With Alexander In India And Central Asia

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With Alexander in India and Central Asia

With Alexander in India and Central Asia Pdf/ePub eBook Author: ,
Editor: Oxbow Books Limited
ISBN: 1785705857
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With Alexander in India and Central Asia by , Summary

Alexander conquered most parts of the Western World, but there is a great deal of controversy over his invasion of India, the least known of his campaigns. In BC 327 Alexander came to India, and tried to cross the Jhelum river for the invasion, but was then confronted by King Porus who ruled an area in what is now the Punjab. According to Indian history he was stopped by Porus at his entry into the country, but most of the world still believes that Alexander won the battle. Fearing the prospect of facing other large armies and exhausted by years of campaigning, Alexander's army mutinied at the Hyphasis River, refusing to march farther east. This river thus marks the easternmost extent of Alexander's conquests. Twelve papers in this volume examine aspects of Alexander’s Indian campaign, the relationship between him and his generals, the potential to use Indian sources, and evidence for the influence of policies of Alexander in neighboring areas such as Iran and Russia.

Philip and Alexander

Philip and Alexander Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Adrian Goldsworthy
Editor: Basic Books
ISBN: 046509550X
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Philip and Alexander by Adrian Goldsworthy Summary

This definitive biography of one of history's most influential father-son duos tells the story of two rulers who gripped the world -- and their rise and fall from power. Alexander the Great's conquests staggered the world. He led his army across thousands of miles, overthrowing the greatest empires of his time and building a new one in their place. He claimed to be the son of a god, but he was actually the son of Philip II of Macedon. Philip inherited a minor kingdom that was on the verge of dismemberment, but despite his youth and inexperience, he made Macedonia dominant throughout Greece. It was Philip who created the armies that Alexander led into war against Persia. In Philip and Alexander, classical historian Adrian Goldsworthy shows that without the work and influence of his father, Alexander could not have achieved so much. This is the groundbreaking biography of two men who together conquered the world.

Alexander the Great in the Middle Ages

Alexander the Great in the Middle Ages Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Markus Stock
Editor: University of Toronto Press
ISBN: 1442661313
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Alexander the Great in the Middle Ages by Markus Stock Summary

In the Middle Ages, the life story of Alexander the Great was a well-traveled tale. Known in numerous versions, many of them derived from the ancient Greek Alexander Romance, it was told and re-told throughout Europe, India, the Middle East, and Central Asia. The essays collected in Alexander the Great in the Middle Ages examine these remarkable legends not merely as stories of conquest and discovery, but also as representations of otherness, migration, translation, cosmopolitanism, and diaspora. Alongside studies of the Alexander legend in medieval and early modern Latin, English, French, German, and Persian, Alexander the Great in the Middle Ages breaks new ground by examining rarer topics such as Hebrew Alexander romances, Coptic and Arabic Alexander materials, and early modern Malay versions of the Alexander legend. Brought together in this wide-ranging collection, these essays testify to the enduring fascination and transcultural adaptability of medieval stories about the extraordinary Macedonian leader.

Reign of Arrows

Reign of Arrows Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Nikolaus Leo Overtoom
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190888334
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Reign of Arrows by Nikolaus Leo Overtoom Summary

From its origins as a minor nomadic tribe to its status as a major world empire, the rise of the Parthian state in the ancient world is nothing short of remarkable. In their early history, the Parthians benefitted from strong leadership, a flexible and accommodating cultural identity, and innovative military characteristics that allowed them to compete against and even overcome Greek, Persian, Central Asian, and eventually Roman rivals. Reign of Arrows provides the first comprehensive study, in almost a century, dedicated entirely to early Parthian history. Assimilating a wide array of especially recent scholarship across numerous fields of study, Nikolaus Overtoom presents the most cogent, well rounded, and up-to-date account of the Parthian empire in its wider context of Hellenistic history. It explains the political and military encounters that shaped the international environment of the Hellenistic Middle East from the middle third to the early first centuries BCE. This study combines traditional historical approaches, such as source criticism and the integration of material evidence, with the incorporation of modern international relations theory to better examine the emergence and expansion of Parthian power. Relevant to historians, classicists, political scientists, and general readers interested in the ancient world and military history, Reign of Arrows reimagines and reconstructs the rise of the Parthians within the hotly contested and dangerously competitive international environment of the Hellenistic world.

Handbook of Ancient Afro-Eurasian Economies

Handbook of Ancient Afro-Eurasian Economies Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Sitta Reden
Editor: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110604949
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Handbook of Ancient Afro-Eurasian Economies by Sitta Reden Summary

The notion of the “Silk Road” that the German geographer Ferdinand von Richthofen invented in the 19th century has lost attraction to scholars in light of large amounts of new evidence and new approaches. The handbook suggests new conceptual and methodological tools for researching ancient economic exchange in a global perspective with a strong focus on recent debates on the nature of pre-modern empires. The interdisciplinary team of Chinese, Indian and Graeco-Roman historians, archaeologists and anthropologists that has written this handbook compares different forms of economic development in agrarian and steppe regions in a period of accelerated empire formation during 300 BCE and 300 CE. It investigates inter-imperial zones and networks of exchange which were crucial for ancient Eurasian connections. Volume I provides a comparative history of the most important empires forming in Northern Africa, Europe and Asia between 300 BCE and 300 CE. It surveys a wide range of evidence that can be brought to bear on economic development in the these empires, and takes stock of the ways academic traditions have shaped different understandings of economic and imperial development as well as Silk-Road exchange in Russia, China, India and Western Graeco-Roman history.

Tales of Three Worlds - Archaeology and Beyond: Asia, Italy, Africa

Tales of Three Worlds - Archaeology and Beyond: Asia, Italy, Africa Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Donatella Usai,Stefano Tuzzato,Massimo Vidale
Editor: Archaeopress Publishing Ltd
ISBN: 1789694418
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Tales of Three Worlds - Archaeology and Beyond: Asia, Italy, Africa by Donatella Usai,Stefano Tuzzato,Massimo Vidale Summary

This book presents a series of papers in honour of Sandro Salvatori divided into three main sections reflecting his long years of work in Middle Asia, his time in Italy as an officer of the Archaeological Superintendency (Ministry of Cultural Heritage), and finally his studies on the prehistory of north-eastern Africa.

Alexander the Great and Propaganda

Alexander the Great and Propaganda Pdf/ePub eBook Author: John Walsh,Elizabeth Baynham
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1351627597
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Alexander the Great and Propaganda by John Walsh,Elizabeth Baynham Summary

Alexander the Great and Propaganda explores the use of propaganda - whether literature, coinage, or iconography – in the court of Alexander the Great, as well as those of his Successors, demonstrating that it was as integral to Hellenistic courts as it was to Imperial Rome. This volume brings together ten essays from leading international scholars in Alexander studies. There is currently no equivalent collection which has a specialist focus of themes or issues relating to the use of propaganda in the courts of Alexander or his Successors. This book will be an invaluable resource for students and scholars of Alexander studies, as well as those studying the use of propaganda across the ancient world, and to the more general reader with an interest in Alexander the Great and his reign.

Archaeology of Afghanistan

Archaeology of Afghanistan Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Allchin Raymond Allchin
Editor: Edinburgh University Press
ISBN: 1474450474
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Archaeology of Afghanistan by Allchin Raymond Allchin Summary

Afghanistan is at the cultural crossroads of Asia, where the great civilisations of Mesopotamia and Iran, South Asia and Central Asia overlapped and sometimes conflicted. Its landscape embraces environments from the high mountains of the Hindu Kush to the Oxus basin and the great deserts of Sistan; trade routes from China to the Mediterranean, and from Central Asia to the Arabian Sea cross the country. It has seen the development of early agriculture, the spread of Bronze Age civilisation of Central Asia, the conquests of the Persians and of Alexander of Macedon, the spread of Buddhism and then Islam, and the empires of the Kushans, Ghaznavids, Ghurids and Timurids centred there, with ramifications across southern Asia. All of which has resulted in some of the most important, diverse and spectacular historical remains in Asia.First published in 1978, this was the first book in English to provide a complete survey of the immensely rich archaeological remains of Afghanistan. The contributors, all acknowledged scholars in their field, have worked in the country, on projects ranging from prehistoric surveys to the study of Islamic architecture. It has now been thoroughly revised and brought up to date to incorporate the latest discoveries and research.

The Graeco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek World

The Graeco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek World Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Rachel Mairs
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1351610279
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The Graeco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek World by Rachel Mairs Summary

This volume provides a thorough conspectus of the field of Graeco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek studies, mixing theoretical and historical surveys with critical and thought-provoking case studies in archaeology, history, literature and art. The chapters from this international group of experts showcase innovative methodologies, such as archaeological GIS, as well as providing accessible explanations of specialist techniques such as die studies of coins, and important theoretical perspectives, including postcolonial approaches to the Greeks in India. Chapters cover the region’s archaeology, written and numismatic sources, and a history of scholarship of the subject, as well as culture, identity and interactions with neighbouring empires, including India and China. The Graeco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek World is the go-to reference work on the field, and fulfils a serious need for an accessible, but also thorough and critically-informed, volume on the Graeco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek kingdoms. It provides an invaluable resource for anyone interested in the Hellenistic East.

After Alexander

After Alexander Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Victor Alonso Troncoso,Edward M. Anson
Editor:
ISBN: 1782970657
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After Alexander by Victor Alonso Troncoso,Edward M. Anson Summary

When Alexander the Great died in 323 BC without a chosen successor he left behind a huge empire and ushered in a turbulent period, as his generals fought for control of vast territories. The time of the Successors (Diadochi) is usually defined as beginning in 323 BC and ending with the deaths of the last two Successors in 281 BC. This is a major publication devoted to the Successors and contains eighteen papers reflecting current research. Several papers attempt to unravel the source history of the very limited remaining narrative accounts, and add additional materials through cuneiform and Byzantine texts. Specific historical issues addressed include the role of so-called royal flatterers and whether or not Alexander's old guard did continue to serve into their sixties and seventies. Three papers reflect the recent conscious effort by many to break away from the Hellenocentric view of the predominantly Greek sources, by examining the role of the conquered, specifically the prominent roles played by Iranians in the administration and military of Alexander and his Successors, pockets of Iranian resistance which eventually blossomed into Hellenistic kingdoms ruled by sovereigns proclaiming their direct connection to an Iranian past and a continuation of Iranian influence through an examination of the roles played by certain of the Diadochis Iranian wives. The papers in the final section analyse the use of varying forms of propaganda. These include the use of the concept of Freedom of the Greeks as a means of manipulating opinion in the Greek world; how Ptolemy used a snake cult associated with the foundation of Alexandria in Egypt to link his kingship with that of Alexander; and the employment of elephant images to advertise the authority of particular rulers.

The Arabian Seas: Biodiversity, Environmental Challenges and Conservation Measures

The Arabian Seas: Biodiversity, Environmental Challenges and Conservation Measures Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Laith A. Jawad
Editor: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030515060
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The Arabian Seas: Biodiversity, Environmental Challenges and Conservation Measures by Laith A. Jawad Summary

The Arabian Seas Marine Region encompasses marine areas from Djibouti to Pakistan, including the northern part of Somalia, the Red Sea, the Arabian/Persian Gulf, and parts of the Arabian Sea. Human pressures on the coastal and marine environments are evident throughout the region, and have resulted in harmful environmental effects. Oil and domestic, urban and industrial pollutants in several areas of this part of the world have caused local habitat degradation, eutrophication and algal blooms. Further, coastal landfill, dredging, and sedimentation, as well as nutrient and sediment runoff from phosphate mining, agriculture and grazing, and reduction in freshwater seepage due to groundwater extraction are all contributing to the degradation of coastal environments. This book discusses aspects not covered in other books on the region, which largely focus on marine biodiversity, and examines several environmental challenges that are often ignored, but which have a significant impact on the environment. Evaluating the status quo, it also recommends conservation measures and examines the abiotic factors that play a major main role in the environmental changes. Lastly, the book addresses the biodiversity of the area, providing a general context for the conservation and management measures discussed.

Alexander the Great from Britain to Southeast Asia

Alexander the Great from Britain to Southeast Asia Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Su Fang Ng
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019256014X
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Alexander the Great from Britain to Southeast Asia by Su Fang Ng Summary

No figure has had a more global impact than Alexander the Great, whose legends have encircled the globe and been translated into a dizzying multitude of languages, from Indo-European and Semitic to Turkic and Austronesian. Alexander the Great from Britain to Southeast Asia examines parallel traditions of the Alexander Romance in Britain and Southeast Asia, demonstrating how rival Alexanders - one Christian, the other Islamic - became central figures in their respective literatures. In the early modern age of exploration, both Britain and Southeast Asia turned to literary imitations of Alexander to imagine their own empires and international relations, defining themselves as peripheries against the Ottoman Empire's imperial center: this shared classical inheritance became part of an intensifying cross-cultural engagement in the encounter between the two, allowing a revealing examination of their cultural convergences and imperial rivalries and a remapping of the global literary networks of the early modern world. Rather than absolute alterity or strangeness, the narrative of these parallel traditions is one of contact - familiarity and proximity, unexpected affinity and intimate strangers.

Alexander the Great from Britain to Southeast Asia

Alexander the Great from Britain to Southeast Asia Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Su Fang Ng
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192560131
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Alexander the Great from Britain to Southeast Asia by Su Fang Ng Summary

No figure has had a more global impact than Alexander the Great, whose legends have encircled the globe and been translated into a dizzying multitude of languages, from Indo-European and Semitic to Turkic and Austronesian. Alexander the Great from Britain to Southeast Asia examines parallel traditions of the Alexander Romance in Britain and Southeast Asia, demonstrating how rival Alexanders - one Christian, the other Islamic - became central figures in their respective literatures. In the early modern age of exploration, both Britain and Southeast Asia turned to literary imitations of Alexander to imagine their own empires and international relations, defining themselves as peripheries against the Ottoman Empire's imperial center: this shared classical inheritance became part of an intensifying cross-cultural engagement in the encounter between the two, allowing a revealing examination of their cultural convergences and imperial rivalries and a remapping of the global literary networks of the early modern world. Rather than absolute alterity or strangeness, the narrative of these parallel traditions is one of contact - familiarity and proximity, unexpected affinity and intimate strangers.

The Classics and Colonial India

The Classics and Colonial India Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Phiroze Vasunia
Editor: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191626074
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The Classics and Colonial India by Phiroze Vasunia Summary

This extraordinary book provides a detailed account of the relationship between classical antiquity and the British colonial presence in India. It examines some of the great figures of the colonial period such as Gandhi, Nehru, Macaulay, Jowett, and William Jones, and covers a range of different disciplines as it sweeps from the eighteenth century to the end of the British Raj in the twentieth. Using a variety of materials, including archival documents and familiar texts, Vasunia shows how classical culture pervaded the thoughts and minds of the British colonizers. His book highlights the many Indian receptions of Greco-Roman antiquity and analyses how Indians turned to ancient Greece and Rome during the colonial period for a variety of purposes, including anti-colonialism, nationalism, and collaboration. Offering a unique cross-cultural study, this volume will be of interest to literary scholars and historians of the classical world, the British Empire, and South Asia.

The Greeks and Romans in the Black Sea and the Importance of the Pontic Region for the Graeco-Roman World (7th century BC-5th century AD): 20 Years On (1997-2017)

The Greeks and Romans in the Black Sea and the Importance of the Pontic Region for the Graeco-Roman World (7th century BC-5th century AD): 20 Years On (1997-2017) Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Gocha R. Tsetskhladze,Alexandru Avram,James Hargrave
Editor: Archaeopress Publishing Ltd
ISBN: 178969759X
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The Greeks and Romans in the Black Sea and the Importance of the Pontic Region for the Graeco-Roman World (7th century BC-5th century AD): 20 Years On (1997-2017) by Gocha R. Tsetskhladze,Alexandru Avram,James Hargrave Summary

The proceedings of the Sixth International Congress on Black Sea Antiquities (Constanţa, 2017) is dedicated to the 90th birthday of Prof. Sir John Boardman, President of the Congress since its inception. The central theme returns to that considered 20 years earlier: the importance of the Pontic Region for the Graeco-Roman World.

Hammer and Anvil

Hammer and Anvil Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Pamela Kyle Crossley
Editor: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 1442214457
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Hammer and Anvil by Pamela Kyle Crossley Summary

Weaving new interpretive approaches and grand themes of world history from 1000 to 1500, distinguished historian Pamela Kyle Crossley boldly argues that nomadic regimes such as the Mongols and Turks profoundly shaped Eurasia’s economic, technological, and political evolution to create our modern world.

Dictators Without Borders

Dictators Without Borders Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Alexander A. Cooley,John Heathershaw
Editor: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300222092
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Dictators Without Borders by Alexander A. Cooley,John Heathershaw Summary

A penetrating look into the unrecognized and unregulated links between autocratic regimes in Central Asia and centers of power and wealth throughout the West Weak, corrupt, and politically unstable, the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan are dismissed as isolated and irrelevant to the outside world. But are they? This hard-hitting book argues that Central Asia is in reality a globalization leader with extensive involvement in economics, politics and security dynamics beyond its borders. Yet Central Asia’s international activities are mostly hidden from view, with disturbing implications for world security. Based on years of research and involvement in the region, Alexander Cooley and John Heathershaw reveal how business networks, elite bank accounts, overseas courts, third-party brokers, and Western lawyers connect Central Asia’s supposedly isolated leaders with global power centers. The authors also uncover widespread Western participation in money laundering, bribery, foreign lobbying by autocratic governments, and the exploiting of legal loopholes within Central Asia. Riveting and important, this book exposes the global connections of a troubled region that must no longer be ignored.

Palgrave Concise Historical Atlas of Central Asia

Palgrave Concise Historical Atlas of Central Asia Pdf/ePub eBook Author: R. Abazov
Editor: Springer
ISBN: 0230610900
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Palgrave Concise Historical Atlas of Central Asia by R. Abazov Summary

This atlas graphically illuminates the region's history tracing back to the 8th-7th century B.C. From the spread of Islam to the invasion of the Mongols, the area has been at the crossroads of some of the world's most important developments, all succinctly explained in this book.

By the Spear

By the Spear Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Ian Worthington
Editor: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199929874
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By the Spear by Ian Worthington Summary

Alexander the Great, arguably the most exciting figure from antiquity, waged war as a Homeric hero and lived as one, conquering native peoples and territories on a superhuman scale. From the time he invaded Asia in 334 to his death in 323, he expanded the Macedonian empire from Greece in the west to Asia Minor, the Levant, Egypt, Central Asia and "India" (Pakistan and Kashmir) in the east. Although many other kings and generals forged empires, Alexander produced one that was without parallel, even if it was short-lived. And yet, Alexander could not have achieved what he did without the accomplishments of his father, Philip II (r. 359-336). It was Philip who truly changed the course of Macedonian history, transforming a weak, disunited, and economically backward kingdom into a military powerhouse. A warrior king par excellence, Philip left Alexander with the greatest army in the Greek world, a centralized monarchy, economic prosperity, and a plan to invade Asia. For the first time, By the Spear offers an exhilarating military narrative of the reigns of these two larger-than-life figures in one volume. Ian Worthington gives full breadth to the careers of father and son, showing how Philip was the architect of the Macedonian empire, which reached its zenith under Alexander, only to disintegrate upon his death. By the Spear also explores the impact of Greek culture in the East, as Macedonian armies became avatars of social and cultural change in lands far removed from the traditional sphere of Greek influence. In addition, the book discusses the problems Alexander faced in dealing with a diverse subject population and the strategies he took to what might be called nation building, all of which shed light on contemporary events in culturally dissimilar regions of the world. The result is a gripping and unparalleled account of the role these kings played in creating a vast empire and the enduring legacy they left behind.

Alexander's Marshals

Alexander's Marshals Pdf/ePub eBook Author: Waldemar Heckel
Editor: Routledge
ISBN: 1317389220
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Alexander's Marshals by Waldemar Heckel Summary

This substantially revised and updated second edition of The Marshals of Alexander’s Empire (1992) examines Alexander’s most important officers, who commanded army units and were involved in military and political deliberations. Chapters on these men have been expanded, giving greater attention to personalities, bias in the sources, and the social as well as military setting, including more on familial connections and regional origins in an attempt to create a better understanding of factions. The major confrontations, military and political, are treated in greater detail within the biographies, and a discussion of the organization and command structure of the Makedonian army has been added.