The Origins Of Inequality

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Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'inégalité parmi les hommes

Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'inégalité parmi les hommes Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Editor: République des Lettres
ISBN: 2824904844
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Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'inégalité parmi les hommes by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Summary

Texte intégral révisé suivi d'une biographie de Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Publié en 1755, le "Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'inégalité parmi les hommes" est le second essai philosophique de Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Dans ce texte célèbre, sur lequel repose toute une partie de la littérature politique moderne, le philosophe établit les fondements de sa doctrine sur l'homme et la société en affirmant que tous les maux et les misères, causes de l'inégalité parmi les hommes, découlent uniquement de l'état social. Les contemporains de Rousseau virent dans cet ouvrage un réquisitoire implacable contre les institutions sociales et politiques de leur temps. Il contient en germe les éléments de la thèse que Rousseau soutiendra plus tard dans le "Contrat Social". Le "Discours sur les sciences et les arts", publié quant à lui en 1751, est l'occasion pour Rousseau d'exposer ses idées où apparaît déjà la base de toute son œuvre future, à savoir: la nature avait fait l'homme bon, la société l'a fait méchant; l'homme était libre et heureux, la société le rend esclave et misérable; la tare de la société est l'inégalité. Plus l'état social est avancé, plus il est corrompu.

Discourse on the Origin of Inequality

Discourse on the Origin of Inequality Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Editor: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486111865
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Discourse on the Origin of Inequality by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Summary

A powerful, passionate explanation of the roots of social inequality, Rousseau's Discourse influenced virtually every major philosopher of the Enlightenment. It remains among the 18th-century's most provocative and frequently studied works.

Le Prix de l'inégalité

Le Prix de l'inégalité Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Joseph E. Stiglitz
Editor: Éditions Les Liens qui libèrent
ISBN: 2918597902
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Le Prix de l'inégalité by Joseph E. Stiglitz Summary

Après Le Triomphe de la cupidité (Les Liens qui libèrent, 2010 ; Babel n° 1042, 2011), le grand livre sur les inégalités que l’on attendait par Joseph Stiglitz. Le célèbre prix Nobel montre combien les inégalités ont prospéré dans nos sociétés, combien elles sont néfastes à nos économies et dangereuses pour la paix sociale.

Le Capital au XXIe siècle

Le Capital au XXIe siècle Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Thomas Piketty
Editor: Média Diffusion
ISBN: 2021123308
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Le Capital au XXIe siècle by Thomas Piketty Summary

La répartition des richesses est l’une des questions les plus débattues aujourd’hui. Pour les uns, les inégalités n’en finiraient pas de se creuser dans un monde toujours plus injuste. Pour les autres, on assisterait à une réduction naturelle des écarts et toute intervention risquerait de perturber cette tendance harmonieuse. Mais que sait-on vraiment de l’évolution des inégalités sur le long terme ? En réalité, les analyses économiques supposées nous éclairer se fondent plus souvent sur des spéculations théoriques que sur des faits établis.Fruit de quinze ans de recherches, cette étude, la plus ambitieuse jamais entreprise sur cette question, s’appuie sur des données historiques et comparatives bien plus vastes que tous les travaux antérieurs. Parcourant trois siècles et plus de vingt pays, elle renouvelle entièrement notre compréhension de la dynamique du capitalisme en situant sa contradiction fondamentale dans le rapport entre la croissance économique et le rendement du capital.Si la diffusion des connaissances apparaît comme la force principale d’égalisation des conditions sur le long terme, à l’heure actuelle, le décrochage des plus hautes rémunérations et, plus encore, la concentration extrême des patrimoines menacent les valeurs de méritocratie et de justice sociale des sociétés démocratiques.En tirant de l’expérience des siècles passés des leçons pour l’avenir, cet ouvrage montre que des moyens existent pour inverser cette tendance.Directeur d’études à l’EHESS et professeur à l’École d’économie de Paris, Thomas Piketty est l’auteur de nombreux travaux historiques et théoriques qui lui ont valu, en 2013, le prix Yrjö Jahnsson décerné par la European Economic Association.

The Great Escape

The Great Escape Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Angus Deaton
Editor: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400847966
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The Great Escape by Angus Deaton Summary

A Nobel Prize–winning economist tells the remarkable story of how the world has grown healthier, wealthier, but also more unequal over the past two and half centuries The world is a better place than it used to be. People are healthier, wealthier, and live longer. Yet the escapes from destitution by so many has left gaping inequalities between people and nations. In The Great Escape, Nobel Prize–winning economist Angus Deaton—one of the foremost experts on economic development and on poverty—tells the remarkable story of how, beginning 250 years ago, some parts of the world experienced sustained progress, opening up gaps and setting the stage for today's disproportionately unequal world. Deaton takes an in-depth look at the historical and ongoing patterns behind the health and wealth of nations, and addresses what needs to be done to help those left behind. Deaton describes vast innovations and wrenching setbacks: the successes of antibiotics, pest control, vaccinations, and clean water on the one hand, and disastrous famines and the HIV/AIDS epidemic on the other. He examines the United States, a nation that has prospered but is today experiencing slower growth and increasing inequality. He also considers how economic growth in India and China has improved the lives of more than a billion people. Deaton argues that international aid has been ineffective and even harmful. He suggests alternative efforts—including reforming incentives to drug companies and lifting trade restrictions—that will allow the developing world to bring about its own Great Escape. Demonstrating how changes in health and living standards have transformed our lives, The Great Escape is a powerful guide to addressing the well-being of all nations.

The origins of inequality

The origins of inequality Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Andrea Cardarelli,Alberto Cazzella,Marcella Frangipane
Editor: Gangemi Editore spa
ISBN: 8849247966
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The origins of inequality by Andrea Cardarelli,Alberto Cazzella,Marcella Frangipane Summary

Between the latter half of the 1940s and roughly the mid-1970s, Western democratic societies experienced a generalised expansion in the distribution of wealth, which also affected sections of society which had previously been excluded or side-lined, and which had considerable positive effects on social protection systems and the expansion of workers’ rights. But in the past four decades, we have seen a reversal of this trend, towards the concentration of wealth in the hands of an increasingly smaller number of individuals and a sharp growth in inequality, accompanied by increasingly more dominant free trade-led economic policies. The driving force behind the West’s neo-liberal policies has been to foster greater wealth accumulation in the hands of the higher social and entrepreneurial class, claiming that more ‘productive’ development would inevitably trickle down to benefit the rest of the population. The inequality gap would therefore, it was assumed, automatically narrow in the successive phases of capitalist development, to eventually stabilise at an acceptable level.

On the Origins of Gender Inequality

On the Origins of Gender Inequality Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Joan Huber
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1317255062
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On the Origins of Gender Inequality by Joan Huber Summary

In our fast-paced world of technology and conveniences, the biological origins of women's inequality can be forgotten. This book offers a richer understanding of gender inequality by explaining a key cause-women's reproductive and lactation patterns. Until about 1900, infants nursed every fifteen minutes on average for two years because very frequent suckling prevented pregnancy. The practice evolved because it maximized infant survival. If a forager child was born before its older sibling could take part in the daily food search, the older one died. This practice persisted until the modern era because until after the discovery of the germ theory of disease, human milk was the only food certain to be unspoiled. Lactation patterns excluded women from the activities that led to political leadership. During the twentieth century the ancient mode declined and women entered the labor market en masse. Joan Huber challenges feminists toward a richer understanding of biological origins of inequality-knowledge that can help women achieve greater equality today.

Origins of Inequality in Human Societies

Origins of Inequality in Human Societies Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Bernd Baldus
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1317205952
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Origins of Inequality in Human Societies by Bernd Baldus Summary

Since the beginning of social life human societies have faced the problem how to distribute the results of collaborative activities among the participants. The solutions they found ranged from egalitarian to unequal but caused more dissension and conflict than just about any other social structure in human history. Social inequality also dominated the agenda of the new field of sociology in the 19th century. The theories developed during that time still inform academic and public debates, and inequality continues to be the subject of much current controversy. Origins of Inequality begins with a critical assessment of classical explanations of inequality in the social sciences and the political and economic environment in which they arose. The book then offers a new theory of the evolution of distributive structures in human societies. It examines the interaction of chance, intent and unforeseen consequences in the emergence of social inequality, traces its irregular historical path in different societies, and analyses processes of social control which consolidated inequality even when it was costly or harmful for most participants. Because the evolution of distributive structures is an open process, the book also explores issues of distributive justice and options for greater equality in modern societies. Along with its focus on social inequality the book covers topics in cultural evolution, social and economic history and social theory. This book will appeal to scholars and advanced students of sociology, economics and anthropology – in particular sociological theory and social inequality.

Poème sur le désastre de Lisbonne

Poème sur le désastre de Lisbonne Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Voltaire
Editor: Les Editions de Londres
ISBN: 190905318X
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Poème sur le désastre de Lisbonne by Voltaire Summary

Le 1er Novembre 1755, un séisme de magnitude 8.5 à 8.7 sur l’échelle de Richter détruit quatre-vingts cinq pour cent de Lisbonne. Le monde européen est effaré. Un siècle plus tard, des philosophes comme Hegel en parlent encore. Adorno compare l’effet du tremblement de terre de Lisbonne sur les consciences européennes à l’holocauste. C’est en 1756 que Voltaire écrit son Poème sur le désastre de Lisbonne. Règlement de comptes avec Dieu, coupure du nœud gordien qui tient l’homme à la Providence, rupture définitive avec l’âge classique et début de l’ère « pré-moderne » où l’homme, n’ayant plus rien à attendre de Dieu, se consacre à la maîtrise de son destin ? Toutes ces questions se posent. Rousseau répondra au poème de Voltaire dans une « Lettre sur la Providence » dont nous parlons longuement dans notre préface. Du poème naîtra en 1759 Candide et la fin de l’optimisme.

Lettre à Mr. d'Alembert sur les spectacles

Lettre à Mr. d'Alembert sur les spectacles Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Editor: Librairie Droz
ISBN: 2600323694
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Lettre à Mr. d'Alembert sur les spectacles by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Summary

Au sortir de la seconde guerre mondiale, en 1945, Eugénie Droz fondait les Textes Littéraires Français, une collection dévolue à l’édition critique des textes significatifs du patrimoine littéraire de langue française du moyen âge au XXe siècle. Accessibles, dans un petit format maniable, chaque édition est accompagnée d’une introduction, de notes, d’un glossaire, si nécessaire, et d’index. Cet appareil critique exigeant accueille l’érudition des meilleurs spécialistes pour éclairer la genèse des œuvres et, quelle que soit leur époque, livrer au lecteur contemporain les explications les plus minutieuses sur le contexte historique, culturel et linguistique qui les a vues naître. Depuis soixante-dix ans, la collection a accueilli, outre quelques édicules, plus de 600 monuments littéraires français.

Essai sur l'origine des langues

Essai sur l'origine des langues Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Editor: Presses Électroniques de France
ISBN:
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Essai sur l'origine des langues by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Summary

Date de première parution : 1781 « L'usage et le besoin font apprendre à chacun la langue de son pays ; mais qu'est-ce qui fait que cette langue est celle de son pays et non pas d'un autre ? Il faut bien remonter, pour le dire, à quelque raison qui tienne au local, et qui soit antérieure aux mœurs mêmes : la parole, étant la première institution sociale, ne doit sa forme qu'à des causes naturelles. » Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Rousseau: The Basic Political Writings

Rousseau: The Basic Political Writings Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Editor: Hackett Publishing
ISBN: 1603848614
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Rousseau: The Basic Political Writings by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Summary

This substantially revised new edition of Rousseau: The Basic Political Writings features a brilliant new Introduction by David Wootton, a revision by Donald A. Cress of his own 1987 translation of Rousseau's most important political writings, and the addition of Cress' new translation of Rousseau's State of ?War. New footnotes, headnotes, and a chronology by David Wootton provide expert guidance to first-time readers of the texts.

Défense de l'Esprit des Lois

Défense de l'Esprit des Lois Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Charles-Louis de Secondat Montesquieu
Editor: Ink book
ISBN:
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Défense de l'Esprit des Lois by Charles-Louis de Secondat Montesquieu Summary

Aucun génie, aussi célèbre soit-il, ne fut exempt des citriques de son temps. Publié en 1750, « Défense de l’esprit des lois » a été écrit par Montesquieu en vu de répondre aux attaques idéologiques menées contre son ouvrage de référence « L’esprit de loi ». Principaux Chapitres : Objections diverses suivi des Des conseils de religion, De la polygamie, Climat, Tolérance, Célibat, Mariage etc. Format professionnel électronique © Ink Book édition.

La Mondialisation de l'inégalité

La Mondialisation de l'inégalité Pdf/ePub eBook Author: François Bourguignon
Editor: Média Diffusion
ISBN: 2021124118
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La Mondialisation de l'inégalité by François Bourguignon Summary

La mondialisation est-elle responsable de la hausse sans précédent des inégalités dans le monde ? Condamne-t-elle tout espoir d’égalité et de justice sociale ? En réalité, elle a eu des effets antagonistes. D’un côté, en raison de la croissance des économies émergentes, l’inégalité mondiale a diminué : le niveau de vie des Brésiliens, des Chinois et des Indiens se rapproche de celui des Américains et des Européens. En une vingtaine d’années, plus de 500 millions de personnes sont sorties de la pauvreté. Mais, d’un autre côté, les inégalités ont explosé à l’intérieur d’un grand nombre de pays, alimentant injustices et tensions sociales. Ce livre examine les tenants et les aboutissants de ce paradoxe, ainsi que les instruments dont disposent les décideurs nationaux et internationaux pour le maîtriser. Le développement de l’économie mondiale doit continuer à faire converger les niveaux de vie, mais ce progrès ne sera durable que s’il respecte un principe d’équité au sein même des nations.

3 books to know Communism

3 books to know Communism Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Friedrich Engels,Karl Marx,Jean-Jacques Rousseau,August Nemo
Editor: Tacet Books
ISBN: 3966617153
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3 books to know Communism by Friedrich Engels,Karl Marx,Jean-Jacques Rousseau,August Nemo Summary

Welcome to the3 Books To Knowseries, our idea is to help readers learn about fascinating topics through three essential and relevant books. These carefully selected works can be fiction, non-fiction, historical documents or even biographies. We will always select for you three great works to instigate your mind, this time the topic is:Communism Communism is a political and socio-economic ideology that seeks the establishment of an egalitarian society. Its purpose is a society without social classes and stateless, through the common ownership of the means of production. Few political and economic theories were so influential in world history. The Manifest of the Communist Party was written by Karl Marx during the great process of urban struggles of the Revolutions of 1848. It criticizes the capitalist mode of production and the type of society generated by it. Is a basic work for understanding the purpose and principles of scientific socialism. A century earlier, the philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau was interested in the origins of human inequality. In Discourse on the origin and basis of inequality among men, Rousseau argues that man has deviated from his natural state of freedom to please individualistic desires. In Socialism: utopian and scientific, Friedrich Engels explains the differences between utopian socialism and scientific socialism. Through a materialist perspective of history he understands communism as a natural substitute for capitalism. This is one of many books in the series 3 Books To Know. If you liked this book, look for the other titles in the series, we are sure you will like some of the topics.

The Origins of the Urban Crisis

The Origins of the Urban Crisis Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Thomas J. Sugrue
Editor: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400851211
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The Origins of the Urban Crisis by Thomas J. Sugrue Summary

The reasons behind Detroit’s persistent racialized poverty after World War II Once America's "arsenal of democracy," Detroit is now the symbol of the American urban crisis. In this reappraisal of America’s racial and economic inequalities, Thomas Sugrue asks why Detroit and other industrial cities have become the sites of persistent racialized poverty. He challenges the conventional wisdom that urban decline is the product of the social programs and racial fissures of the 1960s. Weaving together the history of workplaces, unions, civil rights groups, political organizations, and real estate agencies, Sugrue finds the roots of today’s urban poverty in a hidden history of racial violence, discrimination, and deindustrialization that reshaped the American urban landscape after World War II. This Princeton Classics edition includes a new preface by Sugrue, discussing the lasting impact of the postwar transformation on urban America and the chronic issues leading to Detroit’s bankruptcy.

The Origins of Economic Inequality Between Nations

The Origins of Economic Inequality Between Nations Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Carlos Ramirez-Faria
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1136855734
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The Origins of Economic Inequality Between Nations by Carlos Ramirez-Faria Summary

First published in 1991 this text provides an incisive analysis of theories concerning the origins of economic inequality between nations. Central to the author’s investigation is the concept of underdevelopment, and a focus on successive Western ‘systems of conceptualisation’ of the relationship between the west and the rest of the world. The first part of the book concerns the Marx/Engels theory of the Asiatic mode of production, and the anti-Imperialist reaction against Eurocentrisim initiated by the theoretical synthesis of J. A. Hobson. This is followed by an examination of the post-World War II era, particularly the evolution of development studies and the differing versions of dependency theory. The author concludes with an analysis of the most recent reactions against economic imperialism and dependency theory, and concludes with an assessment of their implications for the further economic development of today’s Third World.

Melmoth the Wanderer

Melmoth the Wanderer Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Charles Maturin
Editor: Penguin UK
ISBN: 0141905174
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Melmoth the Wanderer by Charles Maturin Summary

Created by an Irish clergyman, Melmoth is one of the most fiendish characters in literature. In a satanic bargain, Melmoth exchanges his soul for immortality. The story of his tortured wanderings through the centuries is pieced together through those who have been implored by Melmoth to take over his pact with the devil. Influenced by the Gothic romances of the late 18th century, Maturin's diabolic tale raised the genre to a new and macabre pitch. Its many admirers include Poe, Balzac, Oscar Wilde and Baudelaire.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Fundamental Political Writings

Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Fundamental Political Writings Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Editor: Broadview Press
ISBN: 1770486860
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Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Fundamental Political Writings by Jean-Jacques Rousseau Summary

This classroom edition includes On the Social Contract, the Discourse on the Sciences and the Arts, the Discourse on the Origins of Inequality, and the Preface to Narcissus. Each text has been newly translated and includes a full complement of explanatory notes. The editors’ introduction offers students diverse points of entry into some of the distinctive possibilities and challenges of each of these fundamental texts, as well as an introduction to Rousseau’s life and historical situation. The volume also includes annotated appendices that help students to explore the origins and influences of Rousseau’s work, including excerpts from Hobbes, Pascal, Descartes, Mandeville, Diderot, Voltaire, Madame de Staël, Benjamin Constant, Joseph de Maistre, Kant, Hegel, and Engels.