Unequal Crime Decline

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Unequal Crime Decline

Unequal Crime Decline Pdf/ePub eBook Author: ,
Editor: NYU Press
ISBN: 9780814767726
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Unequal Crime Decline by , Summary

2009 Choice Outstanding Academic Title Crime in most urban areas has been falling since 1991. While the decline has been well-documented, few scholars have analyzed which groups have most benefited from the crime decline and which are still on the frontlines of violence—and why that might be. In Unequal Crime Decline, Karen F. Parker presents a structural and theoretical analysis of the various factors that affect the crime decline, looking particularly at the past three decades and the shifts that have taken place, and offers original insight into which trends have declined and why. Taking into account such indicators as employment, labor market opportunities, skill levels, housing, changes in racial composition, family structure, and drug trafficking, Parker provides statistics that illustrate how these factors do or do not affect urban violence, and carefully considers these factors in relation to various crime trends, such as rates involving blacks, whites, but also trends among black males, white females, as well as others. Throughout the book she discusses popular structural theories of crime and their limitations, in the end concentrating on today’s issues and important contemporary policy to be considered. Unequal Crime Decline is a comprehensive and theoretically sophisticated look at the relationship among race, urban inequality, and violence in the years leading up to and following America’s landmark crime drop.

The Great American Crime Decline

The Great American Crime Decline Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Franklin E. Zimring
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199702535
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The Great American Crime Decline by Franklin E. Zimring Summary

Many theories--from the routine to the bizarre--have been offered up to explain the crime decline of the 1990s. Was it record levels of imprisonment? An abatement of the crack cocaine epidemic? More police using better tactics? Or even the effects of legalized abortion? And what can we expect from crime rates in the future? Franklin E. Zimring here takes on the experts, and counters with the first in-depth portrait of the decline and its true significance. The major lesson from the 1990s is that relatively superficial changes in the character of urban life can be associated with up to 75% drops in the crime rate. Crime can drop even if there is no major change in the population, the economy or the schools. Offering the most reliable data available, Zimring documents the decline as the longest and largest since World War II. It ranges across both violent and non-violent offenses, all regions, and every demographic. All Americans, whether they live in cities or suburbs, whether rich or poor, are safer today. Casting a critical and unerring eye on current explanations, this book demonstrates that both long-standing theories of crime prevention and recently generated theories fall far short of explaining the 1990s drop. A careful study of Canadian crime trends reveals that imprisonment and economic factors may not have played the role in the U.S. crime drop that many have suggested. There was no magic bullet but instead a combination of factors working in concert rather than a single cause that produced the decline. Further--and happily for future progress, it is clear that declines in the crime rate do not require fundamental social or structural changes. Smaller shifts in policy can make large differences. The significant reductions in crime rates, especially in New York, where crime dropped twice the national average, suggests that there is room for other cities to repeat this astounding success. In this definitive look at the great American crime decline, Franklin E. Zimring finds no pat answers but evidence that even lower crime rates might be in store.

Inequality, Crime and Public Policy (Routledge Revivals)

Inequality, Crime and Public Policy (Routledge Revivals) Pdf/ePub eBook Author: John Braithwaite
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1135094500
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Inequality, Crime and Public Policy (Routledge Revivals) by John Braithwaite Summary

First published in 1979, Inequality, Crime, and Public Policy integrates and interprets the vast corpus of existing research on social class, slums, and crime, and presents its own findings on these matters. It explores two major questions. First, do policies designed to redistribute wealth and power within capitalist societies have effects upon crime? Second, do policies created to overcome the residential segregation of social classes have effects on crime? The book provides a brilliantly comprehensive and systematic review of the empirical evidence to support or refute the classic theories of Engles, Bonger, Merton, Cloward and Ohlin, Cohen, Miller, Shaw and McKay, amongst many others. Braithwaite confronts these theories with evidence of the extent and nature of white collar crime, and a consideration of the way law enhancement and law enforcement might serve class interest.

The Myth of the ‘Crime Decline’

The Myth of the ‘Crime Decline’ Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Justin Kotzé
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1351134574
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The Myth of the ‘Crime Decline’ by Justin Kotzé Summary

The Myth of the ‘Crime Decline’ seeks to critically interrogate the supposed statistical decline of crime rates, thought to have occurred in a number of predominantly Western countries over the past two decades. Whilst this trend of declining crime rates seems profound, serious questions need to be asked. Data sources need to be critically interrogated and context needs to be provided. This book seeks to do just that. This book examines the wider socio-economic and politico-cultural context within which this decline in crime is said to have occurred, highlighting the changing nature and landscape of crime and its ever deepening resistance to precise measurement. By drawing upon original qualitative research and cutting edge criminological theory, this book offers an alternative view of the reality of crime and harm. In doing so it seeks to reframe the ‘crime decline’ discourse and provide a more accurate account of this puzzling contemporary phenomenon. Additionally, utilising a new theoretical framework developed by the author, this book begins to explain why the ‘crime decline’ discourse has been so readily accepted. Written in an accessible yet theoretical and informed manner, this book is a must-read for academics and students in the fields of criminology, sociology, social policy, and the philosophy of social sciences.

Understanding New York’s Crime Drop

Understanding New York’s Crime Drop Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Richard Rosenfeld,Karen Terry,Preeti Chauhan
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1000065146
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Understanding New York’s Crime Drop by Richard Rosenfeld,Karen Terry,Preeti Chauhan Summary

This book explores New York City’s historic crime drop over the past quarter of a century. New York City’s dramatic crime decline is a real brainteaser: no one predicted it and, as of yet, no one has explained it, at least to the satisfaction of most social scientists who study crime trends. Three strategic lessons emerge from the contributions to this volume on New York’s crime drop. It is suggested that future research should: • go wide by putting New York in comparative context, nationally and internationally; • go long by putting New York’s recent experience in historical context; • develop a strong ground game by investigating New York’s crime drop across multiple spatial units, down to the street segment. The contributors to Understanding New York’s Crime Drop aim to provoke expanded and sustained attention to crime trends in New York and elsewhere. This book was originally published as a special issue of the journal, Justice Quarterly.

Communities in Action

Communities in Action Pdf/ePub eBook Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Committee on Community-Based Solutions to Promote Health Equity in the United States
Editor: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309452996
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Communities in Action by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Committee on Community-Based Solutions to Promote Health Equity in the United States Summary

In the United States, some populations suffer from far greater disparities in health than others. Those disparities are caused not only by fundamental differences in health status across segments of the population, but also because of inequities in factors that impact health status, so-called determinants of health. Only part of an individual's health status depends on his or her behavior and choice; community-wide problems like poverty, unemployment, poor education, inadequate housing, poor public transportation, interpersonal violence, and decaying neighborhoods also contribute to health inequities, as well as the historic and ongoing interplay of structures, policies, and norms that shape lives. When these factors are not optimal in a community, it does not mean they are intractable: such inequities can be mitigated by social policies that can shape health in powerful ways. Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity seeks to delineate the causes of and the solutions to health inequities in the United States. This report focuses on what communities can do to promote health equity, what actions are needed by the many and varied stakeholders that are part of communities or support them, as well as the root causes and structural barriers that need to be overcome.

Uneasy Peace: The Great Crime Decline, the Renewal of City Life, and the Next War on Violence

Uneasy Peace: The Great Crime Decline, the Renewal of City Life, and the Next War on Violence Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Patrick Sharkey
Editor: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 0393609618
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Uneasy Peace: The Great Crime Decline, the Renewal of City Life, and the Next War on Violence by Patrick Sharkey Summary

“Remarkable.… The story of the crime decline is about the wisdom of single steps and small sanities.… It is possible to see this as a kind of humanist miracle, a lesson about the self-organizing and, sometimes, self-healing capacities of human communities that’s as humbling, in its way, as any mystery that faith can offer.”—Adam Gopnik, The New Yorker Over the past two decades, American cities have experienced an astonishing drop in violent crime, dramatically changing urban life. Patrick Sharkey reveals the striking consequences: improved school test scores, since children are better able to learn when not traumatized by nearby violence; better chances that poor children will rise into the middle class; and a striking increase in the life expectancy of African American men. Many places once characterized by decay and abandonment are now thriving, yet pervasive inequality threatens these gains. At a time when crime is rising again and powerful political forces seek to disinvest in cities, the insights in this book are indispensable.

Punishment Without Crime

Punishment Without Crime Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Alexandra Natapoff
Editor: Basic Books
ISBN: 0465093809
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Punishment Without Crime by Alexandra Natapoff Summary

A revelatory account of the misdemeanor machine that unjustly brands millions of Americans as criminals Punishment Without Crime offers an urgent new interpretation of inequality and injustice in America by examining the paradigmatic American offense: the lowly misdemeanor. Based on extensive original research, legal scholar Alexandra Natapoff reveals the inner workings of a massive petty offense system that produces over 13 million cases each year. People arrested for minor crimes are swept through courts where defendants often lack lawyers, judges process cases in mere minutes, and nearly everyone pleads guilty. This misdemeanor machine starts punishing people long before they are convicted; it punishes the innocent; and it punishes conduct that never should have been a crime. As a result, vast numbers of Americans -- most of them poor and people of color -- are stigmatized as criminals, impoverished through fines and fees, and stripped of drivers' licenses, jobs, and housing. For too long, misdemeanors have been ignored. But they are crucial to understanding our punitive criminal system and our widening economic and racial divides. A Publishers Weekly Best Book of 2018

Get a Job

Get a Job Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Robert D. Crutchfield
Editor: NYU Press
ISBN: 1479821152
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Get a Job by Robert D. Crutchfield Summary

Are the unemployed more likely to commit crimes? Does having a job make one less likely to commit a crime? Criminologists have found that individuals who are marginalized from the labor market are more likely to commit crimes, and communities with more members who are marginal to the labor market have higher rates of crime. Yet, as Robert Crutchfield explains, contrary to popular expectations, unemployment has been found to be an inconsistent predictor of either individual criminality or collective crime rates. In Get a Job, Crutchfield offers a carefully nuanced understanding of the links among work, unemployment, and crime. Crutchfield explains how people’s positioning in the labor market affects their participation in all kinds of crimes, from violent acts to profit-motivated offenses such as theft and drug trafficking. Crutchfield also draws on his first-hand knowledge of growing up in a poor, black neighborhood in Pittsburgh and later working on the streets as a parole officer, enabling him to develop a more complete understanding of how work and crime are related and both contribute to, and are a result of, social inequalities and disadvantage. Well-researched and informative, Get a Job tells a powerful story of one of the most troubling side effects of economic disparities in America.

Theorizing Crime and Deviance

Theorizing Crime and Deviance Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Steve Hall
Editor: SAGE
ISBN: 144625867X
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Theorizing Crime and Deviance by Steve Hall Summary

"Anything that takes away from the terminally off key karaoke of so much that passes for theory in criminology is to be welcomed, and this is a fine effort to connect the study of crime and control to an innovative set of theoretical possibilities. A rip-roaring read that slaughters some sacred cows while throwing the odd baby out with the bath water." - Richard Hobbs, University of Essex "Boldly tackles big questions that the discipline has lately been unable or unwilling to confront. Steve Hall's compelling and original book should help to restart a crucial discussion about the connections between crime and an increasingly volatile and predatory global social order." - Elliott Currie, University of California, Irvine "This erudite and original book synthesizes a dazzling array of thought and evidence to interrogate criminological theory's dominant conservative and liberal perspectives... This reviewer is left with a sense of criminological theory's tiredness of intellectual ambition and scope, while Hall's book leaves a sense of rejuvenation and excitement." - Colin Webster, British Journal of Criminology "A beautifully written, accessible and yet theoretically rigorous piece of writing that should be read by everyone interested in crime, law and social order. The book should be read with an open mind and as a genuine response to the suffocating inability of criminology to free itself from the century old slanging-match between its liberal and conservative wings." - Simon Winlow, University of York Steve Hall uses cutting-edge philosophy and social theory to analyse patterns of crime and harm and illuminate contemporary criminological issues. He provides a fresh, relevant critique of the philosophical and political underpinnings of criminological theory and the theoretical canon's development during the twentieth century, and applies new Continental philosophy to the criminological problem. Unmatched in its sophistication yet written in a clear, accessible style, this dynamic and highly engaging book is essential reading for all students, researchers and academics working in criminology, sociology, social policy, politics and the social sciences in general.

When Police Kill

When Police Kill Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Franklin E. Zimring
Editor: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 067497803X
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When Police Kill by Franklin E. Zimring Summary

Franklin Zimring compiles data from federal records, crowdsourced research, and investigative journalism to provide a comprehensive, fact-based picture of how, when, where, and why police use deadly force. He offers prescriptions for how federal, state, and local governments could reduce killings at minimum cost without risking officers’ lives.

Rural Crime and Community Safety

Rural Crime and Community Safety Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Vania A Ceccato
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1135005559
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Rural Crime and Community Safety by Vania A Ceccato Summary

Crime is often perceived as an urban issue rather than a problem that occurs in rural areas, but how far is this view tenable? This book explores the relationship between crime and community in rural areas and addresses the notion of safety as part of the community dynamics in such areas. Rural Crime and Community Safety makes a significant contribution to crime science and integrates a range of theories to understand patterns of crime and perceived safety in rural contexts. Based on a wealth of original research, Ceccato combines spatial methods with qualitative analysis to examine, in detail, farm and wildlife crime, youth related crimes and gendered violence in rural settings. Making the most of the expanding field of Criminology and of the growing professional inquiry into crime and crime prevention in rural areas; rural development; and the social sustainability of rural areas, this book builds a bridge by connecting Criminology and Human Geography. This book will be suitable for academics, students and practitioners in the fields of criminology, community safety, rural studies, rural development and gender studies.

Prisoners on Criminology

Prisoners on Criminology Pdf/ePub eBook Author: William S. Tregea
Editor: Lexington Books
ISBN: 0739145894
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Prisoners on Criminology by William S. Tregea Summary

William S. Tregea makes prisoners’ stories come alive with eighty prisoner essays integrated in informational chapters tracing shifts in criminality, the U.S. prison build up, and inner cities. The chapters review criminological theories through case studies of prisoners’ own insights on their lives at the individual, family, and community levels.

Children of the Prison Boom

Children of the Prison Boom Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Sara Wakefield,Christopher Wildeman
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199989230
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Children of the Prison Boom by Sara Wakefield,Christopher Wildeman Summary

An unrelenting prison boom, marked by stark racial disparities, pulled a disproportionate number of young black men into prison in the last forty years. In Children of the Prison Boom, Sara Wakefield and Christopher Wildeman draw upon broadly representative survey data and interviews to describe the devastating effects of America's experiment in mass incarceration on a generation of vulnerable children tied to these men. In so doing, they show that the effects of mass imprisonment may be even greater on the children left behind than on the men who were locked up. Parental imprisonment has been transformed from an event affecting only the unluckiest of children-those with parents seriously involved in crime-to one that is remarkably common, especially for black children. This book documents how, even for children at high risk of problems, paternal incarceration makes a bad situation worse, increasing mental health and behavioral problems, infant mortality, and child homelessness. Pushing against prevailing understandings of and research on the consequences of mass incarceration for inequality among adult men, these harms to children translate into large-scale increases in racial inequalities. Parental imprisonment has become a distinctively American way of perpetuating intergenerational inequality-one that should be placed alongside a decaying public education system and concentrated disadvantage in urban centers as a factor that disproportionately touches, and disadvantages, poor black children. More troubling, even if incarceration rates were reduced dramatically in the near future, the long-term harms of our national experiment in the mass incarceration of marginalized men are yet to be fully revealed. Optimism about current reductions in the imprisonment rate and the resilience of children must therefore be set against the backdrop of the children of the prison boom-a lost generation now coming of age.

The Oxford Handbook of Gender, Sex, and Crime

The Oxford Handbook of Gender, Sex, and Crime Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Rosemary Gartner,Bill McCarthy
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199838712
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The Oxford Handbook of Gender, Sex, and Crime by Rosemary Gartner,Bill McCarthy Summary

Research on gender, sex, and crime today remains focused on topics that have been a mainstay of the field for several decades, but it has also recently expanded to include studies from a variety of disciplines, a growing number of countries, and on a wider range of crimes. The Oxford Handbook of Gender, Sex, and Crime reflects this growing diversity and provides authoritative overviews of current research and theory on how gender and sex shape crime and criminal justice responses to it. The editors, Rosemary Gartner and Bill McCarthy, have assembled a diverse cast of criminologists, historians, legal scholars, psychologists, and sociologists from a number of countries to discuss key concepts and debates central to the field. The Handbook includes examinations of the historical and contemporary patterns of women's and men's involvement in crime; as well as biological, psychological, and social science perspectives on gender, sex, and criminal activity. Several essays discuss the ways in which sex and gender influence legal and popular reactions to crime. An important theme throughout The Handbook is the intersection of sex and gender with ethnicity, class, age, peer groups, and community as influences on crime and justice. Individual chapters investigate both conventional topics - such as domestic abuse and sexual violence - and topics that have only recently drawn the attention of scholars - such as human trafficking, honor killing, gender violence during war, state rape, and genocide. The Oxford Handbook of Gender, Sex, and Crime offers an unparalleled and comprehensive view of the connections among gender, sex, and crime in the United States and in many other countries. Its insights illuminate both traditional areas of study in the field and pathways for developing cutting-edge research questions.

Crime and Justice, Volume 44

Crime and Justice, Volume 44 Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Michael Tonry
Editor: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022634102X
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Crime and Justice, Volume 44 by Michael Tonry Summary

Volume 44 of Crime and Justice is essential reading for scholars, policy makers, and practitioners who need to know about the latest advances in knowledge concerning crime, its causes, and its control. Contents include Robert D. Crutchfield on the complex interactions among race, social class, and crime; Cassia Spohn on race, crime, and punishment in America; Marianne van Ooijen and Edward Kleemans on the “Dutch model” of drug policy; Beau Kilmer, Peter Reuter, and Luca Giommoni on cross-national and comparative knowledge about drug use and control drugs; Michael Tonry on federal sentencing policy since 1984; Kathryn Monahan, Laurence Steinberg, and Alex R. Piquero on the growing influence of bioscience and developmental psychology on juvenile justice policy and practice; Cheryl Lero Jonson and Francis T. Cullen on prisoner reentry programs; James P. Lynch and Lynn A. Addington on cultural changes in tolerance of violence amd their effects on crime statistics; Brandon C. Welsh, David P. Farrington, and B. Raffan Gowar on benefit-cost analysis of crime prevention; Torbjorn Skardhamar, Jukka Savolainen, Kjersti N. Aase, and Torkild H. Lyngstad on the effects of marriage on criminality; and John MacDonald on the effects on crime rates and patterns of urban design and development.

Victims, Crime and Society

Victims, Crime and Society Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Pamela Davies,Peter Francis,Chris Greer
Editor: SAGE
ISBN: 1473910919
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Victims, Crime and Society by Pamela Davies,Peter Francis,Chris Greer Summary

This book provides a thorough account of victimisation across the social spectrum of class, race, age and gender. The second edition has been fully revised and expanded, with two parts now spanning the key perspectives and issues in victimology. Covering theoretical, social and political contexts, the book: Includes new chapters on defining and constructing victims, fear and vulnerability, sexuality, white collar crime and the implications of crime policy on victims Examines a global range of historical and theoretical perspectives in victimology and features a new chapter on researching victims of crime Reinforces your learning through critical thinking sections, future research suggestions, chapter summaries and a glossary of key terms Victims, Crime and Society is the essential text for your studies in victimology across criminology, criminal justice, community safety, youth justice and related areas.

Punishment and Inequality in America

Punishment and Inequality in America Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Bruce Western
Editor: Russell Sage Foundation
ISBN: 1610445554
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Punishment and Inequality in America by Bruce Western Summary

Over the last thirty years, the prison population in the United States has increased more than seven-fold to over two million people, including vastly disproportionate numbers of minorities and people with little education. For some racial and educational groups, incarceration has become a depressingly regular experience, and prison culture and influence pervade their communities. Almost 60 percent of black male high school drop-outs in their early thirties have spent time in prison. In Punishment and Inequality in America, sociologist Bruce Western explores the recent era of mass incarceration and the serious social and economic consequences it has wrought. Punishment and Inequality in America dispels many of the myths about the relationships among crime, imprisonment, and inequality. While many people support the increase in incarceration because of recent reductions in crime, Western shows that the decrease in crime rates in the 1990s was mostly fueled by growth in city police forces and the pacification of the drug trade. Getting "tough on crime" with longer sentences only explains about 10 percent of the fall in crime, but has come at a significant cost. Punishment and Inequality in America reveals a strong relationship between incarceration and severely dampened economic prospects for former inmates. Western finds that because of their involvement in the penal system, young black men hardly benefited from the economic boom of the 1990s. Those who spent time in prison had much lower wages and employment rates than did similar men without criminal records. The losses from mass incarceration spread to the social sphere as well, leaving one out of ten young black children with a father behind bars by the end of the 1990s, thereby helping perpetuate the damaging cycle of broken families, poverty, and crime. The recent explosion of imprisonment is exacting heavy costs on American society and exacerbating inequality. Whereas college or the military were once the formative institutions in young men's lives, prison has increasingly usurped that role in many communities. Punishment and Inequality in America profiles how the growth in incarceration came about and the toll it is taking on the social and economic fabric of many American communities.

Crime, The Mystery of the Common-Sense Concept

Crime, The Mystery of the Common-Sense Concept Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Robert Reiner
Editor: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1509510761
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Crime, The Mystery of the Common-Sense Concept by Robert Reiner Summary

Crime is a source of endless fascination and fear. Yet behind the apparent consensus that crime must be fought, there is considerable conflict about what should or should not be treated as criminal, and even the most shocking crimes can inspire divisive debate. This concise book explores the seemingly simple, common-sense concept of crime revealing the huge complexities, ambiguities and tensions that lie beneath it. Criminal law is often at odds with different moral perspectives and the practices of different cultures. The mass media distort the picture profoundly, as do politicians in pursuit of law and order votes. The criminal justice system tackles only a limited range of crimes – almost entirely ones committed by the poor and relatively powerless – while often neglecting the most dangerous and harmful activities of corporations and states, from the carnage of unjust wars to the tragedies engendered by austerity. It is only by examining the multiple and varied perspectives on crime that we can begin to understand and respond appropriately to this social phenomenon. Written by a world-leading criminologist, this insightful book will be an invaluable and captivating introduction for students and interested readers of criminology, law, sociology and politics.

Homicide and Organised Crime

Homicide and Organised Crime Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Mohammed Rahman
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 3030162532
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Homicide and Organised Crime by Mohammed Rahman Summary

This book offers rich ethnographic and narrative accounts of men who have been engaged in serious violence and organised crime in the West Midlands of England, using several theoretical paradigms. Through case study examples, it also considers contract killers and the nefarious position that ‘hitmen’ occupy in the criminal underworld. By charting insider perspectives from retired law enforcement agents, informants, ex-military personnel and ex-offenders, this book speaks to those who have a vested interest in violence, organised crime and ethnography.