The State Of Food Security And Nutrition In The World 2019

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The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2019

The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2019 Pdf/ePub eBook Author:
Editor: United Nations
ISBN: 9210043634
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The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2019 by Summary

The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World gives updates on the prevalence of undernourishment globally and the absolute number of undernourished, as well as the latest estimates for a number of global nutrition targets. This latest edition looks at the role of economic slowdowns and downturns in the rise of hunger and makes policy recommendations to safeguard food security and nutrition worldwide.

State of Food Insecurity in the World (1999)

State of Food Insecurity in the World (1999) Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Hartwig de Haen
Editor: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 1437900534
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State of Food Insecurity in the World (1999) by Hartwig de Haen Summary

In 1996, world leaders pledged to reduce the number of hungry people to 400 million by 2015. This report provides the estimates in 1999 of the number of chronically hungry people in the developing world and introduces the first comparable estimates ever made of the number of people who go hungry in the industrialized countries and countries in transition. Provides data on progress and reversals during the 1990s and highlights countries that have achieved the greatest gains or suffered the most severe setbacks over the past 2 decades. Analyzes some of the underlying factors that contributed to gains and setbacks in these countries and examines the impact of short-term ¿shocks¿ such as war, natural disaster or financial crisis. Illustrations.

Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South

Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Jemimah Njuki,John R. Parkins,Amy Kaler
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1317190017
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Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South by Jemimah Njuki,John R. Parkins,Amy Kaler Summary

Drawing on studies from Africa, Asia and South America, this book provides empirical evidence and conceptual explorations of the gendered dimensions of food security. It investigates how food security and gender inequity are conceptualized within interventions, assesses the impacts and outcomes of gender-responsive programs on food security and gender equity and addresses diverse approaches to gender research and practice that range from descriptive and analytical to strategic and transformative. The chapters draw on diverse theoretical perspectives, including transformative learning, feminist theory, deliberative democracy and technology adoption. As a result, they add important conceptual and empirical material to a growing literature on the challenges of gender equity in agricultural production. A unique feature of this book is the integration of both analytic and transformative approaches to understanding gender and food security. The analytic material shows how food security interventions enable women and men to meet the long-term nutritional needs of their households, and to enhance their economic position. The transformative chapters also document efforts to build durable and equitable relationships between men and women, addressing underlying social, cultural and economic causes of gender inequality. Taken together, these combined approaches enable women and men to reflect on gendered divisions of labor and resources related to food, and to reshape these divisions in ways which benefit families and communities. Co-published with the International Development Research Centre.

The Role of Functional Food Security in Global Health

The Role of Functional Food Security in Global Health Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Ronald Ross Watson,Ram B. Singh,Toru Takahashi
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128131497
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The Role of Functional Food Security in Global Health by Ronald Ross Watson,Ram B. Singh,Toru Takahashi Summary

The Role of Functional Food Security in Global Health presents a collective approach to food security through the use of functional foods as a strategy to prevent under nutrition and related diseases. This approach reflects the views of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the World Heart Federation and the American Heart Association who advise Mediterranean, Paleolithic, plant food based diets, and European vegetarian diets for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In addition, the book also emphasizes the inclusion of spices, herbs and millets, as well as animal foods. This book will be a great resource to the food industry as it presents the most efficient ways to use technology to manufacture slowly absorbed, micronutrient rich functional foods by blending foods that are rich in healthy nutrients. Provides greater knowledge on functional food security Highlights the necessary changes to the western diet that are needed to achieve food security Explains the utility and necessity of functional food security in the prevention of noncommunicable diseases Presents policy changes in food production for farmers and the larger food industry Offers suggestions on what can be done to enhance functional food production while simultaneously decreasing production costs

Food Insecurity and Hunger in the United States

Food Insecurity and Hunger in the United States Pdf/ePub eBook Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on National Statistics,Panel to Review the U.S Department of Agriculture's Measurement of Food Insecurity and Hunger
Editor: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309180368
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Food Insecurity and Hunger in the United States by National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on National Statistics,Panel to Review the U.S Department of Agriculture's Measurement of Food Insecurity and Hunger Summary

The United States is viewed by the world as a country with plenty of food, yet not all households in America are food secure, meaning access at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life. A proportion of the population experiences food insecurity at some time in a given year because of food deprivation and lack of access to food due to economic resource constraints. Still, food insecurity in the United States is not of the same intensity as in some developing countries. Since 1995 the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has annually published statistics on the extent of food insecurity and food insecurity with hunger in U.S. households. These estimates are based on a survey measure developed by the U.S. Food Security Measurement Project, an ongoing collaboration among federal agencies, academic researchers, and private organizations. USDA requested the Committee on National Statistics of the National Academies to convene a panel of experts to undertake a two-year study in two phases to review at this 10-year mark the concepts and methodology for measuring food insecurity and hunger and the uses of the measure. In Phase 2 of the study the panel was to consider in more depth the issues raised in Phase 1 relating to the concepts and methods used to measure food security and make recommendations as appropriate. The Committee on National Statistics appointed a panel of 10 experts to examine the above issues. In order to provide timely guidance to USDA, the panel issued an interim Phase 1 report, Measuring Food Insecurity and Hunger: Phase 1 Report. That report presented the panel's preliminary assessments of the food security concepts and definitions; the appropriateness of identifying hunger as a severe range of food insecurity in such a survey-based measurement method; questions for measuring these concepts; and the appropriateness of a household survey for regularly monitoring food security in the U.S. population. It provided interim guidance for the continued production of the food security estimates. This final report primarily focuses on the Phase 2 charge. The major findings and conclusions based on the panel's review and deliberations are summarized.

Food Security and Nutrition

Food Security and Nutrition Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Charis M. Galanakis
Editor: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128209321
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Food Security and Nutrition by Charis M. Galanakis Summary

Food and nutrition security - identified via availability, access, utilization, and stability - and transitions to sustainable food systems are major discourses in the agro-food arena, as many countries today experience different forms of malnutrition simultaneously, such as child undernutrition, anemia among women, and adult obesity. Meanwhile, the triple burden of malnutrition (undernutrition, overnutrition, and micronutrient deficiency) is still widespread. Food Security and Nutrition explores integrated, context-specific approaches to food security challenges, emphasizing nutrition security as an integral component and addressing the implications of food content to food and nutrition security policies. Providing insight into these challenges through agricultural, policy, nutritional, geographic and sustainability lenses, Food Security and Nutrition is a valuable reference for food scientists and nutrition researchers working in food supply, food security, and nutrition security, and policy makers, investors, and other decision-makers seeking to address food insecurity around the world. Addresses nutrition security as part of the overall challenge of food security Explores contributing factors that impact both food and nutrition security Presents insights into effective policy development and implementation

Hidden Hunger and the Transformation of Food Systems

Hidden Hunger and the Transformation of Food Systems Pdf/ePub eBook Author: H.K. Biesalski
Editor: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
ISBN: 3318066982
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Hidden Hunger and the Transformation of Food Systems by H.K. Biesalski Summary

Hidden hunger is not about providing enough calories, it is about a lack of micronutrients, which has life-long consequences for the children who are mostly affected. This begins with physical and cognitive developmental disorders and continues with an increased risk of non-communicable diseases and the occurrence of obesity. The book compiles the contributions of the Fourth Congress on Hidden Hunger 2019 as original articles. The focus of the congress was the problem of malnutrition and overweight, which can coexist and is termed a “double burden”. Part of the book deals with the causes of malnutrition and the challenge of achieving an agricultural system that is more focused on food quality. Another part discusses the causes and intervention approaches to tackling childhood obesity, especially in connection with malnutrition. All in all, this publication is a summary of important work by highly renowned authors on the topic of the congress: “Hidden Hunger and the Transformation of Food Systems: How to Combat the Double Burden of Malnutrition?” Like its two predecessors, the book fills an important gap by summarizing the essential aspects for science, applied research, and politics at a high level.

Aboriginal Food Security in Northern Canada: An Assessment of the State of Knowledge

Aboriginal Food Security in Northern Canada: An Assessment of the State of Knowledge Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Council of Canadian Academies
Editor: Council of CanadianAcademies
ISBN: 192655874X
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Aboriginal Food Security in Northern Canada: An Assessment of the State of Knowledge by Council of Canadian Academies Summary

Food insecurity presents a serious and growing challenge in Canada’s northern and remote Aboriginal communities. In 2011, off-reserve Aboriginal households in Canada were about twice as likely as other Canadian households to be food insecure. Finding lasting solutions will require the involvement not just of policy-makers but of those most affected by food insecurity: people living in the North. In recognition of this problem, the Minister of Health, on behalf of Health Canada, asked the Council of Canadian Academies to appoint an expert panel to assess the knowledge of the factors influencing food security in the Canadian North and of the health implications of food insecurity for northern Aboriginal populations. The Expert Panel on the State of Knowledge of Food Security in Northern Canada found that food insecurity among northern Aboriginal peoples requires urgent attention in order to mitigate impacts on health and well-being. Aboriginal Food Security in Northern Canada: An Assessment of the State of Knowledge offers policy-makers a holistic starting-point for discussion and problem-solving. It also provides evidence and options to researchers and communities engaging in local responses.

Food Security in the High North

Food Security in the High North Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Kamrul Hossain,Lena Maria Nilsson,Thora Martina Herrmann
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1000095274
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Food Security in the High North by Kamrul Hossain,Lena Maria Nilsson,Thora Martina Herrmann Summary

This book explores the challenges facing food security, sustainability, sovereignty, and supply chains in the Arctic, with a specific focus on Indigenous Peoples. Offering multidisciplinary insights and with a particular focus on populations in the European High North region, the book highlights the importance of accessible and sustainable traditional foods for the dietary needs of local and Indigenous Peoples. It focuses on foods and natural products that are unique to this region and considers how they play a significant role towards food security and sovereignty. The book captures the tremendous complexity facing populations here as they strive to maintain sustainable food systems – both subsistent and commercial – and regain sovereignty over traditional food production policies. A range of issues are explored including food contamination risks, due to increasing human activities in the region, such as mining, to changing livelihoods and gender roles in the maintenance of traditional food security and sovereignty. The book also considers processing methods that combine indigenous and traditional knowledge to convert the traditional foods, that are harvested and hunted, into local foods. This book offers a broader understanding of food security and sovereignty and will be of interest to academics, scholars and policy makers working in food studies; geography and environmental studies; agricultural studies; sociology; anthropology; political science; health studies and biology.

Investing in Interventions That Address Non-Medical, Health-Related Social Needs

Investing in Interventions That Address Non-Medical, Health-Related Social Needs Pdf/ePub eBook Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice
Editor: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309496500
FileSize: 1997kb
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Investing in Interventions That Address Non-Medical, Health-Related Social Needs by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice Summary

With U.S. health care costs projected to grow at an average rate of 5.5 percent per year from 2018 to 2027, or 0.8 percentage points faster than the gross domestic product, and reach nearly $6.0 trillion per year by 2027, policy makers and a wide range of stakeholders are searching for plausible actions the nation can take to slow this rise and keep health expenditures from consuming an ever greater portion of U.S. economic output. While health care services are essential to heath, there is growing recognition that social determinants of health are important influences on population health. Supporting this idea are estimates that while health care accounts for some 10 to 20 percent of the determinants of health, socioeconomic factors and factors related to the physical environment are estimated to account for up to 50 percent of the determinants of health. Challenges related to the social determinants of health at the individual level include housing insecurity and poor housing quality, food insecurity, limitations in access to transportation, and lack of social support. These social needs affect access to care and health care utilization as well as health outcomes. Health care systems have begun exploring ways to address non-medical, health-related social needs as a way to reduce health care costs. To explore the potential effect of addressing non-medical health-related social needs on improving population health and reducing health care spending in a value-driven health care delivery system, the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine held a full-day public workshop titled Investing in Interventions that Address Non-Medical, Health-Related Social Needs on April 26, 2019, in Washington, DC. The objectives of the workshop were to explore effective practices and the supporting evidence base for addressing the non-medical health-related social needs of individuals, such as housing and food insecurities; review assessments of return on investment (ROI) for payers, healthy systems, and communities; and identify gaps and opportunities for research and steps that could help to further the understanding of the ROI on addressing non-medical health-related social needs. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Food Poverty and Insecurity: International Food Inequalities

Food Poverty and Insecurity: International Food Inequalities Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Martin Caraher,John Coveney
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3319238590
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Food Poverty and Insecurity: International Food Inequalities by Martin Caraher,John Coveney Summary

​This volume is concerned with food poverty and action on food (in)security. The context is a global one; as the developed world faces a problem with overconsumption and chronic diseases, the developing world is addressing the double burden of hunger and over consumption. Even in the developed world, nation states are facing the rise of modern malnutrition which is over consumption, but also the re-emergence of hunger as there are growing levels of poverty and inequality due to the financial crises. Food insecurity is in many people’s minds associated with hunger, and while this is true the modern food system has introduced new complexities to food insecurity with the growth of micro-nutrient inequalities. Hunger and obesity are not being faced by two different groups but often the same group or cohort. These are features of modern malnutrition that are often not recognized. A critical examination of food poverty and food security is undertaken, with a view to clarifying taken-for-granted assumptions in present discourses. The book addresses food charity and the rise of solutions such as foodbanks as appropriate social responses. The final chapters explore the solutions from real life situations. The concluding chapter from the editors draws together the issues and locates solutions within a food policy framework of the total food system. The various definitions of food insecurity will are examined. Hunger and its modern manifestations (hunger and obesity) is another focus, with particular explorations of developed and developing countries experiences. Some of the chapters cover how food poverty/insecurity is being addressed and provide examples of work in progress.

2018 Global food policy report: Synopsis

2018 Global food policy report: Synopsis Pdf/ePub eBook Author: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
Editor: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
ISBN: 0896292983
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2018 Global food policy report: Synopsis by International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Summary

The year 2017 was marked by increasing uncertainty amid mixed signs of progress. The world enjoyed a strong economic recovery, but global hunger increased as conflicts, famine, and refugee crises persisted. With the withdrawal of the United States from major international agreements, Britain's “Brexit,” and rising anti-immigration rhetoric in many countries, the world began to step away from decades of global integration that have yielded unprecedented reductions in poverty and malnutrition. This synopsis of the 2018 Global Food Policy Report reviews the events of 2017, including the impact of rising antiglobalism, and looks at how global integration—through trade, investment, migration, open data, developed country policies, and governance—can be harnessed to benefit our global food system.

Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability

Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability Pdf/ePub eBook Author:
Editor: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128126884
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Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability by Summary

The Encyclopedia of Food Security and Sustainability covers the hottest topics in the science of food sustainability, providing a synopsis of the path society is on to secure food for a growing population. It investigates the focal issue of sustainable food production in relation to the effects of global change on food resources, biodiversity and global food security. This collection of methodological approaches and knowledge derived from expert authors around the world offers the research community, food industry, scientists and students with the knowledge to relate to, and report on, the novel challenges of food production and sustainability. This comprehensive encyclopedia will act as a platform to show how an interdisciplinary approach and closer collaboration between the scientific and industrial communities is necessary to strengthen our existing capacity to generate and share research data. Offers readers a ‘one-stop’ resource on the topic of food security and sustainability Contains articles split into sections based on the various dimensions of Food Security and Food Sustainability Written by academics and practitioners from various fields and regions with a “farm to fork understanding Includes concise and accessible chapters, providing an authoritative introduction for non-specialists and readers from undergraduate level upwards, as well as up-to-date foundational content for those familiar with the field

Climate Change and Food Security

Climate Change and Food Security Pdf/ePub eBook Author: David B. Lobell,Marshall Burke
Editor: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9048129532
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Climate Change and Food Security by David B. Lobell,Marshall Burke Summary

Roughly a billion people around the world continue to live in state of chronic hunger and food insecurity. Unfortunately, efforts to improve their livelihoods must now unfold in the context of a rapidly changing climate, in which warming temperatures and changing rainfall regimes could threaten the basic productivity of the agricultural systems on which most of the world’s poor directly depend. But whether climate change represents a minor impediment or an existential threat to development is an area of substantial controversy, with different conclusions wrought from different methodologies and based on different data. This book aims to resolve some of the controversy by exploring and comparing the different methodologies and data that scientists use to understand climate’s effects on food security. In explains the nature of the climate threat, the ways in which crops and farmers might respond, and the potential role for public and private investment to help agriculture adapt to a warmer world. This broader understanding should prove useful to both scientists charged with quantifying climate threats, and policy-makers responsible for crucial decisions about how to respond. The book is especially suitable as a companion to an interdisciplinary undergraduate or graduate level class.

Farming Systems and Food Security in Africa

Farming Systems and Food Security in Africa Pdf/ePub eBook Author: John Dixon,Dennis P. Garrity,Jean-Marc Boffa,Timothy O. Williams,Tilahun Amede,Christopher Auricht,Rosemary Lott,George Mburathi
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1317332261
FileSize: 341kb
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Farming Systems and Food Security in Africa by John Dixon,Dennis P. Garrity,Jean-Marc Boffa,Timothy O. Williams,Tilahun Amede,Christopher Auricht,Rosemary Lott,George Mburathi Summary

Knowledge of Africa’s complex farming systems, set in their socio-economic and environmental context, is an essential ingredient to developing effective strategies for improving food and nutrition security. This book systematically and comprehensively describes the characteristics, trends, drivers of change and strategic priorities for each of Africa’s fifteen farming systems and their main subsystems. It shows how a farming systems perspective can be used to identify pathways to household food security and poverty reduction, and how strategic interventions may need to differ from one farming system to another. In the analysis, emphasis is placed on understanding farming systems drivers of change, trends and strategic priorities for science and policy. Illustrated with full-colour maps and photographs throughout, the volume provides a comprehensive and insightful analysis of Africa’s farming systems and pathways for the future to improve food and nutrition security. The book is an essential follow-up to the seminal work Farming Systems and Poverty by Dixon and colleagues for the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Bank, published in 2001.

The Oxford Handbook of Public Health Ethics

The Oxford Handbook of Public Health Ethics Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Anna C. Mastroianni,Jeffrey P. Kahn,Nancy E. Kass
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190933194
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The Oxford Handbook of Public Health Ethics by Anna C. Mastroianni,Jeffrey P. Kahn,Nancy E. Kass Summary

Natural disasters and cholera outbreaks. Ebola, SARS, and concerns over pandemic flu. HIV and AIDS. E. coli outbreaks from contaminated produce and fast foods. Threats of bioterrorism. Contamination of compounded drugs. Vaccination refusals and outbreaks of preventable diseases. These are just some of the headlines from the last 30-plus years highlighting the essential roles and responsibilities of public health, all of which come with ethical issues and the responsibilities they create. Public health has achieved extraordinary successes. And yet these successes also bring with them ethical tension. Not all public health successes are equally distributed in the population; extraordinary health disparities between rich and poor still exist. The most successful public health programs sometimes rely on policies that, while improving public health conditions, also limit individual rights. Public health practitioners and policymakers face these and other questions of ethics routinely in their work, and they must navigate their sometimes competing responsibilities to the health of the public with other important societal values such as privacy, autonomy, and prevailing cultural norms. This Oxford Handbook provides a sweeping and comprehensive review of the current state of public health ethics, addressing these and numerous other questions. Taking account of the wide range of topics under the umbrella of public health and the ethical issues raised by them, this volume is organized into fifteen sections. It begins with two sections that discuss the conceptual foundations, ethical tensions, and ethical frameworks of and for public health and how public health does its work. The thirteen sections that follow examine the application of public health ethics considerations and approaches across a broad range of public health topics. While chapters are organized into topical sections, each chapter is designed to serve as a standalone contribution. The book includes 73 chapters covering many topics from varying perspectives, a recognition of the diversity of the issues that define public health ethics in the U.S. and globally. This Handbook is an authoritative and indispensable guide to the state of public health ethics today.

Sustaining Global Food Security

Sustaining Global Food Security Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Robert Zeigler
Editor: CSIRO PUBLISHING
ISBN: 1486308104
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Sustaining Global Food Security by Robert Zeigler Summary

Population growth alone dictates that global food supplies must increase by over 50% in coming decades. Advances in technology offer an array of opportunities to meet this demand, but history shows that these can be fully realised only within an enabling policy environment. Sustaining Global Food Security makes a compelling case that recent technological breakthroughs can move the planet towards a secure and sustainable food supply only if new policies are designed that allow their full expression. Bob Zeigler has brought together a distinguished set of scientists and policy analysts to produce well-referenced chapters exploring international policies on genetic resources, molecular genetics, genetic engineering, crop breeding and protection, remote sensing, the changing landscape of agricultural policies in the world’s largest countries, and trade. Those entering the agricultural sciences and those who aspire to influence public policy during their careers will benefit from the insights of this unique set of experiences and perspectives.

The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2018

The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2018 Pdf/ePub eBook Author: FAO
Editor: United Nations
ISBN: 9210479130
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The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2018 by FAO Summary

This year’s report shows that climate variability and extremes – even without conflict – are key drivers behind the recent rise in global hunger and one of the leading causes of severe food crises and their impact on people’s nutrition and health. Climate variability and exposure to more complex, frequent and intense climate extremes are threatening to erode and reverse gains in ending hunger and malnutrition. Furthermore, hunger is significantly worse in countries where agriculture systems are highly sensitive to rainfall, temperature and severe drought, and where the livelihood of a high proportion of the population depends on agriculture.

The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2018 (Arabic language)/El estado de la seguridad alimentaria y la nutrición en el mundo 2018

The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2018 (Arabic language)/El estado de la seguridad alimentaria y la nutrición en el mundo 2018 Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Editor: United Nations
ISBN: 9210042077
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The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2018 (Arabic language)/El estado de la seguridad alimentaria y la nutrición en el mundo 2018 by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Summary

New evidence in SOFI 2018 confirms a rise in world hunger: the number of people who suffer from hunger has been growing over the past three years, returning to levels from almost a decade ago. Multiple forms of malnutrition are evident in many countries: adult obesity is growing even as forms of undernutrition persist. The report says that climate variability and extremes are key drivers behind this rise, together with conflict and economic downturns, and are threatening to erode and reverse gains made in ending hunger and malnutrition. SOFI 2018 reveals new challenges on the road to Zero Hunger, while setting out urgent actions needed to achieve the goal by 2030.

The State of Food and Agriculture 2019

The State of Food and Agriculture 2019 Pdf/ePub eBook Author: United Nations
Editor: United Nations
ISBN: 9210046269
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The State of Food and Agriculture 2019 by United Nations Summary

This year's edition provides new estimates of the percentage of the world's food lost from production up to the retail level. It suggests that identifying and understanding critical loss points in specific supply chains – where considerable potential exists for reducing food losses – is crucial to deciding on appropriate measures. It also provides some guiding principles for interventions based on the objectives being pursued through food loss and waste reductions, be they in improved economic efficiency, food security and nutrition, or environmental sustainability.