led by seventh-century Kharijites have emerged, intentioned to reform or restore traditional religious practice but quite different in their goals and effects. Relationships with states, among them Israel and Saudi Arabia, have also figured importantly in their development. The Abrahamic Religions: A Very Short Introduction brings these traditions together into a common narrative, lending much needed context to the story of Abraham and his descendants. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


The Future by Jennifer Gidley

The Future
  • Title : The Future
  • Author : Jennifer Gidley
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0198735286
  • Pages : 168
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

From the beginning of time, humans have been driven by both a fear of the unknown and a curiosity to know. We have always yearned to know what lies ahead, whether threat or safety, scarcity or abundance. Throughout human history, our forebears tried to create certainty in the unknown, by seeking to influence outcomes with sacrifices to gods, preparing for the unexpected with advice from oracles, and by reading the stars through astrology. As scientific methods improve and computer technology develops we become ever more confident of our capacity to predict and quantify the future by accumulating and interpreting patterns from the past, yet the truth is there is still no certainty to be had. In this Very Short Introduction Jennifer Gidley considers some of our most burning questions: What is -the future?- Is the future a time yet to come? Or is it a utopian place? Does the future have a history? Is there only one future or are there many possible futures? She asks if the future can ever be truly predicted or if we create our own futures -both hoped for and feared - by our thoughts, feelings, and actions, and concludes by analyzing how we can learn to study the future. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Intellectual Property: A Very Short Introduction by Siva Vaidhyanathan

Intellectual Property: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Intellectual Property: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Siva Vaidhyanathan
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0199706808
  • Pages : 144
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

We all create intellectual property. We all use intellectual property. Intellectual property is the most pervasive yet least understood way we regulate expression. Despite its importance to so many aspects of the global economy and daily life, intellectual property policy remains a confusing and arcane subject. This engaging book clarifies both the basic terms and the major conflicts surrounding these fascinating areas of law, offering a layman's introduction to copyright, patents, trademarks, and other forms of knowledge falling under the purview of intellectual property rights. Using vivid examples, noted media expert Siva Vaidhyanathan illustrates the powers and limits of intellectual property, distilling with grace and wit the complex tangle of laws, policies, and values governing the dissemination of ideas, expressions, inventions, creativity, and data collection in the modern world. Vaidhyanathan explains that intellectual property exists as it does because powerful interests want it to exist. The strongest economies in the world have a keen interest in embedding rigid methods of control and enforcement over emerging economies to preserve the huge economic interests linked to their copyright industries-film, music, software, and publishing. For this reason, the fight over the global standardization of intellectual property has become one of the most important sites of tension in North-South global relations. Through compelling case studies, including those of Starbucks, Coca-Cola, Sony, Amazon, and Google Books, Vaidhyanathan shows that the modern intellectual property systems reflect three centuries of changes in politics, economics, technologies, and social values. Although it emerged from a desire to foster creativity while simultaneously protecting it, intellectual property today has fundamentally shifted to a political dimension.


French Philosophy: a Very Short Introduction by Stephen Gaukroger,Knox Peden

French Philosophy: a Very Short Introduction
  • Title : French Philosophy: a Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Stephen Gaukroger,Knox Peden
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN Code : 0198829175
  • Pages : 152
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

French culture is unique in that philosophy has played a significant role from the early-modern period onwards, intimately associated with political, religious, and literary debates, as well as with epistemological and scientific ones. While Latin was the language of learning there was a universal philosophical literature, but with the rise of vernacular literatures things changed and a distinctive national form of philosophy arose in France. This Very Short Introduction covers French philosophy from its origins in the sixteenth century up to the present, analysing it within its social, political, and cultural context. Beginning with psychology and epistemology, Stephen Gaukroger and Knox Peden then move onto the emergence of radical philosophy in the eighteenth century, before considering post-revolutionary philosophy in the nineteenth century, philosophy in the world wars, the radical thought of the 1960s, and finally French philosophy today. Throughout, they explore the dilemma sustained by the markedly national conception of French philosophy, and its history of speaking out on matters of universal concern. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Lincoln: A Very Short Introduction by Allen C. Guelzo

Lincoln: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Lincoln: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Allen C. Guelzo
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 9780199743742
  • Pages : 160
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Beneath the surface of the apparently untutored and deceptively frank Abraham Lincoln ran private tunnels of self-taught study, a restless philosophical curiosity, and a profound grasp of the fundamentals of democracy. Now, in Lincoln: A Very Short Introduction, the award-winning Lincoln authority Allen C. Guelzo offers a penetrating look into the mind of one of our greatest presidents. If Lincoln was famous for reading aloud from joke books, Guelzo shows that he also plunged deeply into the mainstream of nineteenth-century liberal democratic thought. Guelzo takes us on a wide-ranging exploration of problems that confronted Lincoln and liberal democracy--equality, opportunity, the rule of law, slavery, freedom, peace, and his legacy. The book sets these problems and Lincoln's responses against the larger world of American and trans-Atlantic liberal democracy in the 19th century, comparing Lincoln not just to Andrew Jackson or John Calhoun, but to British thinkers such as Richard Cobden, Jeremy Bentham, and John Bright, and to French observers Alexis de Tocqueville and François Guizot. The Lincoln we meet here is an Enlightenment figure who struggled to create a common ground between a people focused on individual rights and a society eager to establish a certain moral, philosophical, and intellectual bedrock. Lincoln insisted that liberal democracy had a higher purpose, which was the realization of a morally right political order. But how to interject that sense of moral order into a system that values personal self-satisfaction--"the pursuit of happiness"--remains a fundamental dilemma even today. Abraham Lincoln was a man who, according to his friend and biographer William Henry Herndon, "lived in the mind." Guelzo paints a marvelous portrait of this Lincoln--Lincoln the man of ideas--providing new insights into one of the giants of American history. About the Series: Combining authority with wit, accessibility, and style, Very Short Introductions offer an introduction to some of life's most interesting topics. Written by experts for the newcomer, they demonstrate the finest contemporary thinking about the central problems and issues in hundreds of key topics, from philosophy to Freud, quantum theory to Islam.


The Oxford Handbook of the History of Medicine by Mark Jackson

The Oxford Handbook of the History of Medicine
  • Title : The Oxford Handbook of the History of Medicine
  • Author : Mark Jackson
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
  • ISBN Code : 0199546495
  • Pages : 672
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

In three sections, the Oxford Handbook of the History of Medicine celebrates the richness and variety of medical history around the world. It explore medical developments and trends in writing history according to period, place, and theme.


Human Rights: A Very Short Introduction by Andrew Clapham

Human Rights: A Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Human Rights: A Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Andrew Clapham
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • ISBN Code : 0191578592
  • Pages : 216
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Today it is usually not long before a problem gets expressed as a human rights issue. An appeal to human rights in the face of injustice can be a heartfelt and morally justified demand for some, while for others it remains merely an empty slogan. Taking an international perspective and focusing on highly topical issues such as torture, arbitrary detention, privacy, health and discrimination, this Very Short Introduction will help readers to understand for themselves the controversies and complexities behind this vitally relevant issue. Looking at the philosophical justification for rights, the historical origins of human rights and how they are formed in law, Andrew Clapham explains what our human rights actually are, what they might be, and where the human rights movement is heading. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Racism: a Very Short Introduction by Ali Rattansi

Racism: a Very Short Introduction
  • Title : Racism: a Very Short Introduction
  • Author : Ali Rattansi
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN Code : 0198834799
  • Pages : 208
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

There is often a demand for a short, sharp definition of racism, for example as captured in the popular formula Power + Prejudice= Racism. But in reality, racism is a complex, multidimensional phenomenon that cannot be captured by such definitions. In our world today there are a variety of racisms at play, and it is necessary to distinguish between issues such as individual prejudice, and systematic racisms which entrench racialiazed inequalities over time. This Very Short Introduction explores the history of racial ideas and a wide range of racisms - biological, cultural, colour-blind, and structural - and illuminates issues that have been the subject of recent debates. Is Islamophobia a form of racism? Is there a new antisemitism? Why has whiteness become an important source of debate? What is Intersectionality? What is unconscious or implicit bias, and what is its importance in understanding racial discrimination? Ali Rattansi tackles these questions, and also shows why African Americans and other ethnic minorities in the USA and Europe continue to suffer from discrimination today that results in ongoing disadvantage in these white dominant societies. Finally he explains why there has been a resurgence of national populist and far-right movements and explores their implications for the future of racism. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Agricultural Enlightenment by Peter M. Jones

Agricultural Enlightenment
  • Title : Agricultural Enlightenment
  • Author : Peter M. Jones
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0198716079
  • Pages : 256
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Agricultural Enlightenment explores the economic underpinnings of the Enlightenment to argue the case that the expansion of the so-called knowledge economy in the second half of the eighteenth century powerfully influenced governments and all those who worked in agriculture, or who sought to derive profit from the productive use of the land.


Epicureanism by Catherine Wilson

Epicureanism
  • Title : Epicureanism
  • Author : Catherine Wilson
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 019968832X
  • Pages : 144
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

Epicureanism is commonly associated with a carefree view of life and the pursuit of pleasures, particularly the pleasures of the table. However it was a complex and distinctive system of philosophy that emphasized simplicity and moderation, and considered nature to consist of atoms and the void. Epicureanism is a school of thought whose legacy continues to reverberate today. In this Very Short Introduction, Catherine Wilson explains the key ideas of the School, comparing them with those of the rival Stoics and with Kantian ethics, and tracing their influence on the development of scientific and political thought from Locke, Newton, and Galileo to Rousseau, Marx, Bentham, and Mill. She discusses the adoption and adaptation of Epicurean motifs in science, morality, and politics from the 17th Century onwards and contextualises the significance of Epicureanism in modern life. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Enlightenment against Empire by Sankar Muthu

Enlightenment against Empire
  • Title : Enlightenment against Empire
  • Author : Sankar Muthu
  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • ISBN Code : 9781400825882
  • Pages : 368
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

In the late eighteenth century, an array of European political thinkers attacked the very foundations of imperialism, arguing passionately that empire-building was not only unworkable, costly, and dangerous, but manifestly unjust. Enlightenment against Empire is the first book devoted to the anti-imperialist political philosophies of an age often regarded as affirming imperial ambitions. Sankar Muthu argues that thinkers such as Denis Diderot, Immanuel Kant, and Johann Gottfried Herder developed an understanding of humans as inherently cultural agents and therefore necessarily diverse. These thinkers rejected the conception of a culture-free "natural man." They held that moral judgments of superiority or inferiority could be made neither about entire peoples nor about many distinctive cultural institutions and practices. Muthu shows how such arguments enabled the era's anti-imperialists to defend the freedom of non-European peoples to order their own societies. In contrast to those who praise "the Enlightenment" as the triumph of a universal morality and critics who view it as an imperializing ideology that denigrated cultural pluralism, Muthu argues instead that eighteenth-century political thought included multiple Enlightenments. He reveals a distinctive and underappreciated strand of Enlightenment thinking that interweaves commitments to universal moral principles and incommensurable ways of life, and that links the concept of a shared human nature with the idea that humans are fundamentally diverse. Such an intellectual temperament, Muthu contends, can broaden our own perspectives about international justice and the relationship between human unity and diversity.


The Enlightenment by Vincenzo Ferrone

The Enlightenment
  • Title : The Enlightenment
  • Author : Vincenzo Ferrone
  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • ISBN Code : 0691175764
  • Pages : 232
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

A compelling reevaluation of the Enlightenment from one of its leading historians In this concise and powerful book, one of the world's leading historians of the Enlightenment provides a bracing and clarifying new interpretation of this watershed period. Arguing that philosophical and historical interpretations of the era have long been hopelessly confused, Vincenzo Ferrone makes the case that it is only by separating these views and taking an approach grounded in social and cultural history that we can begin to grasp what the Enlightenment was—and why it is still relevant today. Ferrone explains why the Enlightenment was a profound and wide-ranging cultural revolution that reshaped Western identity, reformed politics through the invention of human rights, and redefined knowledge by creating a critical culture. These new ways of thinking gave birth to new values that spread throughout society and changed how everyday life was lived and understood. Featuring an illuminating afterword describing how his argument challenges the work of Anglophone interpreters including Jonathan Israel, The Enlightenment provides a fascinating reevaluation of the true nature and legacy of one of the most important and contested periods in Western history. The translation of this work has been funded by SEPS—Segretariato Europeo per le Pubblicazioni Scientifiche.


The Enlightenment by Anthony Pagden

The Enlightenment
  • Title : The Enlightenment
  • Author : Anthony Pagden
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • ISBN Code : 019966093X
  • Pages : 436
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

This book tells nothing less than the story of how the modern, Western view of the world was born. Cultural and intellectual historian Anthony Pagden explains how, and why, the ideal of a universal, global, and cosmopolitan society became such a central part of the Western imagination in the ferment of the Enlightenment - and how these ideas have done battle with an inward-looking, tradition-oriented view of the world ever since. Cosmopolitanism is an ancient creed; but in its modern form it was a creature of the Enlightenment attempt to create a new 'science of man', based upon a vision of humanity made up of autonomous individuals, free from all the constraints imposed by custom, prejudice, and religion. As Pagden shows, this 'new science' was based not simply on 'cold, calculating reason', as its critics claimed, but on the argument that all humans are linked by what in the Enlightenment were called 'sympathetic' attachments. The conclusion was that despite the many tribes and nations into which humanity was divided there was only one 'human nature', and that the final destiny of the species could only be the creation of one universal, cosmopolitan society. This new 'human science' provided the philosophical grounding of the modern world. It has been the inspiration behind the League of Nations, the United Nations and the European Union. Without it, international law, global justice, and human rights legislation would be unthinkable. As Anthony Pagden argues passionately and persuasively in this book, it is a legacy well worth preserving - and one that might yet come to inherit the earth.


Hermeneutics by Jens Zimmermann

Hermeneutics
  • Title : Hermeneutics
  • Author : Jens Zimmermann
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • ISBN Code : 0199685355
  • Pages : 144
  • Format : Pdf - ePub
  • Language : English
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Summary:

This short introduction to hermeneutics demonstrates the central role of interpretation in our daily lives. By considering the historic developments in hermeneutic theory as well as its contemporary relevance, Zimmermann explains how humans continue to draw knowledge from the world around them.